A volcanic plume of ash, steam and gas was observed on January 14, 2022 at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai by the Himawari 8 satellite, at a height varying between 5-20 km asl at 4:20 a.m. and 6:20 a.m. The eruption is announced imminent.
During this day, there were strong explosions of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapi volcano, starting at 7:20 a.m. local time, with eruptive columns up to 18 km a.s.l. and small tsunamis. The local government has issued a tsunami warning (local only) due to continuous sea level variations.
Lots of ice and SO2, ash is hard to detect with usual methods in the plume. The cloud top temperature reaches 182 K (-91°C), indicating a probably stratospheric altitude (> 16.5 km asl).
Update by Tonga Geological services
The eruption is continuous, maintaining a 5km wide column plume of ash, steam and gas rising to altitude 18-20km above sea level. The plume expands radially up to a radius of 240km from the volcano, passing over Tongatapu, ‘Eua, Ha’apai and Vava’u group. At 10:30 PM the plume had declined to altitude 18km above sea level.
Ashfall was reported in Mango and Fonoi Islands of Ha’apai to impact the rainwater tanks. Sometimes volcanic ash in the atmosphere is not visible but stinging on the eyes or irritation are signs.
Sources: Tonga geological service, Sky alert, A.Prata
Hunga Tonga- Hunga Ha'apai - strong SO2 signal at a distance of 199.6km to HungaTonga with 24.24DU of SO2 at an altitude of ~6km. Estimated mass within 300km: 47.9ktons. - Doc. Tropomi 14.01.2022 /DLR/BIRA/ESA
Hunga Tonga- Hunga Ha'apai - eruptive plume from 14.01.2022 / 05:50 UTC / data courtesy of JMA, processed with SatPy - via A.Prata.
The eruption started on 12/22/2021 around 3:30 a.m. local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. Over the last 24 hours, the amplitude of the tremor is relatively stable, with a slight decrease over the last 6 hours.
Fluctuations in the amplitude of the tremor are partly related to the level of the lava lake which varies according to the mode of degassing, the erosion of the eruptive conduit and the sporadic openings of the tunnels which allow emptying of the cone. The openings in the tunnels generate a drop in pressure at the level of the cone and within the tunnels, and consequently a drop in the amplitude of the tremor.
Piton de La Fournaise: Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of surface lava emission) over the last 24 hours on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF/IPGP)
Bad weather conditions persist at the eruptive site. However this morning a relatively high cloud ceiling allowed some observations. These show that the lava projections at the level of the cone are still present and occasionally exceed the height of the cone. Regular overflows of the lava lake are observed as well as numerous resurgences of lava flows at the roof of the field in lava tunnels downstream of the cone.
The front of the last flow arm set up along the southern rampart of the Enclos Fouqué for several days is progressing only very slowly given the relatively low slopes in the sector.
Over the last 24 hours:
- The surface deformations always show a deflation at the level of the summit zone, linked to the emptying of the magma reservoir located under the summit (about 2-2.5 km deep) feeding the eruptive site.
- 33 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, of low magnitude (<1), were recorded under the summit. This seismicity is linked to the emptying of the magma reservoir located under the summit, weakening its roof.
- Due to the very bad weather conditions on the eruptive site, only one estimate of the lava flows could be made over the last 24 hours by satellite method with the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University) (the acquisitions being made every 15 minutes). This flow was estimated at 4 m3 / s.
Alert level: Alert 2-1 (eruption in the Enclosure)
Find all the information relating to the activity of Piton de la Fournaise on the various OVPF-IPGP media: - the website: ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf - the Twitter account: twitter. com/obsfournaise - the Facebook account: facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise
Very weak gas emissions, in a southwesterly direction, were observed thanks to satellite images at the Wolf volcano / Galapagos.
The MIROVA satellite system reported 1 extreme thermal alert (11728 MW), 2 very high (7571 and 8791 MW) and 1 high (200 MW) and FIRMS reported more than 100 thermal alerts in Wolf, in the last 24 hours.
On the satellite images, we observe that the thermal anomalies are gradually weakening.
However, although unlikely, new pulses of lava flow emission are not excluded.
Wolf - Galapagos - GOES-16 satellite image 13.01.2022 / 15:00 UTC (TL GALÁPAGOS=UTC-6) - Doc. NOAA / IGEPN
The Mauna Loa volcano is not erupting.
Seismicity rates remain slightly elevated above long-term background levels, but have not changed significantly over the past week, characterized by approximately 45 low-magnitude earthquakes (below M2.5 ) under the top and upper flanks.
Other Mauna Loa monitoring data streams (ground deformation, gas concentrations, visual appearance in webcams) show no significant changes.