La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the main cone after its collapse on 03.10.2021 - photos at 1 min. interval of the previous - Doc. IGME
The increased explosive activity of the Cumbre Vieja volcano, in La Palma, caused the structural collapse of part of the cone, the union of the lava emission centers and a considerable increase in the lava flow that , for the moment, crosses the main stream.
Earthquakes were recurrent early in the morning and in the morning in the south, in the Fuencaliente region.
Since the beginning of the eruption of Cumbre Vieja (La Palma), the Volcanological Institute of the Canary Islands (INVOLCAN) has been evaluating the emission of sulfur dioxide by this ongoing eruptive process. The quantity of sulfur dioxide accumulated from September 19 to October 4 has been estimated at more than 250,000 tons.
Despite these limitations, knowledge of these SO2 emission levels allowed us to estimate the volume of magma released by this eruption; about 35 million cubic meters. (InVolcan)
On 04/10/21, TROPOMI detected a strong sulfur dioxide signal at a distance of 39.1 km from CumbreVieja, with 45.67 DU of SO2 at an altitude of about 2 km. Estimated mass within a 300 km radius: 19.1 kt
La Palma Cumbre Vieja - strong SO2 signal 39.1km from CumbreVieja, with 45.67DU of SO2 at an altitude of ~ 2km. - 04.10.2021 image Sentinel-5P Tropomi / DLR / BIRE / ESA image
Increase in the surface area of the lava delta is observable in the amplitude SAR images acquired by the Sentinel-1 satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA): The surface increased from 0.280km² on October 1 to 0.360 km² on the 4th October.
This October 5, a more strombolian and less effusive activity is observed, with a large emission of pyroclasts which continue to modify the morphology of the cone.
Sources : Ignes, IGME, Durham volcanolgy, ESA, Tropomi
La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - double plume dominated by ash (upper part) and gas (lower part - photo Ed Llewellin 04.10.2021 / Durham Volcanology
La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the main cone drowned in its ashes - ash plume and water vapor - Doc. IGME 04.10.2021
In Kilauea, vigorous fountains - with gusts up to 50-60 meters (164-197 feet) - produced significant amounts of pumice stone, Pele's hair and fragments of volcanic glass which deposited in areas downwind along the rim and beyond Halema'uma'u Crater.
Over the past few days, a thick layer (about 27 meters or 89 feet) of molten lava has accumulated as a lava lake at the base of the crater, partially drowning the vents, resulting in a moderate fountain. At the same time, the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted has increased from 85,000 tonnes per day to 12,000 tonnes per day. Although the amount of gas and volcanic particles have decreased since the start of the eruption, they both remain significant local hazards in the plume. Vent SO2 concentrations remain high (probably over 100 parts per million or ppm) and significantly high (5-10 ppm) at stations a few kilometers (miles) southwest of Halema'uma'u.
The eruption is currently confined to Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. The HVO sees no indication of migrating activity elsewhere on the Kīlauea volcano and expects the eruption to remain confined to the summit region.
The volcano's alert level has been lowered to WATCH and its aviation color code to ORANGE, reflecting the less dangerous nature of the ongoing eruption.
This enlarged view of the erupting western fissure at Halema'uma'u shows the activity of the lava fountains on the morning of October 4, 2021. The fountains built a C-shaped splash rampart around their source, which is now submerged in the lava lake climb. Using a laser range finder, HVO field crews measured the splash guard to be 20 m (66 ft) above the surface of the surrounding lava lake. USGS photo by M. Zoeller.
A telephoto view of a slump in the active lava lake in Halema'uma'u Crater, atop Kīlauea. Melting occurs when the colder, denser, solidified crust (black) sinks under less dense liquid lava (orange). Photo taken at 7:48 a.m. HST on October 4, 2021. USGS photo by J.M. Chang.
Explosive activity continues in Telica / Nicaragua. On October 4, the VAAC Washington reported an ash plume at an altitude of 1,200 meters.
Source: VAAC Washington
In the Aeolian Islands, fumaroles still mark the crater of the Fossa of Vulcano on October 3, 4 and 5, less important than those of October 1.
Sources: INGV OE & CME