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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

Articles avec #actualites volcaniques catégorie

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

The eruption of Wolf volcano on Isabela / Galapagos island is not much documented for now.

The entrance to the lava flow in the Pacific on 28 May 2015, however, was recorded both by the passenger of the ship Endeavour as by the satellite EO-1 of NASA.

Mirova always reports a thermal anomaly "Moderate" ... signs of an eruption in progress.

Sources: Parque Nacional Galapagos / NASA EO-1 / Mirova

Despite extensive cloud cover, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 satellite acquired this view of lava flowing into the ocean on May 28, 2015. The false-color image combines shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green light (ALI bands 9-7-4). Clouds appear blue-white, while liquid water is dark blue. Vegetated areas are green; old lava flows are brown. Fresh lava is bright orange and red.

Despite extensive cloud cover, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on the Earth Observing-1 satellite acquired this view of lava flowing into the ocean on May 28, 2015. The false-color image combines shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green light (ALI bands 9-7-4). Clouds appear blue-white, while liquid water is dark blue. Vegetated areas are green; old lava flows are brown. Fresh lava is bright orange and red.

Vidéo Nat Geo on ligne 29.05.2015

Moderate thermal anomaly at Wolf volcano - Doc. Mirova 02/06/2015

Moderate thermal anomaly at Wolf volcano - Doc. Mirova 02/06/2015

GSI details about the eruption of Shindake on the island-volcano Kuchinoerabujima:

Sample analysis confirms the phreato-magmatic nature of the eruption, based on a composition of ~ 60% altered rocks and ~ 30% slightly magmatic substance.

The JMA confirms that the volcano's crater has not undergone significant change.

Sources: GSI - link & JMA / via Shérine France

 

Kuchinoerabujima - few morphological changes of Shindake crater (top photo / 01.06.2015, with the plume) - photo JMA

Kuchinoerabujima - few morphological changes of Shindake crater (top photo / 01.06.2015, with the plume) - photo JMA

In Mexico, the Colima volcano has still regular explosions. On June 1, we count more than 40 explosions.

Sources:
Universidad de Colima
WebcamsdeMexico

 

Earthquakes of Colima -01.06.2015 - Doc. Universidad de Colima

Earthquakes of Colima -01.06.2015 - Doc. Universidad de Colima

Colima 01.06.2015 / 4:32 - strong explosions and glowing impact on the summit. - Photo webcamsdemexico

Colima 01.06.2015 / 4:32 - strong explosions and glowing impact on the summit. - Photo webcamsdemexico

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Guallatiri and his fumaroles - photo Gerard Prins

Guallatiri and his fumaroles - photo Gerard Prins

This 5/31/2015, at 4am local, seismic stations recorded in the Chilean volcano Guallatiri a swarm of 22 volcano-tectonic earthquakes / VT in 10 minutes, associated with fracturation of rocks. The more energetic, of 3.5 magnitude is located 3.3 km southeast of the main crater and a depth of 1.1 km.
Another earthquake VT occurred at 5:17, at 8.4 km south-west of the main crater.

Since 28 May, the two inclinometers near the crater indicate a low inflation. When the conditions permit, a white plume within 200 meters is visible.

Given these various changes, the SERNAGEOMIN increased the technical level of alert to
Amarillo on 31.05. / 14 h. loc., and ONEMI said preventive alert for Parinacota province.
 

Guallatiri and his solfatare - photo Jean-Michel Mestdagh 2011.

Guallatiri and his solfatare - photo Jean-Michel Mestdagh 2011.

Guallatiri is the youngest volcano in a group of three: the Nevados de Quimsachata, on the border between Chile and Bolivia, in the region of Arica and Parinacota, consisting of Cerro Acotango, 6,050 meters, Cerro Elena Capurata, 6,000 meters, and Gallatiri.

The latter, top 6071 meters asl, is covered by dacitic lava domes and a pyroclastic cone. The geochemistry is divided between andesite (58% SiO2) and rhyolite (75% SiO2) with a predominance of dacite (63-70% SiO2). Minor explosive eruptions are reported since the beginning of the 19th century. Its last eruption of December 1960 (GVP)

Intense and noisy fumarolian activity marks the west upper side, which led to it being considered "the abode of the devil", by local Aymara villagers.

