Between 27 October and 30 November, lava splashes on the bottom of the Villarica crater formed a succession of four semicircular pyroclastic cones, three of which collapsed rapidly (in terms of hours or days). Four emissions of particulate matter and / or volcanic dust and the fall of ballistic materials were recorded in the perimeter of the crater, as well as sudden variations in the viscosity of the lava.
During the month of October, a team of Japanese researchers tested a new surveillance system during their visit to Nishinoshima.
This system includes an energy-autonomous "waves glider" equipped with cameras for visual observation, a GPS wavelength gauge capable of detecting a tsunami caused by the possible collapse of the volcano, a gauge detecting earthquakes and vibrations of the air connected to a hydrophone. The collected data are transmitted in real time to a server located on the Japanese archipelago at 1000 km by satellite transmission.
This test on Nishinoshima is the first step in the development of a monitoring system for island Japanese volcanoes.
In Iceland, the glacial lagoon of Jökulsárlón began to appear in the 1930s when the withdrawal of the Vatnajökull glacier began.
Since then, this retreat of the glacier has continued and at an accelerated rate since 1995, and will ultimately lead to the transformation of the lagoon into a fjord.
In 1890, the glacier was at 250 meters from the ocean; Today it is 7-8 km inland ... and the outlook predicts that the measurements of the lagoon could soon pass to 25 km in length over 5 km wide.
According to the physicist Helgi Björnsson, the increase in glacial shrinkage is a clear sign of global warming in Iceland, increased due to the addition of warmer waters in the lagoon at each tide.
Source: Iceland Review