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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

The eruptive activity continues on La Palma on September 30, 2021.

The Cumbre Vieja volcano continues to expel enormous amounts of lava in the Aridane Valley; the new peninsula formed at sea is always increasing.

  La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the Platform at sea on 30.09.2021 -  doc. CSIC Shocking-drone

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the Platform at sea on 30.09.2021 - doc. CSIC Shocking-drone

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - thermal images of the lava platform in formation - Doc. InVolcan 29.09.2021 - one click to enlargeLa Palma / Cumbre Vieja - thermal images of the lava platform in formation - Doc. InVolcan 29.09.2021 - one click to enlarge
La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - thermal images of the lava platform in formation - Doc. InVolcan 29.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - thermal images of the lava platform in formation - Doc. InVolcan 29.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

Since the last IGN report (29.09, / 2 p.m.), a total of 18 earthquakes have been located in the southern part of the island of La Palma, 4 of which are very badly felt by the population. One of them is located west of the coast of the island while the others are located between 10 and 14 km deep in the area where the reactivation that preceded the eruption began. The maximum magnitude is 3.3 (mbLg) corresponding to two of them.

A new earthquake occurred at 9:30 p.m., of M3.5 and a depth of 13 km.

La Palma / Cumbre vieja - earthquakes at 09/30/2021 / 1:30 p.m. - midnight - earthquakes of the last 24 hours are in red and yellow - Doc. IGNes and last earthquake of the day - one click to enlargeLa Palma / Cumbre vieja - earthquakes at 09/30/2021 / 1:30 p.m. - midnight - earthquakes of the last 24 hours are in red and yellow - Doc. IGNes and last earthquake of the day - one click to enlarge

La Palma / Cumbre vieja - earthquakes at 09/30/2021 / 1:30 p.m. - midnight - earthquakes of the last 24 hours are in red and yellow - Doc. IGNes and last earthquake of the day - one click to enlarge

La Palma - the active flows and the platform at sea are clearly visible in this image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 / 30.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

La Palma - the active flows and the platform at sea are clearly visible in this image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 / 30.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

La Palma - the outline of the flows is highlighted on this image from Sentinel-2 from 30.09.2021 based on a combination of bands (B8A - B11) - (B8A + B11) - one click to enlarge

La Palma - the outline of the flows is highlighted on this image from Sentinel-2 from 30.09.2021 based on a combination of bands (B8A - B11) - (B8A + B11) - one click to enlarge

Like the day before, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor remains very stable over the last 24 hours, within a range of average values.

 The island's network of permanent GNSS stations is showing a return to strain stability.

Today at 12:06 p.m. (UTC), due to the increase in the height reached by the eruptive cloud, IGN issued a new VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) communicating that the current height of the ash cloud is 5,000 m above sea level.

Sentinel-5P / TROPOMI detected a strong SO2 signal at a distance of 54.7 km for CumbreVieja with 56.39DU of SO2 at an altitude of ~ 1km. Estimated mass at less than 300 km: 34.8 kt.

 

Sources: IGNes, GEVolcan, Sentinel-2

La Palma - Volcanic ash advisory for 30.09.2021 - red aviation code - Doc. VAAC Toulouse

La Palma - Volcanic ash advisory for 30.09.2021 - red aviation code - Doc. VAAC Toulouse

Cumbre Vieja - 30.09.2021 - strong SO2 signal at a distance of 54.7 km for CumbreVieja with 56.39DU of SO2 at an altitude of ~ 1km. - Image Sentinel-5P Tropomi / DLR / BIRA / ESA

Cumbre Vieja - 30.09.2021 - strong SO2 signal at a distance of 54.7 km for CumbreVieja with 56.39DU of SO2 at an altitude of ~ 1km. - Image Sentinel-5P Tropomi / DLR / BIRA / ESA

In September 2021, the OVPF recorded in the Piton de la Fournaise massif in total:

- 52 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (0 to 2.5 km above sea level) under the summit craters;

- 1 deep earthquake (below sea level);

- 299 collapses (in the Crater Dolomieu, the ramparts of the Enclos Fouqué and Piton de Crac, and the Rivière de l'Est).

A slight increase in the most superficial seismicity (between 0 and 2 km above sea level) was nevertheless recorded between September 20 and 27 with an average of 4 events per day under the Dolomieu crater. This seismicity is most certainly linked to a disturbance of the superficial hydrothermal system linked to the rise of deep heat.

The inflation of the edifice, which began in April 2021, continued throughout September 2021. This inflation showed a pressurization of the superficial magmatic reservoir located around 1.5-2 km deep.

The inflation of the building and the CO2 contents in the soil which remained high in September 2021 witnessed magmatic transfers from deep areas to the superficial magmatic reservoir which continued after the end of the eruption of April 9-May 24, 2021.

 

Source: monthly bulletin of Piton de La Fournaise.

