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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

actualites volcaniques

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

The Icelandic authorities will place various panels around the volcano Hekla , warning of a possible eruption. They are in Icelandic and English, and will include a QR code to download an application and receive an alert call for the onset of eruption. It is indeed risky to venture on the volcano, because it can erupt without giving you time to evacuate the area : in recent events in 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 , scientists had only 30-80 minutes to issue an evacuation notice . ( Iceland Review on line )

Hekla in eruption in 2000 - photo Sigurson Sidrasson / IMO

Hekla in eruption in 2000 - photo Sigurson Sidrasson / IMO

According mbl.is site, there are now more magma in the magma chamber before Hekla last erupted , and since 2006. The magma chamber is located 10-20 km. depth , and inflation of the volcano can be clearly noticed on the surface, but only by the GPS network IMO / Univ. Iceland Geology Dpt . A possible eruption depends on the mobile fraction of the magma in the magma chamber . The risk is present, and the latency to transmit a danger opinion is short ! (mbl.is/ Páll Einarsson mbl.is / Páll Einarsson , professor in geophysics at the University of Iceland )

Nishino -shima 14/03/2014 - two cones with a strombolian activity  - photo Ryo Mochizuki / You Tube

Nishino -shima 14/03/2014 - two cones with a strombolian activity - photo Ryo Mochizuki / You Tube

In the Ogasawara Islands, Nishino -shima volcano ever present Strombolian activity. A video on You tube taking from cruise ship reveals an island surmounted by a large plume of steam and surrounded by steam, due to the lava entering the sea and / or benefits of strombolian activity , clearly visible at night. The author of the video also indicates a large area of discolored water .

The Dukono on the island of Halmahera / Moluccas always present an explosive activity , Strombolian type , on March 18 marked by a rising ash plume 2,400 meters before spreading to the SO on 80 nautical miles . ( VAAC Darwin / via Volcanodiscovery )

 


On the island of Java, the Slamet , in alert 2 and banned of access , has an activity characterized by small explosions.  A Volcanodiscovery guide , Andy , said that explosions are visible Blambangan village , but because of the ban, the dome is not visible.

 

Slamet / Java - 03/14/2014 gaz venting - photo Andy ( Volcanodiscovery guide )

Slamet / Java - 03/14/2014 gaz venting - photo Andy ( Volcanodiscovery guide )

In Mexico, the Fuego de Colima present intermittent explosions, whose number reached one hundred per day . Most explosions are phreatic type, accompanied by a white plume . Extrusion of lava accompanied by avalanches of incandescent blocks is visible at night . ( Diario de Colima )

Fuego de Colima - 16/03/2014 - J.Carlos Gavilanes Ruiz

Fuego de Colima - 16/03/2014 - J.Carlos Gavilanes Ruiz

Colima -  summit activity, projections and avalanche of incandescent blocks - 09.03.2014 / 10:27 p.m. - photo Tapiro Foto

Colima - summit activity, projections and avalanche of incandescent blocks - 09.03.2014 / 10:27 p.m. - photo Tapiro Foto

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Sinabung - 03.12.2014 / 3:01 p.m. LT - progress status of the lava tongue - photo Oom Endro Lewa

Sinabung - 03.12.2014 / 3:01 p.m. LT - progress status of the lava tongue - photo Oom Endro Lewa

A point on the evolution of the eruption of Sinabung was done in the last detailed VSI report dated March 17, 2014 - for the period from 8 to 15.03.

At the seismicity level , the amplitude of tremor varies between 6 and 48 mm , with a dominant in the area 18-23 mm . Thirty-seven volcanic earthquakes ( VA ) were recorded between 8 and 15 March , and hybrid earthquakes related to fracturation and magma movements have disappeared ... The SO2 flux variations between 300 and 598 tonnes per day indicates a continued magma supply : the intrusion continues without fracturation.

Diagram of seismicity at Sinabung 03/13/2014 - doc . VSI

Diagram of seismicity at Sinabung 03/13/2014 - doc . VSI

Sinabung -  gas emissions 03.13.2014 - top, " Kubah lava " : reports the dome of lava - " Letusan " = eruption - the temperature of the hot springs ( Suhu air panas ) remains in slight increase - doc . VSI

Sinabung - gas emissions 03.13.2014 - top, " Kubah lava " : reports the dome of lava - " Letusan " = eruption - the temperature of the hot springs ( Suhu air panas ) remains in slight increase - doc . VSI

The instability of the lava dome /  lava tongue is rising, led by earthquakes associated with avalanches of blocks ( Guguran ), with an average of 223 per day.

Visual observation shows that the progression of the front of the tongue of lava is still valid ; on March 13 , it covered 2,421 meters from the top.

