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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

actualites volcaniques

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Tungurahua - 04.09.2014 / 20h30 - Photo Daniel Quinteros

Tungurahua - 04.09.2014 / 20h30 - Photo Daniel Quinteros

The Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador has still a fairly high activity.

On April 10 , in addition to emissions of gas and ash, a moderated strombolian activity hosted  the crater, accompanied by falls of incandescent blocks rolled down the upper slopes to 1,000 meters.

A lava flow has been detected by the OVT on the western flank of the volcano , possibly powered by a lava fountain view the webcams 9.04, and on 14.04 with the length of 2,000 meters by 100 wide and thick more than 15 meters , which is consistent with the path of harmonic tremor and high magmatic gas emission rate ( 9986 tons / day).

Tungurahua - 04.10.2014 / 9:26 p.m. - thermal image of the lava flow - photo P. Ramón OVT / IG

Tungurahua - 04.10.2014 / 9:26 p.m. - thermal image of the lava flow - photo P. Ramón OVT / IG

Tungurahua - 04.10.2014 / 10:03 p.m. - the lava flow is visible on the right of the photo - P.Ramon / IGEPN - OVT

Tungurahua - 04.10.2014 / 10:03 p.m. - the lava flow is visible on the right of the photo - P.Ramon / IGEPN - OVT

Tungurahua - 10/04/2014 - photo Andres Reyes / FB page / Tungurahua volcano

Tungurahua - 10/04/2014 - photo Andres Reyes / FB page / Tungurahua volcano

Tungurahua , seen from Ambato - 04/12/2014 - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Tungurahua , seen from Ambato - 04/12/2014 - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

On April 14 , many explosions, small to moderate , marked the Tungurahua , followed at 8:31 by an explosion of significant size , generating an ash plume 5,000 meters high , accompanied by ash fallout to Pillate , located 7 km west of the volcano. This strong explosion was accompanied by a brutal wave of shock ; the IGEPN reported an infrasound rate of 150 decibels at 5.5 km from the crater, which corresponds to the noise experienced by an observer located at 30 meters from a turbine aircraft.

Volcanologists reported after the explosion on April 7 , and a quiet of dozen hours without surface activity 14 , that the gas may have accumulated in the upper part of the conduit, which is corroborated by a deformation of the flanks the volcano.

After morning explosions of 14.04 , a period of harmonic tremor was recorded. The parameters associated with a strong degassing , suggest a magma ascent but still deep ... to be confirmed in the coming days , by an increase of seismicity and deformations .

Tungurahua - 04.14.2014 / 8:10 LT - webcam IGEPN

Tungurahua - 04.14.2014 / 8:10 LT - webcam IGEPN

Tun gurahua - 14.04.2014 - photo Josué Araulo / FB

Tun gurahua - 14.04.2014 - photo Josué Araulo / FB

Tungurahua - 14/04/2014 - harmonic tremor recorded by stations 5 - doc . IGEPN

Tungurahua - 14/04/2014 - harmonic tremor recorded by stations 5 - doc . IGEPN

Sources:

Rapports journaliers et spéciaux de l'IGEPN - link

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Peru - plume of ash and gas emitted by the Ubinas - photo in La Republica 04/11/2014

Peru - plume of ash and gas emitted by the Ubinas - photo in La Republica 04/11/2014

On 10 April , the Presidency of the Council of Ministers has declared a state of emergency for the regions of Moquegua and Arequipa affected by emissions of toxic gases , explosions and falling ash from the volcano Ubinas , and on info of IGP and INGEMMET in charge of supervision.

The presidents of both regions seek budgets for the evacuation and relocation of residents. A specialist INGEMMET stated that evacuation is not enough, we must permanently relocate the residents of Quérapi , located 4 km from the volcano , to Jahuay Pampas .

Although the settings are found substandard to those of the 2006 eruption, the yellow alert is maintained. Gas emissions reach heights between 500 and 3,000 meters above the crater, and toxic particles are carried by the wind on a large southern sector, affecting the communities within a radius of 7 km.

These days, the number of daily earthquakes related to the ascent of magma rose to 106. Explosions reach a power of 300 megajoules currently , against 800 megajoules in 2006.