 

The Nevados de Quimsachata: from left to right, the Capurata, the Acutango and the Guallatiri, seen from the slopes of Sajama - photo Summitpost

The Nevados de Quimsachata: from left to right, the Capurata, the Acutango and the Guallatiri, seen from the slopes of Sajama - photo Summitpost

Location of Guallatiri at the Chile-Bolivia border.

Location of Guallatiri at the Chile-Bolivia border.

At May 31, 2015, SERNAGEOMIN notes 4 volcanoes on alert Amarillo, the Chaiten, the Calbuco, the Copahue and the Guallatiri, and a volcano in Naranja alert, the Villarica.

 

Sources :

- SERNAGEOMIN - link - link 2

- ONEMI - link

- Global Volcanism Program - Guallatiri

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

In its bulletin of May 30, 2015 / 23:30, the OVPF indicates that the tremor from the eruption of La Fournaise disappeared at local 20:30, marking the end of the alimentation
 

Piton de la Fournaise - tremor of eruption  17.05 - 30.05.2015 - Doc. OVPF

Piton de la Fournaise - tremor of eruption 17.05 - 30.05.2015 - Doc. OVPF

The "Gas pistoning", a brutal lift of gas bubbles, sometimes with projections and / or explosions, pushing the magma column as a piston, is noticed since Saturday morning, according Clicanoo Journal of Reunion. This change of regime in the degassing is a marker of the end of the eruption. The bad weather prevailing in the volcano did not allow to observe this phenomenon.

Vigilance is still required, however, because the volcano has very little "deflated" since May 17, the beginning of the eruption. A rise in inflation would be an indication of a possible new eruption in weeks or months.

Piton de la Fournaise - Moderate thermal anomaly - Doc. Mirova 30.05.2015 / 9:35 p.m.

Piton de la Fournaise - Moderate thermal anomaly - Doc. Mirova 30.05.2015 / 9:35 p.m.

Sources :

- OVPF - link

- MIROVA - link

- Clicanoo - L’éruption est en train de s’achever - link

- Thermal observations of gas pistoning at Kilauea Volcano - by Jeffrey B. Johnson & al. - link

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

The SINAPRED / Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, mitigación y Atención de Desastres made yesterday an update on the activities of Telica: New explosions are considered within the normal limits of activity of the volcano. It reiterates its recommendation to stay out of an area of ​​1,500 meters around the crater.

The management of the Ineter / Instituto de Estudios Nicaraguan Territorial has declared : between the 26.05 and the afternoon 27.05 to 10 h., 24 explosions accompanied by gas and ash emissions have been recorded, including eight between 7:47 and 8:32 Wednesday morning.

 

Telica, the 27.05.2015 / 8:40 - photo Eddy Lopez / La Prensa

Telica, the 27.05.2015 / 8:40 - photo Eddy Lopez / La Prensa

Civil Defense and the Ministry of Health work in coordination in communities affected by ash fallout: Zanjones 1,2 and 3, the Virgen, Linda Vista, Divino Niño, El Bosque, Monte San Juan, Calle Real, Juan 23 , and Quezalguaque Posoltega.

Despite the situation is considered normal by the authorities, the impact of ash on health are present; to Quezalguaque, residents have called for the closure of schools, because children suffer from respiratory problems.

Sources :

- Sinapred - link

- Ineter

- Médias : 100%Noticias, La Prensa

 

At Wolf volcano, in the Galapagos Archipelago, the activity seems to remain important:

- 28.05 Mirova still reported that extreme thermal anomaly,

- And the lava flows reached the Pacific Ocean.

Wolf - the 26/05/2015, the activity seemed to diminish - Copyright © 2015 Xavier Garcia.

Wolf - the 26/05/2015, the activity seemed to diminish - Copyright © 2015 Xavier Garcia.

