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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

actualites volcaniques

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Eruption of the Calbuco 04/22/2015 - photo Keraunos ob.

Eruption of the Calbuco 04/22/2015 - photo Keraunos ob.

Some details about the situation in Chile following the eruption of Calbuco:

According to the National Director of SERNAGEOMIN, Rodrigo Álvarez Seguel, hundreds of earthquakes were recorded during the two impulses, respectively initiated the 22.04 to 18h, and 01h at around 23.04 am, the second series being of highest energy.

Depending on the analysis of information obtained by monitoring stations, we can not rule out other eruptive episodes ... the alert remains maximum, to red, and the restriction zone is maintained at 20 km. around the crater

 

20 km restriction zone. around Calbuco established by the SERNAGEOMIN

20 km restriction zone. around Calbuco established by the SERNAGEOMIN

The first satellite images tell us about the dispersion of the ash cloud, taken by the satellite Terra Modis on one hand, and also show us the mesospheric gravity waves ( airglow waves) in the plume, at the time where the initial plume penetrated the stratosphere to spread laterally, photos taken by the satellite Suomi NPP / CIMSS.

 

Eruption of Calbuco - scattering of ashes to the E and NW - Image Terra Modis 04.23.2015 / 14h

Eruption of Calbuco - scattering of ashes to the E and NW - Image Terra Modis 04.23.2015 / 14h

On the left, dispersion of the ash cloud over the past 8 hours. / 04.23.2015 - right, location of urban areas near the Calbuco - one click to enlarge.On the left, dispersion of the ash cloud over the past 8 hours. / 04.23.2015 - right, location of urban areas near the Calbuco - one click to enlarge.

On the left, dispersion of the ash cloud over the past 8 hours. / 04.23.2015 - right, location of urban areas near the Calbuco - one click to enlarge.

Eruption of Calbuco - the plume seen by the sat. GOES 13 22.041.2015

Eruption of Calbuco - the plume seen by the sat. GOES 13 22.041.2015

Photo top: 2015.04.23 /  - (minus) 101 ° C, the minimum analyzed the top of the volcanic plume temperature in the stratosphere by Suomi NPP satellite NASA on 04/23/2015 at 5:13 TU.- photo below: gravity waves photographed by the same satellite.
Photo top: 2015.04.23 /  - (minus) 101 ° C, the minimum analyzed the top of the volcanic plume temperature in the stratosphere by Suomi NPP satellite NASA on 04/23/2015 at 5:13 TU.- photo below: gravity waves photographed by the same satellite.

Photo top: 2015.04.23 / - (minus) 101 ° C, the minimum analyzed the top of the volcanic plume temperature in the stratosphere by Suomi NPP satellite NASA on 04/23/2015 at 5:13 TU.- photo below: gravity waves photographed by the same satellite.

Falls of lapilli and ash reached more than 50 to 60 cm. in the areas close under the winds, as in Ensenada (15 km from the volcano. - see above chart), causing major disruptions to traffic and some roof collapses (40 cm ash by weight are around 600- 800 kg / m²); in the distal regions of Los Rios and Araucani, the layer of ash was millimeter order.
 

On the left, lapilli layer on the road to Ensenada - Photo twitter / Víavauxhalland_I - right, damage by falling roof under the weight of ash - photo CIMAT - both taken on 23.04.2015On the left, lapilli layer on the road to Ensenada - Photo twitter / Víavauxhalland_I - right, damage by falling roof under the weight of ash - photo CIMAT - both taken on 23.04.2015

On the left, lapilli layer on the road to Ensenada - Photo twitter / Víavauxhalland_I - right, damage by falling roof under the weight of ash - photo CIMAT - both taken on 23.04.2015

Pets are not forgotten by the emergency services - Doc. CIMAT

Pets are not forgotten by the emergency services - Doc. CIMAT

More than 4,100 people were evacuated after the first eruption of 22.04. To prevent theft and looting in abandoned homes and businesses, a curfew was put in place in Puerto Montt, Puerto Varas and Puerto Octay from 11:45 p.m. to 5am.