Sinabung - progression of the lava tongue - photo and annotations from VSI

Sinabung - progression of the lava tongue - photo and annotations from VSI

Source : VSI Badan Geologi / report : evolution of Sinabung between 8 and 15 March 2014.

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Volcanoes of Java:

- The VSI raised the alert level of the volcano Slamet 2 / Waspada , March 10 , following an increase of seismicity : since March 8 ,  441 minor earthquakes and 9 volcanic  earthquakes were recorded. A series of explosions have produced a rising plume at 800-1000 m. over the top , according Volcanodiscovery . The first explosion held on May 10 at 8:06 p.m. , and shook the windows of the observatory.

A potential risk exists, according to volcanologists, in five sub- districts : Banyumas , Brebes , Pembalang , Purbalingga and Tegal . Roads to hike the volcano have been closed

Sources:
- VSI - Badan Geologi
- Jakarta Gloge 11.03.2014

Slamet 2014.03.10 - photo ShushuMilkshake / via Twitter - pic.twitter.com/cf82aXdhZG

Slamet 2014.03.10 - photo ShushuMilkshake / via Twitter - pic.twitter.com/cf82aXdhZG

- The Merapi has presented an issue of ash on March 10 to 6:54 , amount plume 1500 meters above the crater.
Mr Subandriyo of BPPTKG of Yogyakarta , connects this event with a tectonic earthquake of M 5.4 occurred Sunday at 115 km SE of Malang / Java. (in an interview Jakarta Post)

This ash discharge is regularly observed since the eruption of Merapi in 2010 phenomenon , and not a sign of increased activity .

Source: Jakarta Post - link

- The level of alert of Kelud was reduced to 2 / Waspada the 02.28.2014 .

 2014.03.10 Merapi - ash venting - doc . BPPTKG

2014.03.10 Merapi - ash venting - doc . BPPTKG

In Mexico, Colima was the subject of aerial surveillance after a plume emitted at 4.6 km height on 28 February ( Washington VAAC ) and five emissions on 1 March . The report of the Proteccion Civil Jalisco Uepcbj reported no significant change in the upper part of the volcano, but an extrusion of lava, slowly and continuously , causing landslides on the western and southern flanks.
The strombolian activity is indicated by photographer Tapiro March 9 in the evening.

Colima - the summit crater and dome 02/28/2014 - photo Proteccion Civil Jalisco

Colima - the summit crater and dome 02/28/2014 - photo Proteccion Civil Jalisco

Colima - 03.09.2014 / 10:27 p.m. - strombolian activity reflecting off the clouds - photo Tapiro fotografer

Colima - 03.09.2014 / 10:27 p.m. - strombolian activity reflecting off the clouds - photo Tapiro fotografer

In Ecuador, the Tungurahua volcano is always qualified by IGEPN of moderate activity. March 9, it was observed a plume of ash and gas amount to less than 1,000 m. before dispersing to the NW.

Tungurahua - 09.03.2014 / 1:38 p.m. - snow and clouds dress top - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Tungurahua - 09.03.2014 / 1:38 p.m. - snow and clouds dress top - photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Tungurahua - 09.03.2014 / 5:45 p.m. - plume of gas and ash - Photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Tungurahua - 09.03.2014 / 5:45 p.m. - plume of gas and ash - Photo Jose Luis Espinosa - Naranjo

Sicily - the activity continues in the new southeast crater of Etna, characterized by a Strombolian activity within the NSEC crater depression and an effusion of lava at the base of the cone, powered by a mouth located in the slip nest formed on March 5 .
To report , a small sporadic emission of " hot materials and ashes " in the Bocca Nuova

Source: INGV Catania

Etna - the snow and vapors 10/03/2014 - photo Turi Caggegi / iEtna

Etna - the snow and vapors 10/03/2014 - photo Turi Caggegi / iEtna

Etna - 10/03/2014 - INGV Catania webcam

Etna - 10/03/2014 - INGV Catania webcam

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

The island of Nishino -shima , located in Izu- Bonin- Marianas arc continues to evolve since the eruption of 1973-1974 , during which it has grown .

It is the top of a large submarine volcano ; the south, west and northeast flanks are covered with prominent peaks satellites .
1973-74 eruptions have emerge and reach new lands.