Activity of Ubinas - doc. INGEMMET publish on 085.04.2014

 Ubinas - 09/04/2014 - photo Jose Sotomayor / Diario Correo

Ubinas - 09/04/2014 - photo Jose Sotomayor / Diario Correo

 Ubinas - position of populated areas - photo ASTER in false color 2009

Ubinas - position of populated areas - photo ASTER in false color 2009

Sources :

- INGEMMET et IGP

- presse locale : Correo 09.04.2014 - La Republica 11.04.2014

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Tungurahua - April 6, 2014 at 14:25 - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Tungurahua - April 6, 2014 at 14:25 - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

The activity of Tungurahua , after eruptive episode on April 4 , remains moderate to high, according to IGEPN .

On April 7 , the visibility is poor and prevents permanent observations. The seismic network recorded harmonic tremor and 73 explosions, small to moderate.

Tungurahua - 07/04/2014 - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Tungurahua - 07/04/2014 - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Tungurahua - Night strombolian activity , view from Ficoa Los Girasoles 07.04.2014 - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Tungurahua - Night strombolian activity , view from Ficoa Los Girasoles 07.04.2014 - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

On April 8 , the seismicity remains high , with 100 earthquakes LP, 12 episodes of harmonic tremor and fifty explosions, accompanied by rising ash columns 200 meters above the crater, before dissipating south -west . Small ash falls were reported in the areas of Bilbao, Manzani , Jewish , Mocha and Em Manzano .

8 and 9.04, rains have caused extensive lahars in the ravines and Achupashal Confesionario , with the destruction of the road Baños - Penipe .

Tungurahua - 08/04/2014 - webcam IGEPN / OVT

Tungurahua - 08/04/2014 - webcam IGEPN / OVT

Tungurahua - 08/04/2014 - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Tungurahua - 08/04/2014 - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Tungurahua - 09/04/2014 - webcam IGEPN / OVT

Tungurahua - 09/04/2014 - webcam IGEPN / OVT

Source: Daily reports of IGEPN

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Sentinel-1 , the first in a series of satellites forming the monitoring system Copernicus , was successfully launched by the European Space Agency, April 3, 2014 from Kourou in French Guiana.

This new system will comprise six satellites monitoring climate change, environmental disasters and natural disasters , including floods , earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

The part that interests us is the relationship between ground deformation and eruptive potential of volcanoes. Sentinel-1 will allow a detailed test and the possible development of a system for predicting volcanic eruptions , even in remote and inaccessible volcanoes.

The launch of Sentinel-1 - photo ESA 03/04/2014

The launch of Sentinel-1 - photo ESA 03/04/2014

Satellite Sentinel-1 A - Image - Artist doc . ESA

Satellite Sentinel-1 A - Image - Artist doc . ESA

A study was produced by Dr. J.Biggs and colleagues at the School of Earth Sciences / University of Bristol, in collaboration with the Universities of Cornell , Oxford and Southern Methodist University, on satellite data of 500 volcanoes distributed worldwide , and over a period of 18 years. Forty- six % of volcanoes with a deformation erupted .

Dr. Biggs considers that the onboard radar (InSAR ) can provide high resolution maps deformations , particularly inflation caused by magma movements or when pressure rise in the basement, and are a perfect tool to identify the volcanic instability then target a monitoring ground .

Previously, the radar images of most volcanoes were acquired only a few times a year ; with the new system of satellite monitoring , it will be every 6 to 12 days ... which may allow better monitoring of volcanoes with short eruptive cycles , particularly volcanoes located in developing countries .

InSAR Image showing the deformation of the volcano Longonot / East-African rift between 2004 e 2006, Envisat AutoC2

InSAR Image showing the deformation of the volcano Longonot / East-African rift between 2004 e 2006, Envisat AutoC2

Satellites finds the link between ground deformation and eruption - doc . University of Bristol

Sources :

- European Space Agency - ESA - Sentinel-1 - link

- ESA events - Sentinel-1 launch campaign - link

- eOPortal - Copernicus : Sentinel-1 - the SAR imaging constellation for land and ocean services. - link

- Eurekalert - UN.de Bristol - A satellite vieuw of volcanoes finds the link between ground deformation and eruption - link

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

A new reading of a stele's inscriptions , 3,500 years old , speaking of a " rainstorm " could review the chronology of the Bronze Age and reinforce the dating of the eruption of Thera / Santorini.

A breached block of calcite, whose parts were found in the third pounded of the Temple of Karnak at Thebes in Egypt, by French archaeologists between 1947 and 1951 , and called " the Tempest Stela" , was erected by Pharaoh Ahmose I, first pharaoh of the 18th dynasty

The face of this stele , 1.8 meters high , has enhanced blue hieroglyphs , while its reverse remains colorless .