Classes remain suspended on April 24 in various communes of Puyehue (El Encanto, Salta Elvira) and Los Lagos (Puerto Varas, Puerto Montt, Llanquihue, Frutillar, Puerto Octay, Cochamó and Hualaihué) and in the Los Rios region for the cities of Choshuenco, Neltume, Puerto Fuy, Liquiñe, Coñaripe, Pirihueico, Riñinahue, Mantilhue and Rucatayo. (CIMAT)

Despite the suddenness and violence of the eruption, one does not count a victim !  Waldo Flores, a andiniste 21 year old, who was at the time of the eruption in a shelter, and considered as missing / presumed dead, was found.

An overview of Calbuco was conducted to ascertain the impact of the eruptions 23.04 at 8am. Ten minutes later, the ash column reached 11 km. height.


 

Calbuco this 04.23.2015 / - 2015.04.23 - .desde el helicópterodondatos RT / Twitter

Calbuco this 04.23.2015 / - 2015.04.23 - .desde el helicópterodondatos RT / Twitter

Sources:
- Sernageomin
- La Nacion
- C.I.M.A.T. (facebook)
- Gravity Waves Associated with a Volcanic Eruption (CIMSS Satellite Blog)

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
 The caldera of Sierra Negra / Galapagos - photo http://ishpingotours.com

The caldera of Sierra Negra / Galapagos - photo http://ishpingotours.com

Usually little news from volcanoes of the Galapagos Islands.

A report by the IGEPN of April 20, 2015 reminds us that on these hotspot islands, particularly on Isabela, volcanoes remain active. Seismicity of the Sierra Negra volcano has increased since early April, with 12.04, more than 80 earthquakes per day.

 

Sierra Negra - March and April 2015 seismicity - Doc. IGEPN - click to open the PNG file

Sierra Negra - March and April 2015 seismicity - Doc. IGEPN - click to open the PNG file

Sierra Negra on Island Isabela / Galapagos - NASA interferogram (IGEPN - cortesía del Dr. Paul Lundgren - NASA).

Sierra Negra on Island Isabela / Galapagos - NASA interferogram (IGEPN - cortesía del Dr. Paul Lundgren - NASA).

On the other hand, an interferogram of NASA, including images taken in March 2013 and March 2015, reveals the inflation in the Sierra Negra area approaching a meter in size, linked to a shallow magmatic intrusion.

National Park rangers are reporting an increase in the fumerollian flow and sulfur odors. On April 18, a thermal warning was recorded.

 

Sierra Negra, the Volcán de Azufre - photo GabeD / Flickr

Sierra Negra, the Volcán de Azufre - photo GabeD / Flickr

The Sierra Negra volcano is a basaltic shield with a large caldera 7km x 10.5 km, deep a hundred meters. A long winding ridge 14 km occupies the western part of the caldera floor and in a graben between the ridge and the western wall of the caldera, lies the largest fumerollian area of the  Galapagos, always active: the Volcán de Azufre.

At least 12 eruptions have been recorded in historical times, and the last date of October 2005, of VEI 3.

Sierra Negra - left, the 23.10.2005, the 2nd day of the eruption - photo Minard Hall EPN - right, on 24.10.2005, on the 3rd day of the eruption - photo Gregg Estes / GVPSierra Negra - left, the 23.10.2005, the 2nd day of the eruption - photo Minard Hall EPN - right, on 24.10.2005, on the 3rd day of the eruption - photo Gregg Estes / GVP

Sierra Negra - left, the 23.10.2005, the 2nd day of the eruption - photo Minard Hall EPN - right, on 24.10.2005, on the 3rd day of the eruption - photo Gregg Estes / GVP

Sierra Negra eruption 2005 - position of the eruptive fissure, the active vent, the small lava lake feeding the cast (in red), and lava flows with directions (in orange) - doc D.Geist et al.