Illustration of the deformation at Piton de La Fournaise between August 1 and October 1, 2021. Baseline lines (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (in top), at the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (at the bottom) (see location on the associated maps). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

Illustration of the deformation at Piton de La Fournaise between August 1 and October 1, 2021. Baseline lines (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (in top), at the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (at the bottom) (see location on the associated maps). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

The Kīlauea volcano is erupting. Lava continues to emerge from several vents along the floor and west wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. As of this afternoon, all lava activity has been confined to Halema'uma'u crater. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain high. The volcanic alert is at Warning and the aviation code is Red!


Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were estimated at around 85,000 tonnes per day just after the eruption began yesterday afternoon at 3:21 pm. HST. Seismicity is high but stable, with few earthquakes and an ongoing volcanic tremor. Summit tiltmeters continued to register a slowing deflationary tilt this afternoon.

The lava lake has increased by about a meter per hour since the eruption began. The lava lake did not exhibit widespread circulation overnight, with localized and discontinuous areas of crustal sinking (a process by which the cold lava crust on the surface of the lava lake is replaced by a liquid less dense from below, causing the crust to sink into the underlying lava of the lake). The maximum height of the fountain so far, seen yesterday, has been estimated to be 25-30m in height, although most fountains are currently only a few meters in height.

The dimensions of the new lava lake are 980 m in the E-W axis and 710 m in the N-S axis. The estimated area of ​​the lake is approximately 52 hectares.


No unusual activity was noted in the Kīlauea East Rift area.

 

Source: HVO

A helicopter flight on September 30, 2021 at approximately 7:30 a.m. HST collected aerial visual and thermal images of Halema'uma'u Crater, with its new lava lake, atop Kīlauea. The heat map scale ranges from blue to red, with blue colors indicating cooler temperatures and red colors indicating warmer temperatures. - USGS card by Mr. Patrick.

A helicopter flight on September 30, 2021 at approximately 7:30 a.m. HST collected aerial visual and thermal images of Halema'uma'u Crater, with its new lava lake, atop Kīlauea. The heat map scale ranges from blue to red, with blue colors indicating cooler temperatures and red colors indicating warmer temperatures. - USGS card by Mr. Patrick.

  Halema'uma'u crater -   Lava from multiple fissures continues to slowly raise the level of the new active lava lake at the summit of Kīlauea on 2021.09.29 / 15h21 HST. / USGS

Halema'uma'u crater - Lava from multiple fissures continues to slowly raise the level of the new active lava lake at the summit of Kīlauea on 2021.09.29 / 15h21 HST. / USGS

Kilauea - Halema'uma'u lava lake - photo Paradise Helicopters / Matt - we salute the return of the shock team: Mick Kalber and Bruce Omori

Kilauea - Halema'uma'u lava lake - photo Paradise Helicopters / Matt - we salute the return of the shock team: Mick Kalber and Bruce Omori

Kilauea - Halema'uma'u lava lake on September 30, 2021 at dawn - photo B. Carr. / USGS - HVO

Kilauea - Halema'uma'u lava lake on September 30, 2021 at dawn - photo B. Carr. / USGS - HVO

Kilauea - Halema'uma'u lava lake illuminates the gas plume before sunrise, on 01.10.2021- photo by Uēkahuna / Hawaii NPS

Kilauea - Halema'uma'u lava lake illuminates the gas plume before sunrise, on 01.10.2021- photo by Uēkahuna / Hawaii NPS

In Nevados de Chillan, the growth of the two domes located in the Nicanor crater continues with a ratio of 0.03 m³ / sec., similar to that of the domes prior to this cycle.

A collaboration agreement between Sernageomin and the French Space Agency, made it possible to visualize via satellite images two new domes of the Volcanic Complex (satellite image Pleiades 18,09,2021)

The dome1 has grown from 40x27m. the 15.09 to 64x39 m. on 24,09,2021.

Dome 2 has grown by 17x10 m. the 15.09 at 50x36 m. 24.09. ( according to Skysat and Pleides satellite images )

The growth of the domes is visible on the Portezuelo webcam, as well as the new L7 lava flow, and the reactivation of the L5 flow.

The Sernageomin maintains the Amarilla technical alert.

 

Source: Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan, Nicanor crater - two domes are present in the crater - doc. Sernageomin 18.09.2021 - one click to enlarge
Nevados de Chillan, Nicanor crater - two domes are present in the crater - doc. Sernageomin 18.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

Nevados de Chillan, Nicanor crater - two domes are present in the crater - doc. Sernageomin 18.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

Nevadoc de Chillan - growth of domes between 09/15 and 09/24/2021 - Doc. Sernageomin / Skysat and Pleiades - one click to enlarge

Nevadoc de Chillan - growth of domes between 09/15 and 09/24/2021 - Doc. Sernageomin / Skysat and Pleiades - one click to enlarge

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