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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

actualites volcaniques

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Crater of Turrialba lined with ash and blocks after the eruption of 08.12 - 2014 - The volcanolgue Gino González takes images with the thermal camera - Photo Raúl Mora-Amador / RSN / 09.12.2014

Crater of Turrialba lined with ash and blocks after the eruption of 08.12 - 2014 - The volcanolgue Gino González takes images with the thermal camera - Photo Raúl Mora-Amador / RSN / 09.12.2014

The crater of the Turrialba - photo Andre Quiros / FotoAereasCostaRica / Facebook 02/11/2014

The crater of the Turrialba - photo Andre Quiros / FotoAereasCostaRica / Facebook 02/11/2014

Turrialba has been the seat of a new eruption, called as Strombolian, on December 8, 2014 at 21:30, according to Ovsicori and RSN. The most important phase of the eruption lasted only ten minutes, accompanied by a strong emission of ash.

This eruption occurs after an increase in the seismic level since mid-November, which peaked on December 6 with about 150 earthquakes. The tremor was registered on 28 November and an increase in volcano-tectonic earthquakes is reported in early December, and some twenty earthquakes "tornillo" type.

A strong smell of sulfur is perceived in the communities of Desamparados, Alajuelita, Tierra Blanca, Pacayas, center of San José, Zapote and Tres Ríos, as well an heavy ash falls.

The yellow alert is maintained.

Turrialba 09/08/2014 - photo Diario Extra

Turrialba 09/08/2014 - photo Diario Extra

Number of volcano-tectonic earthquakes / graph. top - bottom /Recording of the explosion of 12.08.2014 / 21:28 LT - in relation RSN / Dr Mauricio Mora Fernández

Number of volcano-tectonic earthquakes / graph. top - bottom /Recording of the explosion of 12.08.2014 / 21:28 LT - in relation RSN / Dr Mauricio Mora Fernández

Ash fall following the eruption of the Turrialba 08/09/2014 - A click to zoom - photos RSN 09.12.2014Ash fall following the eruption of the Turrialba 08/09/2014 - A click to zoom - photos RSN 09.12.2014Ash fall following the eruption of the Turrialba 08/09/2014 - A click to zoom - photos RSN 09.12.2014

Ash fall following the eruption of the Turrialba 08/09/2014 - A click to zoom - photos RSN 09.12.2014

Forecast map of deposits of ash following the eruption of Turrialba - Doc. USGS

Forecast map of deposits of ash following the eruption of Turrialba - Doc. USGS

Costa Rica - ash fall points reported by Ovsicori / via Maria Martinez

Costa Rica - ash fall points reported by Ovsicori / via Maria Martinez

Sources :

- Red sismologica Nacional – rapport spécial du Dr Mauricio Mora Fernández, RSN – link

- Ovsicori-Una - link

- La Nacion

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Resumption of the blog after the restoration of internet line ... cut by rodents, with a small round of eruptions in progress.


On the island of Fogo, Cabo Verde, the eruption continued, and the lava flows,after destroying 95% of the village of Portela, moved towards that of Bangaeria, engulfing the three-quarter in just twelve hours. Four separate fronts went down the slope to Bangaeira before fusing at the bottom.

 Lava flows on Fogo - photo Involcan / Twitter 12.08.2014

Lava flows on Fogo - photo Involcan / Twitter 12.08.2014

Fogo - multiple lava arms cover Cha das Caldeiras - 2014.12.08 Photo Jeremias Alves Cabral pic.twitter.com-PFjkTv71gz

Fogo - multiple lava arms cover Cha das Caldeiras - 2014.12.08 Photo Jeremias Alves Cabral pic.twitter.com-PFjkTv71gz

Fogo / Cha das Caldeiras - location of the swallowed villages north of the caldera - Image NASA / Twitter

Fogo / Cha das Caldeiras - location of the swallowed villages north of the caldera - Image NASA / Twitter

The lava flows will continue on that slope towards the northeast, and perhaps reach the break of slope marking the end of the caldera, and dive in the direction of the coastal villages, according to the supply of the lava flows. A forest park on the trajectory could be burned, complicating even more critical situation.

No historical casting the vents departure located in the caldera has so far reached the sea, only a casting Pico, fueled by a vent on the east side, is reported to have made in 1857.
 