Sierra Negra eruption 2005 - position of the eruptive fissure, the active vent, the small lava lake feeding the cast (in red), and lava flows with directions (in orange) - doc D.Geist et al.

Sierra Negra - inflation from the center of the caldera between the last two eruptions in 1979 and 2005, in support interferograms - Doc. Nasa

Sierra Negra - inflation from the center of the caldera between the last two eruptions in 1979 and 2005, in support interferograms - Doc. Nasa

Sierra Negra - 2005 eruption: interferograms from J-12 to D + 34 - and lava flows evolution - Doc. Nasa

Sierra Negra - 2005 eruption: interferograms from J-12 to D + 34 - and lava flows evolution - Doc. Nasa

Sources :

- IGEPN - Informe Volcánico Especial Galápagos – Sierra Negra Nº 1 - 2015

- The 2005 eruption of Sierra Negra volcano, Galápagos, Ecuador – by Dennis J. Geist & al.

- Global Volcanism Program - Sierra Negra

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Chipped stone artifacts discovered in north-western Kenya, in the region of Lake Turkana suggests that human ancestors sewed tools there are 3.3 million years, about 700,000 years ago that 'no one had established. Researchers have uncovered more than a hundred splinters, "hearts" (or initial blocks) and "anvils" that could be the signing of a very archaic workshop size of prehistoric tools.


These tools were described this week by Sonia Harmand and his team during a meeting of the Paleoanthropology Society in San Francisco.

 Satellite view of Lake Turkana, the "Jade Sea" in the Kenyan Rift

Satellite view of Lake Turkana, the "Jade Sea" in the Kenyan Rift

After first excavations in 2011, a new excavation of the site was conducted in 2012 with a National Geographic financing.

The ecosystem of Turkana lake, dubbed the "Jade Sea", inherited from prehistory is special: the lake is fed to the north by the Ethiopian rivers; ventless and located in a desert region where the temperature sometimes reaches 50 ° C, the lake is concentrated in salt. In this unique environment, there are Nile perch, hippos, and the largest crocodile population in the world. This lake was a favorable living environment for ancestral tribes.

South of Lake Turkana, the "Naboiyaton", a stomach of the elephant as it is called indigenous, is a low volcanic cone born there are tens of thousands of years of the meeting between the magma, making its way to the surface through the fractures of the rift, and the waters of the lake. Small volcanoes arose afterwards on earth and the lava flows came to stop against the back of Naboiyaton.

 

The Naboiyaton on Lake Turkana - photo Michael Poliza, National Geographic Creative

The Naboiyaton on Lake Turkana - photo Michael Poliza, National Geographic Creative

Hominid discovered in the African rift is and Chad - doc.http: //linearpopulationmodel.blogspot.be/

Hominid discovered in the African rift is and Chad - doc.http: //linearpopulationmodel.blogspot.be/

But back millions of years back : The first discoveries in the area date back to 1972, when Richard Leakey found a skull to Koobi Fora on the eastern shore of the lake, whose age was estimated at about 2 Ma and was defined as Homo rudolfensis, from another name of Turkana, Lake Rudolf.

In 1984 Kamova Kimeu discovered a nearly complete skeleton on the west bank, nicknamed "Turkana boy", defined as Homo ergaster.

In 1998, the team of Maeve Leakey discovered the skull to define a new genus and a new species, nearly Lomekwi: the Kenyanthropus platyops, the flat-faced man of Kenya.

 

Cranial remains of Kenyanthropus and reconstitution of the bust - -doc. HominidsCranial remains of Kenyanthropus and reconstitution of the bust - -doc. Hominids

Cranial remains of Kenyanthropus and reconstitution of the bust - -doc. Hominids

To how Technology of the Stone Age attribute this discovery?