Wolf - lava flows reach the Pacific - photo Jinsop Barzola /  Parque nacional / via Twitter

Wolf - lava flows reach the Pacific - photo Jinsop Barzola / Parque nacional / via Twitter

Radiative power volcan Wolf - 28.05.2015 / 4h. - doc. Mirova

Radiative power volcan Wolf - 28.05.2015 / 4h. - doc. Mirova

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Galapagos / Ecuador Islands :the Wolf volcano, located north of the island Isabela, presented the 24.05 from 0:50 UTC (11:50 p.m. loc) seismic signals forerunners of the eruption which began on May 25 at 1:58 after 33 years of inactivity.

Eruption of volcano Wolf / Isla Fernandina, (Pta Espinoza.) - 05/25/2015 - photo Yacht La Pinta shipping on Twitter

Eruption of volcano Wolf / Isla Fernandina, (Pta Espinoza.) - 05/25/2015 - photo Yacht La Pinta shipping on Twitter

Seismogram of Wolf Volcano / Isla Fernandina, the 5/25/2015 (Pta Espinoza.) - The signal from the explosion at 6:58 ET earthquakes of magnitudes lower earlier - source IGEPN

Seismogram of Wolf Volcano / Isla Fernandina, the 5/25/2015 (Pta Espinoza.) - The signal from the explosion at 6:58 ET earthquakes of magnitudes lower earlier - source IGEPN

Earthquake of M 4.7 - GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, ECUADOR - 6:58 UTC 2015-05-25 - doc.EMSC

Earthquake of M 4.7 - GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, ECUADOR - 6:58 UTC 2015-05-25 - doc.EMSC

The explosion was accompanied by an eruptive plume amount in the early hours of 10 to 15 km.

The fissure eruption affects the SSE upper flank of the volcano, and supplies several lava flows moving towards the sea.

Wolf - 25.05.2015 - lava flows - Foto cortesía Diego Paredes, naturalista guía of DPNG.

Wolf - 25.05.2015 - lava flows - Foto cortesía Diego Paredes, naturalista guía of DPNG.

Wolf - 25.05.2015 - eruption in the ranges of the visible & IR by the satellite Goes - in blue, the outline of the islands - via cimss.ssec.wisc.edu

Wolf - 25.05.2015 - eruption in the ranges of the visible & IR by the satellite Goes - in blue, the outline of the islands - via cimss.ssec.wisc.edu

Thermal anomalies at the Wolf volcano on 25 & 05.26.2015 - doc.MIROVA / MODIS VRP

Thermal anomalies at the Wolf volcano on 25 & 05.26.2015 - doc.MIROVA / MODIS VRP

The event is lowered on May 26, and is not threatening locals, tourists, or the endemic population of pink iguanas - (Parque Nacional Galapagos)
 

The island Isabela / Galapagos and its 6 volcanoes - doc.from NASA /  NM22-723-69

The island Isabela / Galapagos and its 6 volcanoes - doc.from NASA / NM22-723-69

The Wolf Volcano is the highest volcano in the Galapagos archipelago, with 1,710 meters. This shield volcano has slopes over the other volcanoes in the archipelago, and has an extensive summit caldera, 6km. x 7. The last eruption on date according to GVP is from 28 August to 6 September 1982, and concerned the caldera and the SE flank.

 

Sources :

 - IGEPN - rapport 25.05.2015 - link

 - Parque Nacional Galapagos

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Eruption of Piton de la Fournaise - lava fountain 17 May 2015 - photo www.lionelghighi.com ®

Eruption of Piton de la Fournaise - lava fountain 17 May 2015 - photo www.lionelghighi.com ®

Latest niews from the OVPF:

At Piton de la Fournaise, the level of tremor remains constant for 24 hours, five times less than at the start of the eruption. The summit area remains under stress, without significant subsidence. Sulfur dioxide plume covers southern Enclosure, the Plain of Kaffirs, Le Tampon, and the drainage towards the coast.

