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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Article de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

The spectacular eruption of Kelud, on February 13 evening, on the island of Java, killed at least six people, forced the evacuation of hundreds of thousands people, and disrupted three airports.

A first analysis suggests that the ash explosion is a magmatic event ... a rise of a quantity of fresh magma reaches the surface quickly . The ash is described as a white powder, containing black particles ( pyroxene ? - Andi guide Volcanodiscovery )

2014.02.14 Kelud plume - Suomi NPP VIIRS
The eruptive plume Kelud seen by the satellite Suomi NPP / VIIRS on 14.02.2014 / 11:09 LT (note that the North is to the right of the photo)
Bottom document : the plume spotted by Calipso / Caliop at an altitude of 20 km plume , with sections at 30 km. . - Doc .
NASA Earth Observatory

The ashes were spread widely , reaching the region of Yogyakarta , at 280 km. from the Kelud volcano, where different noteworthy temples were closed. The sites of Borobudur, Prambanan and Ratu Boko are no longer available , unspecified date for their next reopening .

Borobudur , the largest Buddhist monument in the world and the oldest in Asia southeast, was born of the volcano, has been preserved by the ash from an eruption of Merapi, and is now threatened by the ashes of the eruption of Kelud .


Borobodur Lion - R.Sleaman
               Borobudur Temple and its countless sculptural lava stone - photo Sleaman

Borobudur , born of the volcano :
Borobudur was built between AD 775 and AD 856, under the Sailendra dynasty, a good three centuries before Angkor or the Notre- Dame cathedral in Paris . It consists of a coating of block of basalt and andesite , paired without mortar, on an artificial mound of earth . It is estimated that 30,000 stonecutters and sculptors, 15,000 carriers and thousands of masons worked for 75 years in the building of the " Temple-mountain " .


Borobodur - Pamitrantours           Borobudur - upper terraces and stupas containing Buddha statues . photo Pamitrantours .

Borobudur , protected by the volcanic ash :
Around 950 , Borobudur , like other sites in central Java, was mysteriously abandoned. At the same time, the Merapi volcano experienced a violent eruption that covered the temple of ashes. The vegetation is installed , protecting and concealing the temple for almost a millennium.

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               Borobudur , under the threat of Merapi -  Photo copyright unreferenced

It was discovered in 1815 by the British Governor Thomas Stamford Raffles, who made clear the building.

After the departure of Raffles , the temple was abandoned and most of plundered again ! Its restoration began in 1907 with the Dutch Theodor Van Erp . It was high time ... cleared of protective vegetation , threatened to collapse under the effect of seepage. The two world wars and the War of Independence delayed the restoration work, then in 1961 , two earthquakes provoked further damage .

In 1973, the rescue began under the auspices of Unesco, mobilizing 700 men for ten years. The site was opened to the public in February 1983 by President Suharto.

Borobodur threatened by ashes from another eruption :
The eruption of Kelud of 13 February 2014, broke his dome and causes a huge plume of ash that is dispersed westward, reaching the center of Java.

The temples have been closed, both because of the dangers for visitors consisting in slippery ash,  and for the preservation of monuments itself .

The upper terraces of Borobudur house 72 openwork
miniature stupas ( of dagob ), most of which contain statues of the Buddha. They were covered with tarps and cardboard, or plastics to prevent the infiltration of ash and clogging if it were to rain.

Borobodur - EPA 14.02.2014
              Borobudur  - 14/02/2014 - preservation work against the ash Kelud - Photo EPA

Borobodur & Kelud - 2014.02.14 - Slamet Riyadi AP
Borobodur - 14.02.2014 - protection of the terraces against the ash of Kelud - Slamet Riyadi Photo / AP

Sources:
- Local Press
- Guide Indonesia / Gallimard - Library of traveler.

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