The paleomagnetic dating of sediment where the artifacts were found gave them 3.3 Ma ... is 700,000 years older than those discovered at Gona, in the Afar triangle in Ethiopia (dated at 2.6 Ma ago), and connected to the technology called Oldowan (2.6 to 1.7 Ma).

Sonia Harmand proposed to the meeting of the Paleoanthropology Society for a new term, given that the tools found predated the existence of the genus Homo, probably made by one of the members of the genus
Kenyanthropus or Australopithecus (Lucy). The proposed term is a technology called Lomekwian, distinct and older than the Oldowan technology.

Out technical data that may seem off-putting, this discovery ahead of hundreds of thousands of years making tools by the pre-hominids, some tests before this activity becomes a strong tradition ... and in the tectonic and volcanic environment of the Great Rift Valley is African.

 

Sources :

- National Geographic - Oldest Stone Tools Discovered in Kenya / 3.3-million-year-old artifacts reveal primitive ancestors like “Lucy” may have been capable of tool-making.

- World's Oldest Stone Tools are Older than Modern Humans - by Arthur D. Villasanta

- Hominidés - Kenyanthropus platyops

- Hominidés - Premiers outils de la préhistoire

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

The annual meeting of the EGU - European Geosciences Union - to Vienna highlights the puzzles that characterize the subsurface Vogtland.
The Vogtland region, south-east of Germany in the triangle Bavaria-Saxony-Bohemia, is known for its hot springs and numerous earthquakes.

The volcanism of Vogtland in the EGU meeting.

From 1985-1986, more than 90% of the seismic activity is released into the area of ​​Novy Kostel. The location of hypocenters directly under the NKC station (Novy Kostel) suggests a new place activated on the plane of the fault Novy Kostel.
In previous years, scientists have noted an increase of magma movements towards the surface in the Cheb Basin. These magmatic lifts could be the cause of these seismic swarms, which also hit the Vogtland, northwestern Bohemia and the upper Palatinate.
A change has emerged in recent decades with shorter seismic swarms, but of more high magnitude. On May 24, 2014, a 3.5 magnitude earthquake was recorded, followed on May 3 by another earthquake of M 4.5, felt in Leipzig and Bavaria. Scientists at Karls-Universität of Prague does not explain these changes.

 

Seismic swarms in Bohemia and Vogtland - Epicentres from 1991 to 1999 and regional faults - Doc. A.Peterek - NKC: seismographs Novy Kostel

Seismic swarms in Bohemia and Vogtland - Epicentres from 1991 to 1999 and regional faults - Doc. A.Peterek - NKC: seismographs Novy Kostel

They spotted together after the earthquake of 2014 an increased diffusion of volcanic gas.
Following the earthquake, and the opening of new routes for gas, the activity level has increased in the "mofettes".
In recent years, the proportion of helium-3, formed in depth, increased relative to the helium-4.
Both parameters show an increase of the magmatic activity in deep ... no signs of a volcanic awakening however imminent !

Measurements show that an accumulation of glassy rocks exist between 30 and 60 km deep, relic of volcanic activity, hotspot intraplate-type, dating back some 300,000 years.

The region of Frantiskovy Lazne (Bohemia) near Novy Kostel, has areas with active mofettes, including one called "Bublák" (the "gouglouteur").

The region of Frantiskovy Lazne (Bohemia) near Novy Kostel, has areas with active mofettes, including one called "Bublák" (the "gouglouteur").

"Deep Roots" of intra-plate volcanism beneath young Europeans volcanic fields, based on seismic tomography. - Doc. from "Volcanism" H-U Schmincke.

"Deep Roots" of intra-plate volcanism beneath young Europeans volcanic fields, based on seismic tomography. - Doc. from "Volcanism" H-U Schmincke.