Fogo - thermal measurements taken near the sports center of the Portela 07/12/2014 - This one will be gone under the lava 10 minutes later - photo Involcan / Twitter

Fogo - thermal measurements taken near the sports center of the Portela 07/12/2014 - This one will be gone under the lava 10 minutes later - photo Involcan / Twitter

The toll was heavy, a fortnight after the eruption : more than 1,700 displaced people who have lost everything, two villages destroyed, farmland flooded ... 150 years of historical settlement in Chà das Caldeiras lie beneath the lava ... not to mention the threat to the villages of Corvo, Achada Grande and Relva.

Sources:
Fogo news

 

Erebus - on 05.12.2014 - photo MEVO

Erebus - on 05.12.2014 - photo MEVO

In Antarctica, the Erebus volcano has produced one of the strongest eruptions of the year on December 4 at 9:12 UTC, ejected bombs out of the crater. The temperature in the center thereof was measured by thermocouples at 800 ° C.

The MEVO points 6 eruptions, recorded by seismometers MACZ (short-period simple vertical component). They reflect a deep gas accumulation and migration to the surface of the lava lake, with a big bubble burst and sending of volcanic bombs over the lake and occasionally outside crater, staffed by scientists.

Sources: MEVO / VolcanoDiscovery

 

Erebus - Taking the temperature in the core of a bomb on 05/12/2014 - photo Clive Oppenheimer / MEVO

Erebus - Taking the temperature in the core of a bomb on 05/12/2014 - photo Clive Oppenheimer / MEVO

Japan's Aso, erupting since November 30, is the seat of intense phasic explosive activity, with the emission of ash plumes, incandescent bombs and outgassing.

Overshadowed by the bad weather in early December, the images of the webcam of Kyoto University offer these last days beautiful images of Nakadake crater.

Sources:
Kyoto University / Twitter

 

Aso - Nakadake crater  - left, the 07.12.2014 / 11:37 - right, on 12.09.2014 / 12:18 - photos webcam Kyoto University - one click to enlargeAso - Nakadake crater  - left, the 07.12.2014 / 11:37 - right, on 12.09.2014 / 12:18 - photos webcam Kyoto University - one click to enlarge

Aso - Nakadake crater - left, the 07.12.2014 / 11:37 - right, on 12.09.2014 / 12:18 - photos webcam Kyoto University - one click to enlarge

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

This Tuesday, december 2 was the worst day for the village of Portela since the beginning of the eruption of Fogo.

The roller of lava a'a advance inexorably : in one day, 37 houses were destroyed in the sight of desperate people, bringing the total to 57. The lava swallowed primary school, and the hotel Pedra Brabo. The infrastructure is destroyed, including 51 tanks, and 30 hectares of land covered by lava.

 

Eruption of Fogo: The village of Portela disappears under the lava.
Fogo - lava invaded the streets and destroyed the homes of Portela - photo Fogo news

Fogo - lava invaded the streets and destroyed the homes of Portela - photo Fogo news

The lava is close to the wine cellar of Cha das Caldeiras, and the last barrels will be left to the fire.

Emergency Preparedness left the site.

Fogo - lava flow progresses during the night and set fire to homes - photo Fogo news 02/12/2014

Fogo - lava flow progresses during the night and set fire to homes - photo Fogo news 02/12/2014

Fogo - evacuation of the  barrels of wine - photo Fogo news 12/02/2014

Fogo - evacuation of the barrels of wine - photo Fogo news 12/02/2014

Fogo - the VOG seen by the satellite of NASA / MODIS Aqua on 29/11/2014 - Image by Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE-EOSDIS Rapid Response.

Fogo - the VOG seen by the satellite of NASA / MODIS Aqua on 29/11/2014 - Image by Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE-EOSDIS Rapid Response.

Sources :

- Fogo News

- Muzika TV

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Fogo - continuous eruption.

A lull in the eruption is observed during the 29th, with small amounts of lava issued and a decrease in seismicity. At the vent located further down the crack, large gas bubbles are bursting.
 

Fogo - bursting of a gas bubble - photo Nuno Pereira / via Fogo news 11/29/2014

Fogo - bursting of a gas bubble - photo Nuno Pereira / via Fogo news 11/29/2014

The situation deteriorated on 30 November.

Lava flows are again faster, their advanced revolving around 20 meters per hour at Portela station. A plume rises to about 4,000 meters and large amounts of gas are released. Strong earthquakes are recorded outside the caldera at Cabeça Fundão, Estancia Roque and Achada Furna. The center of the Natural Park was completely destroyed.