 

Piton de la Fournaise - monitoring of tremor to the station FOR 05.19.2015 / 17h loc. - Doc. OVPF

Piton de la Fournaise - monitoring of tremor to the station FOR 05.19.2015 / 17h loc. - Doc. OVPF

The presence of summital VT earthquakes been studies of the Observatory. According to Nicolas Villeneuve (on Clicanoo), they could characterize a phase prior to going back to work, or things deeper not yet well mastered.

Regarding the lava flows: Only a flow remains active in the East, fueled by a unique fountain. The lava front has reached an altitude of 1,100 meters, and traveled some 750 meters in 24 hours, and  slowly advance in the Great Slopes.

Sources: OVPF - local media

 

"Red Carpet" for La Fournaise - photo Kelly Millot / 05.18.2015 / Coral Helicopters

"Red Carpet" for La Fournaise - photo Kelly Millot / 05.18.2015 / Coral Helicopters

Map of flows of the Piton de la Fournaise on 19.05.2015 / to 13h - in Yellow: GPS points - in Black: being cooled lava flow - in Red: active lava flow - Doc. OVPF

Map of flows of the Piton de la Fournaise on 19.05.2015 / to 13h - in Yellow: GPS points - in Black: being cooled lava flow - in Red: active lava flow - Doc. OVPF

Chile's Chaiten has been set technical alerts "Amarillo / instability of the volcano" on 19 May 2015, following a slight increase in seismic activity:

- A greater number of earthquakes long time, in relation to the fluid dynamics in volcanic conduits,

- the presence of VT / volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with fracturation of rocks,

- and hybrid earthquakes.

The most energetic earthquake presents a local magnitude of 3.6 on the Richter scale.

The dome complex present a glow.

Sources:  SERNAGEOMIN & Onemi



The SERNAGEOMIN the alert levels, and hazard map - by Sernageomin .

Chaiten volcano - photo Onemi

Chaiten volcano - photo Onemi

The alert levels, and hazard map - by Sernageomin
The alert levels, and hazard map - by Sernageomin

The alert levels, and hazard map - by Sernageomin

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Piton de La Fournaise erupted this May 17, 2015 - photo Officiel Reunitoo, the first web portal of the Reunion Island

Piton de La Fournaise erupted this May 17, 2015 - photo Officiel Reunitoo, the first web portal of the Reunion Island

Between 13 and 16 May, the OVPF recorded 92 summital earthquakes VT  (between 500 m. below sea level and 500 m. above) and 90 deep VT earthquakes (below sea level) to the Piton de la Fournaise / La Réunion . The deformations at the base of the summit cone show inflation.

On 17 May, between 4 am and 8 am, 43 summital VT earthquakes are recorded; between 11 and 12:30, the number of earthquakes VT passes 200 !.
Access to Enclos is closed from 11:30.

Around 12:50, a seismic crisis begin with 5-7 earthquakes a minute, and OVPF record significant deformation on the crater rim. The rash begins around 1:45 p.m. local, making activate by the Prefecture the ORSEC-Volcans alert level 2,  to 14 h ..


 

Number of deep and top volcano-tectonic earthquakes between 13 and May 16 - Doc. OVPF

Number of deep and top volcano-tectonic earthquakes between 13 and May 16 - Doc. OVPF

Piton de la Fournaise / 17.05.2015 - On the left, the eruption seen by the webcam Piton Bert at 11:02 am TU; right by the webcam Piton Partage at  3:22 p.m. TU - a clic to enlargePiton de la Fournaise / 17.05.2015 - On the left, the eruption seen by the webcam Piton Bert at 11:02 am TU; right by the webcam Piton Partage at  3:22 p.m. TU - a clic to enlarge

Piton de la Fournaise / 17.05.2015 - On the left, the eruption seen by the webcam Piton Bert at 11:02 am TU; right by the webcam Piton Partage at 3:22 p.m. TU - a clic to enlarge

Early difficult to observe due to cloud cover, the first images of the eruption come from the webcam of Piton Bert. By early afternoon, the clouds dissipate and allow to a helicopter flight over by the local media.

The eruption is located inside the Enclos, between Dolomieu crater and Château Fort. Two lava flows are visible.

 

Piton de la Fournaise - 05.17.2015 - lava flows seen by helicopter - photo Officiel Reunitoo, the first web portal of the Reunion Island.