Interaction between the magma and CO2 causing its ascent to mofettes and mineral water springs in Bohemia. - Doc. UFZ

Interaction between the magma and CO2 causing its ascent to mofettes and mineral water springs in Bohemia. - Doc. UFZ

It must be remembered that two volcanoes dated quaternary are close: the Komorní hůrka (the galleries Hill), also known as Kammerbühl and Železná ůrka (Iron Hill) - or Eisenbühl.
 

The Kammerbühl - photo Geopark CZ

The Kammerbühl - photo Geopark CZ

The Eisenbühl - photo Atlas ceska

The Eisenbühl - photo Atlas ceska

Sources :

- Der Spiegel on line - Aufsteigende Gase: Der unheimliche Atem des Vogtland-Vulkans

- Combined gas-geochemical and receiver  function studies of the Vogtland / NW Bohemia intraplate mantle degassing field, Central Europe – by H.Kämpf & al.

- GFU - Geofyzikální ústav AVČR - Institute of Geophysics ASCR - link  

- Zitternde Erde – Die - Schwarmbeben in Nordwestböhmen - par A. Peterek & R.Schunk - link

- Volcanism - de H.-U. Schmincke - éd. Springer

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

During the last week,  the seismic activity of the Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, is typical volcano-tectonics, associated with fracturing of rock inside the volcano. Earthquakes are located mainly in the north-northeast of the crater between 500 meters and 7,500 meters deep. In relation to the dynamics of fluids in pipes, low energy seismic activity and tremor episodes marks the south of the Arenas crater.
The Nevado del Ruiz continues to emit large amounts of steam and gas with a column amount up to 1,800 meters above the volcano, sometimes loaded with a little ash.

Nevado del Ruiz - earthquakes of 14/04/2015 - Doc. SGS / Observatorio Manizales

Nevado del Ruiz - earthquakes of 14/04/2015 - Doc. SGS / Observatorio Manizales

On April 14, at 7:39 p.m., volcanic tremor drive, followed by continuous tremor is detected in connection with an emission of ash and a possible drop of them on the northwest of the volcano, because unconfirmed observation conditions.
The camera in the Piraña sector shows a column of gas and ash morning of April 15, 2015.
Source: SGS / Observatorio Manizales

 

Nevado del Ruiz - plume of gas and ash from 04.15.2015 - photo SGS / Observatorio Manizales

Nevado del Ruiz - plume of gas and ash from 04.15.2015 - photo SGS / Observatorio Manizales

In Sinabung / Sumatra, the growth of the lava lobe continues.
Lahars characterized by a high concentration of blocks are recorded on 15 April. (See also article of yesterday)

 

Sinabung from Tiga Pancur - photo Sadrah ps 04/15/2015

Sinabung from Tiga Pancur - photo Sadrah ps 04/15/2015

Sinabung - the lahar 15/04/2015 - photos endrolew @
Sinabung - the lahar 15/04/2015 - photos endrolew @

Sinabung - the lahar 15/04/2015 - photos endrolew @

In Ecuador, on 15 April at 16:08, Tungurahua experienced an explosion that was accompanied by a column of ash rising to 3,000 meters above the crater. An episode of tremor followed the explosion, and a continuous emission of ash 2,000 meters above the crater, continuing until at least 17.20.
Source: IGEPN

 

The Tungurahua 15.04.2015 / 4:20 p.m. - photo José Luis Espinosa-Naranjo

The Tungurahua 15.04.2015 / 4:20 p.m. - photo José Luis Espinosa-Naranjo

In Peru, the Ubinas continues his ash emissions ... raising fears of new lahars in inclement weather (see article of yesterday).
Source: webcam OVI / INGEMMET

 

Ubinas - plume of gas and ash, with discharge on the sides - 04.15.2015 / 10:07 - webcam OVI / INGEMMET

Ubinas - plume of gas and ash, with discharge on the sides - 04.15.2015 / 10:07 - webcam OVI / INGEMMET