Reconstruction of the " Tempest Stela " of Ahmose - Doc. Malcolm H. Wiener and James P. Allen, 1998.

Reconstruction of the " Tempest Stela " of Ahmose - Doc. Malcolm H. Wiener and James P. Allen, 1998.

The text  has been reinterpreted by two linguists of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, the Dr Moeller and Ritner .

The text of the stele describes the terrible conditions:

[Then] the gods [caused] that the sky come in a tempest of r[ain], with [dark]ness in the condition of the West, and the sky being in storm without [cessation, louder than] the cries [lit., “voices”] of the masses, more powerful [than . . .], [while the rain howled] on the mountains louder than the sound of the underground source of the Nile that is in Elephantine.

Then every house, every quarter that they (scil. the storm and rain) reached [. . . their corpses(?)] floating on the water like skiffs of papyrus outside the palace audience chamber for a period of [. . .] days [. . .] while no torch could be lit in the Two Lands.


Supporting the text of the stele of the storm, a text known as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, of the reign of Ahmose, mention a thunder and rain, further evidence of the attention to weather conditions during the reign of Pharaoh Ahmose .

 Dating a branch taken in the pumice of the eruption of Thera - photo Volcanodiscovery

Dating a branch taken in the pumice of the eruption of Thera - photo Volcanodiscovery

 Santorini - Minoan eruption deposits in the current caldera - photo Volcanodiscovery

Santorini - Minoan eruption deposits in the current caldera - photo Volcanodiscovery

The new dating of the reign of Ahmose allows a more logical articulation of events that have marked the time in the Middle East . It realigns important dates, marking the loss of power of the Canaanites , the collapse of the Babylonian Empire.

The new timeline explains how Ahmose took the power , supplanted leaders of Canaanites - the Hyksos - to reunify the two lands ... the eruption of Thera and the resulting tsunami may have destroyed the ports of the Hyksos and weakens their maritime power.

Disruption of agriculture and trade caused by the eruption would have decreased the Babylonian power, explaining their inability to resist to an invasion of Hittite .

Isopach of ash distribution of  the eruption of Thera in the direction of the eastern Mediterranean - doc . Decades volcanoes .

Isopach of ash distribution of the eruption of Thera in the direction of the eastern Mediterranean - doc . Decades volcanoes .

Drawing of a bas-relief depicting the Ahmose's battle against the Hyksos - doc . { {PD -Art }} template parameter without

Drawing of a bas-relief depicting the Ahmose's battle against the Hyksos - doc . { {PD -Art }} template parameter without

Here are a match made ​​between archeology , the great history and the history of volcanology .

 

Sources :

- The Ahmose ‘Tempest Stela’, Thera and Comparative Chronology - by Robert K. Ritner and Nadine Moeller - The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago - link

- The University of Chicago - World’s oldest weather report could revise Bronze Age chronology - link

- Daily Mail / Sciences : 3,500 year old inscription revealing a 'tempest of rain' could rewrite Egyptian history - link

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Volcanologists of Instituto Geofisico del Peru recorded a grew of seismicity since 22 March Ubinas volcano . One perceives Saturday, March 29 , on the graph of seismic energy , a sharp increase of signals associated with increased pressure in the hydrothermal system of the volcano. The harmonic tremor is also seen . Dome growth reported in the crater is likely to be a stopper

Ubinas - ash analyzed by INGEMMET

Ubinas - ash analyzed by INGEMMET

Ubinas - an increase of seismic energy between 22 and 29/03/2014 - doc . INGEMMET OVI / PGI / report 29/03/2014

Ubinas - an increase of seismic energy between 22 and 29/03/2014 - doc . INGEMMET OVI / PGI / report 29/03/2014

Ubinas present since an explosive activity, marked by small puffs of ash and gases. The authorities transferred Saturday in the night 20 families from Quérapi to the village of Ubinas .

According INGEMMET , analysis of ash, sampled at 2.4 km. volcano between March 22 and 23, suggest that released materials by the explosions of the last days are mainly juveniles ( lava fragments oxidized and hydrothermalised sprayed by volcanic gases )

March 31 , more than 335 earthquakes associated with fluid movements and five low-energy explosions , accompanied by plumes of ash and gas are reported by the newspaper El Comercio .