Source: Inforpress / Sao Felipe

 

Fogo - on 30.11.2014 - photo Radio Atlantico

Fogo - on 30.11.2014 - photo Radio Atlantico

Fogo - lava flow carries a building - photo Radio Atlantico

Fogo - lava flow carries a building - photo Radio Atlantico

The European Space Agency has just published, as part of the project INSARAP, an interferogram, which combines two radar images acquired on Fogo Island 3 and 27 November in Wide Swath ascending mode. This paper highlights the potential of Sentinel-1 TOPS in the field of geophysical applications. The parameters of the image must follow.

Source:
ESA - Interferometry results derived from processing standard data products generated from the acquisitions of the Sentinel-1 mission from the European Union Copernicus program. -
link
 

  Interferogram -  A clic to enlarge - Doc. InSARap study

Interferogram - A clic to enlarge - Doc. InSARap study

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
 The plume from the eruption of Aso 11/26/2014 - photo Kyodo News / AP

The plume from the eruption of Aso 11/26/2014 - photo Kyodo News / AP

The eruption of Aso continued on 26 and 27 November, disrupting air traffic. Many flights were canceled at Kumamoto airport on Thursday, local news agency Jiji relates fifty.

The media report ash falls on Bungo-Ono and Gokase, 40 km. from the volcano Aso.

Since 27, around noon, only a degassing marks the crater, according to the webcam Kamamoto university. But the JMA reported that, on 28.11, the Aso volcano ejected lava debris and an ash plume rising to about 1,000 meters. The observatory does not expect an increase in the level of the eruption. (Physorg)

 The plume from the eruption of Aso 11/26/2014 - photo Associeted Press

The plume from the eruption of Aso 11/26/2014 - photo Associeted Press

The alert level of the volcano is maintained at 2, the exclusion zone of 1,000 meters should be sufficient to avoid problematic rocks falls.

This increasing of level was in late August, when the JMA reports a rise in the temperature of the crater lake Nakadake and volcanic earthquakes, followed on 30 August, by an eruption emitting a gray-white plume of indeterminate height, following the cloud cover. The Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume rising to 1.5-2.1 km. on 30.08 and 01.09, drifting towards the north and northeast.

Between 1 and 4 September, JMA records 18-92 daily volcanic earthquakes and tremor. On September 6, a small eruption is accompanied by a plume rising 600 meters above the crater rim. Between 5 and 15 September, volcanic earthquakes and tremor are still detected. In late September, the incandescent is seen in the Nakadake crater.

Early October and mid-November, a white plume adorns the crater.

To be continued !

 

Sources :

- JMA

- Asahi Shimbun - Mount Aso eruptions disrupt flights - link

- Physorg - Volcano in south Japan erupts, disrupting flights - link

- Global Volcanism Program - Asosan

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Fogo 11/27/2014 - impressive lava flow threatening homes - photo Grenn Studio

Fogo 11/27/2014 - impressive lava flow threatening homes - photo Grenn Studio

"Fogo News" reports that a third way of supply and exhaust of Portela / Boca Fonte, with exit by Cova Tina (by the southwest of Cha das Caldeiras - see map projection Google / INET below) is ready. It will allow the evacuation of residents and their meager belongings through dozens of trucks mobilized for this purpose.

Many houses and bungalows, source of tourism revenue, were destroyed by the lava flows, as well as dozens of hectares of land devastated. The reserves of wines, at least for all the bottles from the cellar Vino Cha, must be transferred in a safe place; large barrels of 8,000 liters unfortunately can not be transported, which mortgage this resource at term.

 

Fogo - map of the lava flows  25.11.2014 / 16h - Doc. INET

Fogo - map of the lava flows 25.11.2014 / 16h - Doc. INET

  Fogo - Works to allow the evacuation - photo Green Studio / Fogo News

Fogo - Works to allow the evacuation - photo Green Studio / Fogo News

Fogo - Bungalow destroyed by lava flow - Green Photo Studio / Fogo News

Fogo - Bungalow destroyed by lava flow - Green Photo Studio / Fogo News

The current eruption has a profound impact on the local population ... evacuations problems in case of eruption by the only road to the south, cleavable by an eruption, was pointed in a study published in September 2014. This is in addition to the social marginalization of the community, and the lack of public facilities: no electricity, no running water, no health care.

Cultural factors may explain the attachment of the people to this land ... the volcanic soil is fertile, the climatic conditions are better in the caldera than in the plains, and the volcano since 1995 has become a source of additional income with the development of
geo-tourism.

Volcanic risk is not a priority for the community, more concerned with the daily difficulties, drought and lack of water, and various administrative restrictions.