In Mexico, Colima continues to regularly produce explosions, which are accompanied by ash falls on the Jalisco 15.04
 

Explosions in the Colima on14.04 at 12:32 and on 15.04 at 12:16 - Webcams Mexico / Retuit
Explosions in the Colima on14.04 at 12:32 and on 15.04 at 12:16 - Webcams Mexico / Retuit

Explosions in the Colima on14.04 at 12:32 and on 15.04 at 12:16 - Webcams Mexico / Retuit

To conclude this brief review of current events, a beautiful picture of Etna in the snow a few days ago, taken by Italian astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti on board the ISS.
 

Etna in snow - photo Sam Cristoforetti / ISS / 2015

Etna in snow - photo Sam Cristoforetti / ISS / 2015

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Collateral damage of volcanic eruptions, lahars have recently marked different locations : in Peru and Sumatra.

In Peru, it is the sides of the Ubinas volcano have been covered by the mixture of mud and rock blocks on 12 and 13. April. The ash deposits from the explosions of Ubinas since April 8 were remobilized by heavy rains on 10 and 11 April, and by the waters of melting snow.

 

Vidéo IGP

On the island of Sumatra, the tireless activity of Sinabung and precipitations caused lahars that hit in recent days communities already hard hit by the ash fallout.

 

Lahar of the Sinabung 12/04/2015 - photo Teger Tiganderket / via Beidar Sinabung

Lahar of the Sinabung 12/04/2015 - photo Teger Tiganderket / via Beidar Sinabung

 Lahar of the Sinabung 12/04/2015 - photo Beidar Sinabung

Lahar of the Sinabung 12/04/2015 - photo Beidar Sinabung

Lahar on 04.14.2015 / 16:30 - Sinabung - photo Sandri Sukatendel

Lahar on 04.14.2015 / 16:30 - Sinabung - photo Sandri Sukatendel

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Zaosan - the Okama crater and his crater lake - photo Wiki

Zaosan - the Okama crater and his crater lake - photo Wiki

JMA has set an alert for the area around the crater Zaosan this April 13, because of the potential risk of minor eruption.
 

Warning to the vicinity of the crater Zaosan 04/13/2015 - Doc. JMA

Warning to the vicinity of the crater Zaosan 04/13/2015 - Doc. JMA

The Zaosan volcanic group is located in the northeast of the main island Honshu, in the Japanese archipelago.

It includes a series of stratovolcanoes aligned NW-SE, Chuo-Zao groups (Kaosan), Minami-Zao, Nishi-Zao (Ryuzan) and Kita-Zao groups (Ganto-yama and Kamuro-dake).

Topography of Zaosan - commonly divided into Minami Zao (south), Chuo Zao (center), Nishi Zao (west) and Kita Zao (north) - Map GSJ / N.Nakajima

Topography of Zaosan - commonly divided into Minami Zao (south), Chuo Zao (center), Nishi Zao (west) and Kita Zao (north) - Map GSJ / N.Nakajima

The Kaosan itself is a central volcanic complex, wearing several lava domes and a tuff cone, the Goshikidake.
The latter houses the active crater Okama / or Goryu-dake, filled with a green and acidic lake (pH 1.3), formed by an eruption in the 1720s, and source of most of the historical eruptions. Of 360 meters wide and 60 meters deep, it periodically changes of color, muddy deposits on its floor being disturbed by gas emissions ... which earned him the nickname of "five color pond".

The Zaosan, seen from the city of Sendai - photo GSJ / Ohba

The Zaosan, seen from the city of Sendai - photo GSJ / Ohba

Zaosan and Okama crater - photo H.Seo / Geological Survey of Japan / AIST

Zaosan and Okama crater - photo H.Seo / Geological Survey of Japan / AIST

 Zaosan: the Okama crater lake - aerial photo NeuroPower

Zaosan: the Okama crater lake - aerial photo NeuroPower

Besides the photogenic appearance of Okama Lake, the place is known for its winter "snow monsters".
Siberian winds on Lake flood with water droplets the surrounding trees, Aomori fir, and give them a monster appearance. These monsters are the delight of skiers and snow boarders that slip among them, despite the cold.
 