Nishino -shima eruption 1973-74 - doc . Plate tectonic / Narod.ru
Nishino -shima eruption 1973-74 - doc . Plate tectonic / Narod.ru

Nishino -shima eruption 1973-74 - doc . Plate tectonic / Narod.ru

Evolution of Nishino -shima 1973et between 2003 - doc . http://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp

Evolution of Nishino -shima 1973et between 2003 - doc . http://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp

Bathymetry of the submarine volcano and emergent Nishino -shima land - doc . http://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jpBathymetry of the submarine volcano and emergent Nishino -shima land - doc . http://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp

Bathymetry of the submarine volcano and emergent Nishino -shima land - doc . http://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp

In November 2013 , after the appearance of a discolored water area, a surtseyan eruption occurs southeast of Nishino -shima . The new island has grown since , and effected a junction with the former , exceeding this in size .

Nishino -shima - the "old" island and the emerging new volcano 11/21/2013 - photo Japan Coast Guard .

Nishino -shima - the "old" island and the emerging new volcano 11/21/2013 - photo Japan Coast Guard .

Nishino -shima - the junction is close - photo Japan Coast Guards 24/12/2013 / Sketch Asahi Shimbun
Nishino -shima - the junction is close - photo Japan Coast Guards 24/12/2013 / Sketch Asahi Shimbun

Nishino -shima - the junction is close - photo Japan Coast Guards 24/12/2013 / Sketch Asahi Shimbun

Nishino -shima on 02/16/2014 - junction took place - course of the lava flows in every direction, and position three vents ( red) - doc.aist

Nishino -shima on 02/16/2014 - junction took place - course of the lava flows in every direction, and position three vents ( red) - doc.aist

An aerial inspection by the Geological Survey of Japan, on 28 February 2014, shows emissions of ash and steam at the two cones of the last eruption ( see video). Castings in all directions reach the sea to the east, south-southeast and west-northwest . Closure by coalescence of the lava flows left a small lake, with a temporary existence , which eventually disappear through evaporation.

Nishino -shima 02/28/2014 - photo Geological Survey of Japan

Nishino -shima 02/28/2014 - photo Geological Survey of Japan

Nishino -shima 02/28/2014 - two cones are smoking / Degasing - Track the entry of lava flows into the ocean are visible on both sides - photo Japan Coast Guards

Nishino -shima 02/28/2014 - two cones are smoking / Degasing - Track the entry of lava flows into the ocean are visible on both sides - photo Japan Coast Guards

Nishino -shima 02/28/2014 - Closure by coalescence castings left a small lake, temporary existence , which eventually disappear through evaporation. - photo Japan Coast Guards .

Nishino -shima 02/28/2014 - Closure by coalescence castings left a small lake, temporary existence , which eventually disappear through evaporation. - photo Japan Coast Guards .

Vidéo AIST 02.03.2014

Sources:

- Japan Coast Guards - link

- Geological Survey of Japan - link

- Global Volcanism Program - Nishinoshima

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Nyamulagira - Charles Balagizi / GVO and Dario Tedesco / IOM carrying materials for this field trip - photo Charles Balagizi 02/15/2014

Nyamulagira - Charles Balagizi / GVO and Dario Tedesco / IOM carrying materials for this field trip - photo Charles Balagizi 02/15/2014

A visit to the crater Nyamulagira was conducted February 15, 2014 in collaboration between the IMO / Dario Tedesco, the GVO / Charles Balagizi , MONUSCO and the SUN (Second University of Naples).
A report of volcanologist D.Tedesco indicates no change since the last sightings of December 2013. The activity is centered on the former pit crater , existing since the disappearance of the lava lake, drained in a major flank eruption in 1938. The morphology of the pit crater has continued to evolve after the eruption of nov.2011 - mars2012 and a series of  explosion earthquakes was
recorded by GVO. The eruption then stopped in the NE part of the shield volcano .

Nyamulagira - eruption 07.11.2011 / 0h21 -  lava fountains - photo Gorilla CD

Nyamulagira - eruption 07.11.2011 / 0h21 - lava fountains - photo Gorilla CD

These earthquakes have caused a series of collapses and a plume rich in SO2, in relation to the degassing of fresh magma close to the surface. The energy of the explosion can be quantified through the ejecta around the pit and on the floor of the crater ... the mission found blocks of more than 100 kg , coming from deep volcanic layers.
Over the past two years, the morphology of the pit crater has continued to evolve with successive enlargements by collapses, in onion skins , and deepen , reaching nearly 485 meters. The ongoing collapse of the floor and walls gave formation of a crater with multiple terraces and the (re)formation to finish of a lava lake .
The cause of the collapse remains conjunctural : either a magma injection in the NE part of Nyamulagira during the 2011-2012 eruption , or / and a newer magma injection in the S part of the volcano . The migration of magma from the center of the crater left an empty chamber , opening the door to collapse , some of which blocked the central pit crater vent with pressure increase, followed by small explosions.

