La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Overview of the summit vents on 17.10.2021- Doc. IGME-CSIC
In La Palma, the release of magma from the eruption of Cumbre Vieja continues on a similar pattern to the previous days. The lava flow south of Montana de La Lagune has advanced up to a hundred meters from the coast.
Containment has been decreed for San Borodon, La Condesa, Marina Alta, Marina Baja and Tazacorte, in anticipation of gas emissions produced during the meeting between lava and seawater.
Poor air quality, due to thermal inversion, requires self-containment and the use of FFP2 type masks, or higher, in case of exit.
The lava affected area is 780 ha. ; the castings have a max. of 2,900 meters.
An overview of the 4 summit mouths was carried out on October 19 by the IGME. The 3 vents located at the highest levels present a more explosive activity, with a predominance of gas and pyroclastic emissions. In the NW mouth, at a lower level, the lava emission predominates. (IGME-CSIC).
Overview of the lava flows - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=362YfwlILiE
An interesting diagram of the plumbing has been posted by volcanes de Canarias, for information / with a scale not respected.
La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - diagram of the plumbing of the volcano, for information / scale not respected. - Association Volcanes de Canarias via Alexia Guzman Lopez 18.10.2021 - one click to enlarge
The Canaries are a biodiversity hotspot in Europe, with the highest concentration of endemic species, thanks to volcanic eruptions.
Without approaching more than 1 km from the volcano's cone and 200 m from the lava flows, the scientists take an x-ray of what will be swallowed up a few hours later. The same work is done on historic flows that are fifty or seventy centuries old, to see how ecosystems are rebuilt. It is a look to the past to try to reconstruct the future, sums up the naturalist.
This work is also being done by the World Biosphere Reserve of La Palma. "We have a lot of data on the affected submarine area", explains biologist Laura Concepción. "We will have the chance to follow its recovery, then to compare."
In the meantime, on earth, animals are completely confused, in their behavior and their diet. Like the vegetation: in the south of the island, nearly 90% of the flora is dead or will soon be, estimates Manuel Nogales. Some endangered species are under close scrutiny, although they are not threatened by the lava at the moment. However, biologists are unanimous: in the long term, the eruption will be beneficial for a large number of species.
Sources: IGNes, InVolcan, IGEM, DSN, local press, RTVC.
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported that Mount ASO erupted early this Thursday, October 14, 2021.
The explosion occurred in the volcano from its Nakadake crater at 4:43 a.m. local time this morning, according to the JMA. A column of gas vapor containing a quantity of ash rose 600 meters (1,900 feet) above the crater.
Professor Takahiro Okura from Kyoto University's Volcanoes Research Center said when they got to the site, they found a volcanic boulder or two that allegedly broke a fence around the crater.
The event was preceded by a gradual increase in the volcanic tremor starting at 3:30 p.m. local time yesterday. It reached a sharp peak of tremor during the eruption, then decreased again to medium-low values.
As the webcam images show, it seems likely to be a phreatic or hydrothermal explosion, although this detail has yet to be confirmed by the volcano observatory.
Asosan - phreatic episode of 14.10.2021 - a beautiful bomb damaged the barrier - KKT / Tiempo Extremo Noticias video extracts
On October 20, a strong explosion occurred at Nakadake Crater at around 11:43 a.m. local time.
During a phase of intense vapor emissions, an explosion suddenly occurred, with the emission of a large column of ash several kilometers high, as well as a dense circular base wave close to the ground - base surge - which has almost reached the visitor center. Large ballistic projectiles can be seen ejected from the center of the explosion and also landing several hundred meters away.
Tropomi has detected a Sulfur Dioxide signal with 3.54 DU of SO2.
Tours of the crater have been canceled and the park has been closed under security restrictions. The warning bulletin states that ballistic impacts from volcanic bombs and pyroclastic flows could affect an area about 1 km from the main crater.
Alert is at level 3 .
Sources: JMA & KKT
Asosan - SO2 signal in the vicinity of Asosan on 20.10.2021, with 3.54DU of SO2. - Sentinel-5P Tropomi image - DLR / BIRA / ESA
A weekly bulletin of the situation of Vulcano, from October 12 to 19, 2021, has been issued by the INGV OE
The temperature of the fumaroles of the crater is slightly increasing in the internal slope of La Fossa while at the edge there are no definite signs due to the frequent rains which have occurred in recent days which disturb the thermal state;
Geochemistry of fumarolic gases: the last sample of 12.10.2021 indicates very high levels of magmatic gases in the fumaroles of the crater.
The flow of SO2 in the crater area occurs at a high level of outgassing.
The flow of CO2 in the crater area is slightly lower but with high degassing levels;
The flow of CO2 at the base of the La Fossa cone and in the area of Vulcano Porto remains constantly high in the area of Grotta dei Palizzi and growing in the Sicila campsites and at the foot of the Old Forge (Rimessa site); in the other sites no significant variation is observed;
Geochemistry of thermal aquifers: the upward trend continues, although slightly down, in the water temperature on the Sicilia Campsite, while the conductivity values are down slightly; no significant change in the other monitored sites;
Regarding local seismicity, we note a decrease in the rate of occurrence of low frequency events (<1Hz).
Regional seismicity: no fracturing event during the week considered.
Vulcano - Daily frequency and cumulative number of micro-tremors (peak frequency between 1 and 30 HZ) that characterize the local seismicity of Vulcano from 06/01/2021. The blue curve indicates the cumulative number of events - Doc. INGV
In terms of deformations: GNSS data show that the strong variations, which started in mid-September, seem to have stopped last week.
In recent days, the clinometric network shows an attenuation of the variations that began on September 13.
Two continuous gravity stations were installed between October 12 and 13, 2021. The acquired signals and some recorded variations are displayed.
The possible phenomena expected in the short / medium term are listed below:
- continued increase in fumarolic and diffuse degassing;
- increases in the temperature of the gases and their flow rates, with variations in the thermal layer;
- increase in seismicity linked to hydrothermal activity and the appearance of volcano-tectonic seismicity;
- increase in deformations;
- slope movements;
- impulsive explosive phenomena such as phreatic explosions can occur suddenly.
Source: INGV OE
Vulcano - From the edge of La Fossa, view to Vulcanello, Lipari and Salina - photo archives © Bernard Duyck 2008 - one click to enlatge
Activity in Manam, Papua New Guinea, is strong according to satellite data.
Mirova recorded thermal anomalies on October 18.19 between VRP 2378 and 314MW.
Sentinel-5P Tropomi reports for this October 20 a strong sulfur dioxide signal 112km from Manam, with 16.87 DU of SO2 at an altitude of about 10 km. The estimated mass within 300 km is 7.5 kt.
VAAC Darwin announces a Vona Rouge.
Source: Mirova, Sentinel-2, VAAC Darwin
Manam - 2021.10.20 - strong SO2 signal at 112.6 km from Manam with 16.87DU of SO2 at ~ 10 km altitude - image Sentinel-5P Tropomi -DLR / BIRA / ESA