Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai - gas / steam plume at 12/19/2021 / 10 p.m. UTC - Himawari-8 image via Brad scott
Eruption of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano in the Tonga Islands on December 19 at 8:30 p.m. UTC. GOES-17 images show water / ice rich volcanic clouds and lightning detected by GLM.
VAAC Wellington notice sent to aviation by NZMetService: No ash report, just steam. Very clear on Himawari-8 / 19,12,2021 / 22h UTC satellite images.
Sulfur dioxide is also detected by UV / IR sensors. Sentinel-5P TROPOMI, UV data measuring ~ 9 kilotons of SO2 in the volcanic cloud extending north of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai at 2:00 UTC on December 20, and NOAA VIIRS at 01:06 UTC.
Sources: Brad Scott / Himawari-8 & Simon Carn / Sentinel-5P Tropomi
The scientific committee of PEVOLCA specifies that the observations, both direct on the surface and from the monitoring systems, corroborate the signs of exhaustion of the eruptive process of Cumbre Vieja / La Palma, which dates from three months, although a new rebound of Strombolian activity and casting emission are possible.
In order to stop the eruptive process, the recorded and observable data must be maintained at current levels for 6 days.
High gas concentrations in some areas persist, restrictive precautionary measures are therefore maintained for residents and irrigators accessing evacuated areas.
In the last 24 hours (as of December 19 at 9 a.m. UTC) a total of 10 earthquakes have been located on the island of La Palma, none of which have been felt by the population. The magnitudes vary between 1.6 and 3.2 (mbLg).
The localization of hypocenters continues under the central area of Cumbre Vieja in the same areas as the previous days. 3 shallow earthquakes were located, 3 earthquakes at depths between 11 and 15 km and 4 earthquakes at depths greater than 30 km.
Likewise, low frequency (LP) events continue to be detected in recordings from island stations in addition to localized volcano-tectonic earthquakes.
During the last 24 hours, no volcanic tremor has been observed, maintaining the seismic noise at levels close to the pre-eruptive period.
Like the day before, the island's network of permanent GNSS stations does not show any significant deformations that could be associated with volcanic activity.
The operation of the airport is subject to purely meteorological conditions, due to the absence of volcanic ash in the troposphere.
Sources: IGN, IGME, DSN, Gobierno de Canarias
Daily visual compilation of the Cumbre Vieja eruption volcano. A first synthesis in images of the evolution, on the surface, of the eruption of Cumbre Vieja, from September 19 to December 14, 2021, on La Palma. more info: https://bit.ly/3BasUD6 Images recorded by the IGME Air Works Service (STA) in collaboration with the Emergency and Rescue Group (GES) of the Government of the Canary Islands.
The Semeru experienced two eruptive episodes, this Monday, December 20, 2021 respectively
- at 05:56 a.m. WIB, accompanied by a column of ash, white to gray, observed at ± 1500 m above the summit (± 5176 m above sea level). This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 11 mm and a duration of 433 seconds.
- and at 3:14 p.m. WIB, where no visual rash was observed. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 22 mm and a duration of 420 seconds.
The activity level remains at 3 / siaga.
Source : PVMBG
In Merapi, between December 10 and 16, 2021, no significant morphological change was observed either in the southwest dome or in the central dome. The volume of the southwest lava dome is 1,622,000 m³ and the central dome is 3,007,000 m³.
The seismicity for the week is higher than last week. The deformation of Mount Merapi, which was monitored using EDM, showed a distance shortening rate of 0.4 cm / day.
The activity level remains at 3 / siaga. The current potential danger consists of lava avalanches and hot clouds in the southeast-southwest sector for a maximum of 3 km to the Woro River and 5 km to the Gendol, Kuning, Boyong rivers, Bedog, Krasak, Bebeng and Putih.
During this time, the ejection of volcanic material in the event of an explosive eruption can reach a radius of 3 km from the summit.