Pit Crater of Nyamulagira , aerial observation of 19.04.2012 - you can see the different terraces - photo CD Gorilla

Pit Crater of Nyamulagira , aerial observation of 19.04.2012 - you can see the different terraces - photo CD Gorilla

Nyamulagira 15/02/2014 - taking measurements and samples by volcanologists - photo MONUSCO .

Nyamulagira 15/02/2014 - taking measurements and samples by volcanologists - photo MONUSCO .

Nyamulagira 15/02/2014 - taking measurements and samples by volcanologists near the edge of the pit crater - photo Charles Balagizi / GVO

Nyamulagira 15/02/2014 - taking measurements and samples by volcanologists near the edge of the pit crater - photo Charles Balagizi / GVO

The future activity of Nyamulagira could affect the southern flank at about 2400 meters altitude ( current floor of the volcano at 2900 m asl - . Bottom of pit crater 485 m deep) , and block a main supply route to Goma for fresh food and charcoal, or threaten the locality of Sake, as the eruption of 1938-1940 .

Nyamulagira - trace lava flows in the 20th century - doc . GVP

Nyamulagira - trace lava flows in the 20th century - doc . GVP

Sources :

- IOM - Scientific report of the mission to mount Nyamulagira - by Dario Tedesco - link

- UN News center - Journey to the centre of the earth: UN peacekeepers aid volcanologists in DR Congo - link

- Communications personneles de Ch.Balagizi / GVO

- Global Volcanism Program - Nyamuragira

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

The activity of the Sinabung and that of Kelud did overshadow other active volcanoes on the planet ... small newsmagazine .

In Costa Rica, Poas Volcano Caliente lagoon has experienced 14 February 2014 a phreatic eruption of low energy. - Source: OVSICORI

Poas - measurement taken by Saskia van Manen from the Open University , UK, with a  FLIR camera. Photography Geoffroy Avard

Poas - measurement taken by Saskia van Manen from the Open University , UK, with a FLIR camera. Photography Geoffroy Avard

In Mexico, an observation of the crater of Popocatepetl on February 19 allowed to see the crater exhaling a plume of gas and steam, more or less loaded with ash , reaching a height of 800 to 1000 meters. The volcanic volcano alert remains at Amarillo / stage 2 . - Source: CENAPRED

Popocatepetl - 18/02/2014 - overview of the crater - photo CENAPRED

Popocatepetl - 18/02/2014 - overview of the crater - photo CENAPRED

Popocatepetl - 21/02/2014 - photo Ricardo Flores via Twitter

Popocatepetl - 21/02/2014 - photo Ricardo Flores via Twitter

In the Ogasawara Islands , south of Japan,  Nishino -jima / Niijima volcano continues to be active .

Here are some aerial photos of GSI , dated February 16 , which reflect its growth.

Nishino -shima 2/16/2014 - you can follow the progress of flows in all directions - photo GSI

Nishino -shima 2/16/2014 - you can follow the progress of flows in all directions - photo GSI

Nishino -shima : evolution of Niijima,  extension and height to 4/12 / in yellow, 11/12 / in green, 16/12 / in red. The highest point is 66 m. asl.

Nishino -shima : evolution of Niijima, extension and height to 4/12 / in yellow, 11/12 / in green, 16/12 / in red. The highest point is 66 m. asl.

Mount Etna : the Strombolian activity continues in the new southeast crater with projections of up to 100 meters above the crater rim and the effusive activity from the mouth at the east base of NSEC .

Note : on February 15 at 12:08 , a brief explosion marked the septum separating the Bocca Nuova and Voragine , accompanied by a plume of ash / gas lightly loaded .


 

15/02/2014 Etna - explosion septum Bocca Nuova / Voragine 24:09 GMT and outpouring of lava from NSEC - webcam EMCT / INGV

15/02/2014 Etna - explosion septum Bocca Nuova / Voragine 24:09 GMT and outpouring of lava from NSEC - webcam EMCT / INGV

The same day around 17.45 , a new effusive mouth open at the NE base of the NSEC . A brief outpouring of lava emanated , but the mouth has just been active for a few hours . According to Boris Behncke , opening of an effusive mouth at the base of a summit crater activity is a phenomenon frequently observed on Etna , in particular to the northeast crater between 50 and 70 years.

February 17 , Etna Walk reports small Strombolian explosions, with incandescent projections about ten meters above the crater and lava effusion;  the flow front moves slowly in the Valle del Bove, near the altitude 2550 . The average amplitude of the tremor is maintained stable.

Sources: Etna Walk - INGV Catania and Boris Behncke

Etna 2.21.2014 - a beautiful smoke ring captured by the webcam Etnatrekking

Etna 2.21.2014 - a beautiful smoke ring captured by the webcam Etnatrekking

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