 Fogo - the road to the south cut off by the lava flow - photo Marcos Rocha via Fogo News

Fogo - the road to the south cut off by the lava flow - photo Marcos Rocha via Fogo News

Sources :

- Fogo News - articles journaliers - link

- Muzika TV livestream - Erupção Vulcão do Fogo - link

-Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2347–2358, 2014 - Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome? – by P. Texier-Teixeira, F. Chouraqui, A. Perrillat-Collomb, F. Lavigne, J. R. Cadag, and D. Grancher - link

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Activity in the crater Nakadake of Aso volcano intensified on November 25 2014.
Ash emissions, including a plume rising to 2,400 meters, and the night glow was observed. A light ash fall was reported in the village of Namino, 11 km. northeast of the volcano.



 

Aso 25.11.2014

Night glow at Aso on 11.26.2014 / 2:37 - Webcam Aso / JMA

Night glow at Aso on 11.26.2014 / 2:37 - Webcam Aso / JMA

Aso volcano shows signs of instability since 2013, with small explosions of phreatic type.

During 2013, the acidic crater lake gradually decreased and disappeared in June, the result of a rise in temperature and changes in the hydrothermal system. This phenomenon has already been observed in 2011. (GVP)

JMA / Japan Meteorological Agency increased the alert level to 2 on August 30, 2014, and reported a small inflation in its latest bulletin ... in connection with the assumption of a magmatic intrusion. The exclusion zone of 1 km. around the volcano is effective.

 

Evolution of the acidic lake between January and June 2013 - Excite webtl Photo / via Culture Volcans.
Evolution of the acidic lake between January and June 2013 - Excite webtl Photo / via Culture Volcans.

Evolution of the acidic lake between January and June 2013 - Excite webtl Photo / via Culture Volcans.

Sources :

- Volcanodiscovery - Aso volcano, increasing activity - link

- Global Volcanism Program - Asosan

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Apublication in the Journal of African Earth Sciences, by scientists from Involcan (Instituto de Canarias volcanologico) and the University of La Laguna, discusses the analysis of floating volcanic fragments recovered during the first phases of the 2011-2012 submarine eruption south of El Hierro / Canary Islands.

El Hierro - "Restingolitas" floating in surface, off La Restingua - photo 07.01.2012 Involcan / Guardia Civil

El Hierro - "Restingolitas" floating in surface, off La Restingua - photo 07.01.2012 Involcan / Guardia Civil

Sample of eruptive material floating on 18.10.2011 off El Hierro - Courtesy of Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN).

Sample of eruptive material floating on 18.10.2011 off El Hierro - Courtesy of Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN).

These fragments, fished off the port of La Restingua, were called "restingolitas". They underwent an initial determination by the PEVOLCA in 2011 that pointed a basaltic / trachyto-rhyolitic mixed composition in a ratio 10/1, and the magma mixing at the time of the eruption.
The restingolitas were composed of white vacuolar material inside, surrounded by a thin black crust least vacuolar. The black matrix seals the surface, trapping the white, spongy material, giving the whole high buoyancy, allowing it to reach the surface and drift with the ocean current.

The separate study of both components confirms that the white material comes from recycled sediments or old volcanic rocks, following a fusion at high temperature by the basaltic magma.

Restingolita, in the museum of El Hierro - photo Maria Vila / MCNB

Restingolita, in the museum of El Hierro - photo Maria Vila / MCNB

Diagram of the magma-sediment interaction in the El Hierro volcano responsible for the specific training of restingolitas proposed in Carracedo & others / 2012 / GVP

Diagram of the magma-sediment interaction in the El Hierro volcano responsible for the specific training of restingolitas proposed in Carracedo & others / 2012 / GVP

The composition and details of the formation of the restingolitas reassure scientists on a lower risk of explosive eruption.


The analysis highlights a unique feature of the white part of restingolitas: its relatively high content of uranium.

It reaches 30 to 40 grams per tonne, the highest uranium value of all volcanic rocks known in the Canary Islands. The high uranium concentration in the trachyto-rhyolitic party could have its origin in the selective process of transferring trace elements via hydrothermal fluids circulating within the oceanic crust and the base of the volcanic island of El Hierro.

 Back on the "Restingolitas" / El Hierro.