Piton de la Fournaise - 05.17.2015 - lava flows seen by helicopter - photo Officiel Reunitoo, the first web portal of the Reunion Island.

Clic twice to see the animation !

The last eruption of the Piton de la Fournaise on 4 February 2015 and ended on 15 February. (GVP)

Sources:
- Reports of OVPF

- médias locaux : Officiel Reunitoo, le premier portail internet de l'Ile de la Réunion. - Imazpress - L'Info.re - Clicanoo  / via  leurs sites propres & Twitter , Facebook.

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Little change regarding the ongoing eruption: the activity appears to decrease, as indicated by a tremor curve fall.
 

Etna: it seems to settle !

The 15th was marked by an emission of ashes by the Bocca Nuova, likely due to collapses in connection with the drainage of lava by the eruption and the resulting changes in the plumbing system.
 

Etna : ash emissions at NSEC and the Bocca Nuova (left of picture), the 15/05/2015 to 11:30 and 11:49 - webcams radioStudio7
Etna : ash emissions at NSEC and the Bocca Nuova (left of picture), the 15/05/2015 to 11:30 and 11:49 - webcams radioStudio7

Etna : ash emissions at NSEC and the Bocca Nuova (left of picture), the 15/05/2015 to 11:30 and 11:49 - webcams radioStudio7

The lava flow has remained very bright during the night,  the flow reaching the altitude of 1800 meters after a travel of about 4,500 meters; the main dish arm is directed to the central part of the Valle del Bove.

Etna: "Heaven and Hell", the luminescence of the lava flow  15/05/2015 - photo Alfio Landro on Twitter

Etna: "Heaven and Hell", the luminescence of the lava flow 15/05/2015 - photo Alfio Landro on Twitter

 Etna : situation 16/05/2015 at dawn - photo Turi Caggegi / iEtna

Etna : situation 16/05/2015 at dawn - photo Turi Caggegi / iEtna

According Carmelo Ferlito, volcanologist and professor at the University of Catania, one must notice differences compared with the activity of Etna during the past decade. Referring to the volume emitted of lava, he describes the eruption of "huge", with higher emission rates to 40-50 m³ by second over two days (interview MeridioNews).

The 16th in the morning, the issue of discrete amounts of ash suggests a resting phase, ... but the volcano is the boss !.
 

Etna - ash emissions reduction - photo Turi Caggegi / iEtna

Etna - ash emissions reduction - photo Turi Caggegi / iEtna

Sources :

- INGV Catania

- médias : Etna Walk - iEtna - Etna web - MeridioNews

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Etna NSEC - 14.05.2015 / to 5h - Photo © Alessandro Lo Piccolo - all rights reserved

Etna NSEC - 14.05.2015 / to 5h - Photo © Alessandro Lo Piccolo - all rights reserved

The strombolian and effusive activity marked the new southeast cone of Etna  during the day on 14.05 and the next night.

Loud explosions were audible until Catania, and projections amount to 100-150 meters above the edge of the NSEC. The wind turned and the high humidity makes the visibility poor. The ashes were scattered over more Misterbianco and Viagrande.

The lava flow, well fed, reached the Monte Simone, at the foot of the north wall of the Valle del Bove, and continues down the slope. Its length is estimated at over 4,000 meters, and reached the altitude 2,000.


The NSEC the slopes of Mount Etna in day - reduces wind visibility - photo © G.Distefano / EtnaWalk
 

The NSEC the slopes of Mount Etna in day - the wind reduces the visibility - photo © G.Distefano / EtnaWalk

The NSEC the slopes of Mount Etna in day - the wind reduces the visibility - photo © G.Distefano / EtnaWalk

Etna NSEC - strombolian activity with projection of a scoria ring and degasification at the top level of the lava flow - Photo from Serracozzo by © Orazio Furia / guide Hiking / Etna Hike

Etna NSEC - strombolian activity with projection of a scoria ring and degasification at the top level of the lava flow - Photo from Serracozzo by © Orazio Furia / guide Hiking / Etna Hike