Monsters of Zao - photo Radika Sooknarine / Japan Travel

Monsters of Zao - photo Radika Sooknarine / Japan Travel

A bonus for volcanostamp lovers :

Warning on Zaosan / Japan.Warning on Zaosan / Japan.

Sources :

- JMA

- GSJ - Geological Survey of Japan - Zao Zan

- Global Volcanism Program - Zaozan

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Etna - 04.12.2015 / 3:05 p.m. - photo Antonio Bruno / via EtnaNativo

Etna - 04.12.2015 / 3:05 p.m. - photo Antonio Bruno / via EtnaNativo

Quiet since early February, Etna issued yesterday an ash plume about 1,000 meters high at 03:05 p.m.; Origin seems to be at the Bocca Nuova. Two explosions were recorded by seismometers at 3:05 p.m. and 3:08 p.m., but the tremor plot shows no substantial variations. The values ​​of SO2 are quite low.
 

Etna -  the Bocca Nuova's plume seen by cameras from the INGV Catania - sismo INGVEtna -  the Bocca Nuova's plume seen by cameras from the INGV Catania - sismo INGVEtna -  the Bocca Nuova's plume seen by cameras from the INGV Catania - sismo INGV

Etna - the Bocca Nuova's plume seen by cameras from the INGV Catania - sismo INGV

Explosions at Etna and Ubinas

In Peru, Ubinas volcano presented two explosions on April 10 at 4:24 & 5:50, accompanied by plumes amount 2000-2500 meters above the crater. Of phreatic in nature, they were violent. Ash fallout affected the southeast, and Ubinas valley 15 km. (INGEMMET)
In the photos, ash plumes are visible during the day.

On April 12, the camera recorded the INGEMMET another explosion, and a significant plume.

 

Ubinas - 12.04.2015 / 8:30 - webcam OVI / INGEMMET

Ubinas - 12.04.2015 / 8:30 - webcam OVI / INGEMMET

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The top of the Popocatepetl 10.04.02015 - photo CENAPRED

The top of the Popocatepetl 10.04.02015 - photo CENAPRED

An overview of Popocatepetl / Mexico was conducted on April 10 by the teams of CENAPRED, assisted by the Policia Federal.

Good conditions of observations have confirmed the establishment between 24.03 and 04.04.2015 of a lava dome, the 56 °, at the bottom of the inner crater; its diameter is at least 250 meters for a thickness of 30 m. Its surface has a series of concentric fractures, and its central portion collapsed, indicating a deflation after its establishment. It will likely be destroyed in the coming days or weeks by an explosion, like its predecessors.

The alert level is Amarillo Phase 2, and access to recommended volcano.

Source: CENAPRED 04/11/2015

 

Popocatepetl - Internal crater and dome marked by concentric fractures - photo CENAPRED

Popocatepetl - Internal crater and dome marked by concentric fractures - photo CENAPRED

Tungurahua since Cruz Cotaló on 09/04/2015 - the volcano has at this time a white light emitting steam. - photo IGEPN

Tungurahua since Cruz Cotaló on 09/04/2015 - the volcano has at this time a white light emitting steam. - photo IGEPN

The warning level of Tungurahua / Ecuador has been noted in Naranja on April 11 for the area of ​​influence of the volcano by the Secretariat of Risk Management.

The IGEPN reported that the activity of the Tungurahua is considered as "high"; increased seismicity and ash falls were recorded, and the tremor (the 09.04) and a plume of ash and gas rising 600 meters above the crater.