Sources :

- Science Direct / Elsevier - Petrological and geochemical Highlights in the floating fragments of the October 2011 submarine eruption offshore El Hierro (Canary Islands): Relevance of submarine hydrothermal processes – by Jose A.Rodriguez-Losada & al. - link

- IGN / Gobierno de Espana / CSIC : Informe petrologico de la erupcion de la isla de El Hierro – 2011

- Global Volcanism Program – Hierro           

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Holuhraun - the lava lake bubbling strongly - photo Mylifeasahelicopterpilot 13/11/2014

Holuhraun - the lava lake bubbling strongly - photo Mylifeasahelicopterpilot 13/11/2014

 Holuhraun - the lava lake within its walls - photo Jón Örn Guðbjartsson

Holuhraun - the lava lake within its walls - photo Jón Örn Guðbjartsson

In Bárðarbunga, the seismic activity of high intensity decreases overall.

After an earthquake of 5.4 M marking the southern edge of the volcano on November 15th at 11:25, followed by two M 4.1 and 4.5, the activity has decreased significantly ... to increase at the north end of intrusion. This transfer of location has been previously observed :the seismicity has increased for a few hours after large earthquakes at the caldera.

On 16 November, an earthquake of M 5.3 is reported in the same place as the day before, another of M 4.8, and 7 of magnitude greater than 4 ..

On 17, the seismic activity is considered stable.

A total of 160 earthquakes was reached between 14 and 17 November at Bárðarbunga.

  Caldera subsidence continues, in conjunction with large amounts of lava emission.

Seismicity in the area of the Vatnajökull 11.17.2014 / 19h30 - Doc. IMO
Seismicity in the area of the Vatnajökull 11.17.2014 / 19h30 - Doc. IMO

Seismicity in the area of the Vatnajökull 11.17.2014 / 19h30 - Doc. IMO

At the crack, the lava lake of Holuhraun contained in its cinders' ramparts, continues to bubble up under an important contribution, and feedsthe lava flow. On 17/11/2014, the lava field reached a area of 72 km², after three months of eruption. The volume of lava extruded exceeds the kilometer cube.

Pollution by sulfur dioxide continues ... higher rates of SO2 than normal were recorded in various locations, depending on the wind direction.

The dyke and eruptive site was home to about 50 earthquakes, every of a magnitude less than 1.6.

Is a great video to watch on the site RUV:
http://www.ruv.is/frett/holuhraun-eruption-fresh-video

The lava field of Holuhraun - top card: 11.14.2014 / IMO - image below: 11.16.2014 / NASA Landsat 8 / NASA-USGS
The lava field of Holuhraun - top card: 11.14.2014 / IMO - image below: 11.16.2014 / NASA Landsat 8 / NASA-USGS

The lava field of Holuhraun - top card: 11.14.2014 / IMO - image below: 11.16.2014 / NASA Landsat 8 / NASA-USGS

Sources :

- Rapports du IMO - link

- Vidéo de RUV -  link

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Yellowstone National Park is remarkable ... in winter, it is just magica !

Contrast between the frozen ground covered with snowand ice and the geysers, hot springs and bubbling or steaming cauldrons of mud. Winter reveals more easily the wildlife that inhabit the park : foxes and coyotes hunt in deep snow, bison frequent the hottest geothermal areas to find their food, Wolves come in packs in the moonlight.

A click on the photos to enlarge.

 Mammoth Hot Springs in the winter sun - Photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

Mammoth Hot Springs in the winter sun - Photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

In the area of Mud volcanoes, geometric shapes shine in the "runoff" - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

In the area of Mud volcanoes, geometric shapes shine in the "runoff" - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

Mammoth Hot Springs in the snow and ice - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

Mammoth Hot Springs in the snow and ice - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

To Canary springs, thermophilic remain colorful - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

To Canary springs, thermophilic remain colorful - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

The Lamar Valley overflown by Sandy cranes  (Grus canadensis) - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

The Lamar Valley overflown by Sandy cranes (Grus canadensis) - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

The Washburn Range as seen from Hayden Valley - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

The Washburn Range as seen from Hayden Valley - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

Along the Gardner river, elk looking  grass - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

Along the Gardner river, elk looking grass - photo Yellowstone National Park in 2014

Norris Geyser Basin - Yellowstone National Park Photo 2014

Norris Geyser Basin - Yellowstone National Park Photo 2014

Some precautions in winter (YNP):

Much of the park is located above 2,250 meters. Acclimatization is needed, and we must ensure to an adequate hydratation ... the drier air in altitude may be due to dehydration.
Suitable equipment is necessary to keep dry and at the right temperature. A medical examination before winter efforts is not superfluous.
Do not travel alone and warn of the place visited during the day prove basic precautions.
Watch for signs of bears ... they can stay active throughout the year.

Source:
Yellowstone National Park

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