 Progression of the lava flow on the thermal camera of Monte Cagliato - Doc. INGV Catania Progression of the lava flow on the thermal camera of Monte Cagliato - Doc. INGV Catania Progression of the lava flow on the thermal camera of Monte Cagliato - Doc. INGV Catania

Progression of the lava flow on the thermal camera of Monte Cagliato - Doc. INGV Catania

Etna NSEC - the lava flow reaches the Cote 2000 on the evening of 14/05/15 - Photo © Turi Caggegi / iEtna

Etna NSEC - the lava flow reaches the Cote 2000 on the evening of 14/05/15 - Photo © Turi Caggegi / iEtna

Etna NSEC - 14.05.2015 / 10:30 p.m. - Photo © Alessandro Lo Piccolo - all rights reserved

Etna NSEC - 14.05.2015 / 10:30 p.m. - Photo © Alessandro Lo Piccolo - all rights reserved

The curve of the tremor shows a slight decrease during the day, then go up ... while remaining at sufficiently high values, reflecting the continued eruption.

At midday, Mirova reports an anomaly thermiaque described as "very high".

Etna - curve of tremor on 05/15/15 at 4:55 loc - Doc. INGV Catania

Etna - curve of tremor on 05/15/15 at 4:55 loc - Doc. INGV Catania

 Etna - Thermal anomaly on 14.05.2015 / at 12:40 signaled by Mirova / MODIS log VRP

Etna - Thermal anomaly on 14.05.2015 / at 12:40 signaled by Mirova / MODIS log VRP

Sources :

- INGV Catania

- les sites iEtna - EtnaWalk - Etna sur FB

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
 Marine deep environment of Loki's Castle, a geothermal vent on the Mid-Atlantic - Credit RB-Pedersen Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen

Marine deep environment of Loki's Castle, a geothermal vent on the Mid-Atlantic - Credit RB-Pedersen Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen

In marine sediments of the Arctic, specifically on geothermal area of ​​Loki's Castle, a new life form was discovered by scientists at Uppsala University in Sweden.

It comes into effect in any classification established to identify life on Earth ... and may well be the missing link of evolution. His name : Lokiarchaeota.

Living beings are classified into two basic categories: prokaryotes, whose cell structure does not contain nuclei appeared there are 4 billion years, and eukaryotes, or animals, plants, fungi and some unicellular, having a cell nucleus. Eukaryotes are further characterized by the presence of mitochondria sort of battery energy.

Left, illustration made by computer of the bacterial cells - Doc. Corbis - right, location of Loki's Castle on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Left, illustration made by computer of the bacterial cells - Doc. Corbis - right, location of Loki's Castle on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Left, illustration made by computer of the bacterial cells - Doc. Corbis - right, location of Loki's Castle on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

The Lokiarchaeota, simplified in "Loki", has no mitochondria but its genetic heritage contains genes linked to the presence of certain proteins found only in eukaryotes.

"The eukaryotes and archaea would share common ancestors," said G. Thijs Ettema, at the origine of discovery. It is possible that the "Loki" uses its skeleton to crawl over surfaces.

The Lochiarchaeota was found on the seabed about 10 km from the hydrothermal vent called Loki's Castle, located on the mid-Atlantic ridge between Greenland and Norway at a depth of 2,352 meters. The "Loki", however, poses a problem: the found microbes die before scientists are able to study them. Their slow growth in difficult environment does not allow them a cell division every ten years ... inconceivable in laboratory studies.

The challenge will now be to find "Loki-like" having a more recent lineage with eukaryotes, and try to rebuild their genomes to find additional pieces to the complex puzzle of the origins of life.

 

Nearly Loki's Castle - Doc. Pedersen RB / Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen

Nearly Loki's Castle - Doc. Pedersen RB / Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen

This demonstrates the influence and importance of deep geothermal areas on the origins and evolution of life on Earth.

 

Sources :

- New York times science - Under the Sea, a Missing Link in the Evolution of Complex Cells - link

- The Independent - Discovery of 'missing link' between the two main life-forms on Earth could explain evolution of animals, say scientists - link

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