Ubinas 31.03.2014 / 7:44 - photo INGEMMET

Ubinas 31.03.2014 / 7:44 - photo INGEMMET

On 1 April, the director of the Instituto del Peru Geofisico - IGP - says an explosion produced an ash plume rising to over 1,000 meters above the crater at 7:42 LT . Neighboring villages were reached by falling ash .

Ubinas explosions 01.04.2014 between 5:36 ET 6:06 LT - photos webcam / INGEMMET

Ubinas explosions 01.04.2014 between 5:36 ET 6:06 LT - photos webcam / INGEMMET

Video 24 Horas PTV - Ubinas activity 01.04.2014

Sources:

- Ingemmet / IGP - rapports divers - link

- Presse et TV : El Comercio - El Diario.es - 24 horas PTV

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

The alert level of Shishaldin volcano has been reassessed  to WATCH and Orange on 03/28/2014 by the AVO .

Elevated surface temperatures was detected from March 18 by satellites , and persists to this day , in relation to the presence of lava in the summit crater . Seismographs record small explosions intermittently since the same date. The activity remains confined in the deep crater without flows on the flanks .

Shishaldin - Landsat 8 showing the emission of heat from the lava in the summit crater , the 18.03 and the 27.03.2014 - doc . AVO / USGS / Schneider D

Shishaldin - Landsat 8 showing the emission of heat from the lava in the summit crater , the 18.03 and the 27.03.2014 - doc . AVO / USGS / Schneider D

The Shishaldin is the highest volcano of the Aleutian volcanic arc,  with his top at 2.857 meters. This symmetrical stratovolcano, located on Unimak Island , has a basal diameter of 16 km. and a small summit crater from which emerges a permanent small plume of steam. It is flanked to the northwest by 24 monogenic cones parasites.

The Shishaldin cone is relatively recent, less than 10,000 years , and is built on the remains of an ancient somma eroded by glaciers, and based on volcaniclastic rocks of late Tertiary .

Its last eruption was in 2004 ( GVP )

Aleuts call this volcano Sisquk , meaning " mountain pointing the way when I 'm lost ."

Location of Shishaldin in the Aleutian arc - doc . AVO / USGS

Location of Shishaldin in the Aleutian arc - doc . AVO / USGS

Shishaldin - Small plume taken by the webcam on January 28, 2014 - Doc. AVO / USGS / Janet Schaefer

Shishaldin - Small plume taken by the webcam on January 28, 2014 - Doc. AVO / USGS / Janet Schaefer

Sources :

- Alaska Volcano Observatory - link

- Global Volcanism Program - Shishaldin

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Reventador volcano showed on March 25 from from 15h LT an increasing activity , accompanied by an emission of gas and ash rising to 1,500 m. before drifting to the west - southwest. Pyroclastic material fell into the caldera , the posterior remobilization of those who fell on the cone caused secondary pyroclastic flows , descending on 500 meters.

Reventador - photos thermal webcam 25.03.2014 - doc . IGEPN

Reventador - photos thermal webcam 25.03.2014 - doc . IGEPN

Reventador - 03/26/2014 - photo Hosteria el Reventador

Reventador - 03/26/2014 - photo Hosteria el Reventador

The activity continued on March 26 , marked by a tremor and continuous emissions. The thermal webcam recorded secondary pyroclastic flows , advancing 1500 m. maximum, related to continuous collapses of the dome, which was built in the crater since 2011 . In addition, two lava flows descend the flanks east and southeast of the cone, a few hundred meters.

Reventador - top of the active cone - photo Hosteria el Reventador 03/26/2014

Reventador - top of the active cone - photo Hosteria el Reventador 03/26/2014

  Reventador - overlay of a thermal image to another in the visible range : traces of pyroclastic flows and lava on the east side - doc . F.Velasquez / IGEPN

Reventador - overlay of a thermal image to another in the visible range : traces of pyroclastic flows and lava on the east side - doc . F.Velasquez / IGEPN

The most likely danger is a remobilization of ash and tephra by the rain and the formation of lahars down the ravines and rios ( rio Reventador, rio Montana and rio Marker) towards the Quijos river, and residential areas.

Topographic map Reventador - its iron horse and the active cone, and drainage - doc. IG

Topographic map Reventador - its iron horse and the active cone, and drainage - doc. IG

Source : rapports journaliers et spéciaux de l'IG - Instituto Geofisico.