The most likely scenario for the evolution proposed, similar to that characterizing the eruptive phase in February 2014, would be one or more high-energy explosions and release of large amounts of material in the form of a high eruption column of gas and ash ; possible pyroclastic flows will be dependent on the energy of explosions and of offending magma volume.

Source:

- IGEPN 04/10/2015

- SGR 04/10/2015

Location of LP earthquakes in recent months, and until 04.10.2015 / 11:30 - The majority of LP earthquakes are recorded between 1 and 3 km. beneath the crater ... Note: 2 LP major earthquake are located 6 km away. beneath the crater, which may indicate a new magma input. - Doc. IGEPN

Location of LP earthquakes in recent months, and until 04.10.2015 / 11:30 - The majority of LP earthquakes are recorded between 1 and 3 km. beneath the crater ... Note: 2 LP major earthquake are located 6 km away. beneath the crater, which may indicate a new magma input. - Doc. IGEPN

Survey of tilt meters from the station RETU 10/04/2015 - since April 4, an inflation phase of 20 microradians / day is noted. - Doc. IGEPN

Survey of tilt meters from the station RETU 10/04/2015 - since April 4, an inflation phase of 20 microradians / day is noted. - Doc. IGEPN

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Kamchatka - Shiveluch

The explosions follow one another in recent days Shiveluch, orange alert.
On April 10, two explosions were reported, the first around noon with a rising ash plume 7,000 meters and at 19:18, accompanied by a smaller plume.
On April 11, an ash plume is seen rising to over 6,000 meters
(KVERT)


 

Shiveluch - plume April 11, 2015 - photo Y.Demyanchuk / KVERT

Shiveluch - plume April 11, 2015 - photo Y.Demyanchuk / KVERT

Mexico - Colima

Explosive activity continues to Colima as the previous days, with on 10.04, ash falls reported in Jalisco

(webcamsdeMexico- Proteccio Civil Jalisco)
 

Colima - explosion 2015.04.10 / 8:03 p.m. - webcamsdeMexico

Colima - explosion 2015.04.10 / 8:03 p.m. - webcamsdeMexico

Chile - Villarrica

Seismicity remains high. Weak strombolian activity is reported in relation to the presence of an oscillating lava lake.
The system remains unstable.
(SERNAGEOMIN / OVDAS)

 

Villarica - Overview of 10 April 2015 and temperature measurement with the thermal camera - Doc. SERNAGEOMIN
Villarica - Overview of 10 April 2015 and temperature measurement with the thermal camera - Doc. SERNAGEOMIN

Villarica - Overview of 10 April 2015 and temperature measurement with the thermal camera - Doc. SERNAGEOMIN

Peru - Ubinas

After several months of calm, the eruptive activity resumed in Ubinas: OVS recorded a significant increase in seismicity since March 22 in connection with the ascent of magma. On April 8, a moderate explosion produced an ash plume rising to 2,500 meters before moving to the south-east, accompanied by ash fall from 1.5 mm to 6 km from the volcano.
The explosion was followed by continuous ash emissions, and a strong tremor.

The 09.04, activity has continued and even increased to 10 am local.
10.04, a large ash plume was visible on the images of the INGEMMET at 15:19.
(OVI - INGEMMET)

 

Ubinas - 04.08.2015 /  9:08 - photo OVI / INGEMMET

Ubinas - 04.08.2015 / 9:08 - photo OVI / INGEMMET

Ubinas - 08..04.2015 - Doc. VolcanoDiscovery Ubinas - 08..04.2015 - Doc. VolcanodiscoveryUbinas - 08..04.2015 - Doc. VolcanoDiscovery Ubinas - 08..04.2015 - Doc. Volcanodiscovery

Ubinas - 08..04.2015 - Doc. VolcanoDiscovery Ubinas - 08..04.2015 - Doc. Volcanodiscovery

Ubinas - 04.10.2015 / 3:19 p.m. - photo INGEMMET

Ubinas - 04.10.2015 / 3:19 p.m. - photo INGEMMET

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