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Following the collapse of the House of Gladiators in November 2010, the Figaro magazine headline " The Second Death of Pompeii ." For three years, Pompeii was the scene of many incidents, such as the fall of a pillar of an outdoor pergola of the home Loreius Tiburtinus in December 2011, preceded by spectacular collapses sections of wall in the House of Gladiators and that of the Moralist . In September 2012, is a support beam of the tiles roof that had sold in the famous Villa dei Misteri .

"Pompéi, l'histoire tombe en ruines" - article et photo Libération.fr

"Pompéi, l'histoire tombe en ruines" - article et photo Libération.fr

Video Figaro Magazine 2010.

Inadequate monitoring , damage by tourists, illegal construction , erosion, Pompeii , victim of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD and protected for centuries by the ashes,  will see his story fall into ruin again ?

The Big Pompeii Project , with 105 million of euros , part of which provided by the European Union, must address the carelessness which suffers the site, however, listed since 1997 as World Heritage of Humanity.

However, there is money to Pompeii : In addition to regional funds ( always late ) and European funds,recipes provided by paid admissions by more than two million annual visitors " have fueled t
he mafia of concrete at the expense of preservation of the site "said Mr. A.Orlando , director of the NGO / Observatory of Cultural Heritage .

 Pompeii Villa dei Misteri - photo Musei Italiani .

Pompeii Villa dei Misteri - photo Musei Italiani .

Pompeii was placed in 2008 under the responsibility of the Civil Protection agency in charge of natural disasters. The appointment of the special commissioner M.Fiori for the site management dispossessed the superintendence and permits to derogate to the public market's procedures . Prosecutors in Naples has charged on Feb. 5 the former Commissioner M.Fiori for corruption, repeated abuse of power, fraud, inflated bills and fraud at the expense of the state. Culminating in the work begun in 2010 to restore the ancient theater of Pompeii to accommodate performances ... by pouring cement on the ancient steps, and disfiguring this place for a price 400 times higher than the initial cost estimate . Added to this, are the construction of concrete sheds , never used, or the galleries flanking a front door , having never served .

And that's not counting the invasive bureaucracy , waltz of officers , diversion of funds for maintenance in favor of a policy of promoting various forums !

Pompeii, the Great theater - photo Sylvhem 2011.

Pompeii, the Great theater - photo Sylvhem 2011.

 Herculaneum, Roman house decoration - photo Antony Van Eeten

Herculaneum, Roman house decoration - photo Antony Van Eeten

Unlike what happens in Herculaneum , where thanks to the patronage of David W.Packard , an American passionate of archeology, three million dollars are invested annually since 2004, with expertise and intelligence. Rehabilitation of underground channels, clogged with ash, have allowed this city located in a depression, to be no longer flooded by rainwater , and remains to be preserved .

Will the Big Pompeii Project resist to the machinations of the Camorra ?


Sources:
 Media: Figaro Magazine , Liberation, The Express, The Cultural World

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

The strombolian explosive activity , which marks the NSEC Etna , up on 16 and 17 March , became almost continuous . After slight fluctuations, the tremor shows a slight upward trend . A small effusion of lava continues to feed lava flows .

On March 20 and 21, ash explosions are accompanied by a plume rising several hundred meters above the crater southeast ... they mark a slight change of activity.

Etna -  webcam thermal Monte Cagliaro - strombolian activity at the summit of NSEC - the center of the image, lava flow active since March 17 - on the right , flow fed between 24.02 and 16.03 - INGV Catania

Etna - webcam thermal Monte Cagliaro - strombolian activity at the summit of NSEC - the center of the image, lava flow active since March 17 - on the right , flow fed between 24.02 and 16.03 - INGV Catania

Etna 03/21/2014 - photo Antonioetna / You reporter.it

Etna 03/21/2014 - photo Antonioetna / You reporter.it

Etna 03/21/2014 - photo Antonioetna / You reporter.it

Etna 03/21/2014 - photo Antonioetna / You reporter.it

Etna 03.21.2014 / 1:57 p.m. - webcam Etna touring

Etna 03.21.2014 / 1:57 p.m. - webcam Etna touring

Etna - fluctuations in tremor 21.03.2014 / 4:47 p.m. - doc . INGV Catania

Etna - fluctuations in tremor 21.03.2014 / 4:47 p.m. - doc . INGV Catania

Sources:

- webcams INGV, Etna touring, LAVE, RS7

- You reporter - Etna, attivita marzo 2014. - link

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