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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

Résultat pour “kuchinoerabujima

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Satsuma-Iojima - photo archives 2018

Satsuma-Iojima - photo archives 2018

La Japan Meteorological Agency a relevé le niveau d'alerte du Satsuma-Iojima à 2 / ne pas s'approcher du cratère ce 2 novembre à 17h50 JST, suite à une éruption à 17h35 locale , accompagnée d'un panache de cendres qui a dépéssé les 1.000 mètres au dessus du cratère.

Les cendres se sont dispersées en direction du nord-ouest, avec de faibles retombées sur le village de Mishima.


 

Source JMA & VAAC Tokyo

Satsuma-Iojima - 02.11.2019 / 17h37-17h39 - Webcam JMA - un clic pour agrandirSatsuma-Iojima - 02.11.2019 / 17h37-17h39 - Webcam JMA - un clic pour agrandir

Satsuma-Iojima - 02.11.2019 / 17h37-17h39 - Webcam JMA - un clic pour agrandir

Localisation des volcans en alerte 2 et 3 au sud du Japon -  on remarque la proximité avec Kuchinoerabujima en alerte relévée cette semaine - carte JMA 02.11.2019

Localisation des volcans en alerte 2 et 3 au sud du Japon - on remarque la proximité avec Kuchinoerabujima en alerte relévée cette semaine - carte JMA 02.11.2019

Satsuma-Iojima - l'expression subaérienne de la caldeira Kikai inclue deux grandes îles :  Satsuma-Iojima (5,5 k long) et Take- shima (4,5 km long), et trois petites ôles : Unose, Asase et Showa Iojima -  From Fukashi Maeno (2008). GVP

Satsuma-Iojima - l'expression subaérienne de la caldeira Kikai inclue deux grandes îles : Satsuma-Iojima (5,5 k long) et Take- shima (4,5 km long), et trois petites ôles : Unose, Asase et Showa Iojima - From Fukashi Maeno (2008). GVP

Au Sakurajima, toujours en alerte 3 / ne pas s'approcher du volcan, plusieurs explosions se sont accompagnées de panaches entre 1.500 et 1.800 mètres au dessus du cratère ce 2 novembre ; le JMA relève les épisodes de 13h45 / panache de 1.500 m., de 17h51 / panache de 1.800 m., de 17h51 / panache de 1.500 m., et de 20h34 / panache de 1.500 m.

La dispersion des cendres s'est faite en direction NNE-NE

 

Source : JMA, VAAC Tokyo et MyKagoshima

Sakurajima - épisodes éruptifs du 2 novembre, respectivement à 13h51, 17h21 et 20h45 - images Webcam JMA - un clic pour agrandir
Sakurajima - épisodes éruptifs du 2 novembre, respectivement à 13h51, 17h21 et 20h45 - images Webcam JMA - un clic pour agrandirSakurajima - épisodes éruptifs du 2 novembre, respectivement à 13h51, 17h21 et 20h45 - images Webcam JMA - un clic pour agrandir

Sakurajima - épisodes éruptifs du 2 novembre, respectivement à 13h51, 17h21 et 20h45 - images Webcam JMA - un clic pour agrandir

Sakurajima - volcanic ash advisory du 02.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Sakurajima - volcanic ash advisory du 02.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Au Nevados de Chillan, la sismicité des dernières 24 heures est marquée par des séismes volcano-tectonques, le plus énergétique localisé à 3,4 km au nord-ouest du cratère actif et 3,2 km de profondeur, des séismes LP et VLP, et du trémor.

Les émissions de gaz et particules ont été épisodiques ; au cours de la nuit, les explosions ont projeté des matériaux incandescents autour du cratère.

Le niveau d'alerte reste à Naranja.

 

Source : Sernageomin / OVDAS

Nevados de Chillan - 02.11.2019 / à 8h58, par les webcams Portezuela et Andarivel / Sernageomin
Nevados de Chillan - 02.11.2019 / à 8h58, par les webcams Portezuela et Andarivel / Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - 02.11.2019 / à 8h58, par les webcams Portezuela et Andarivel / Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - épisode du 02.11.2019 / respevtivement à 10h18 et 11h53 - webcam Sernageomin - un clic pour agrandirNevados de Chillan - épisode du 02.11.2019 / respevtivement à 10h18 et 11h53 - webcam Sernageomin - un clic pour agrandir

Nevados de Chillan - épisode du 02.11.2019 / respevtivement à 10h18 et 11h53 - webcam Sernageomin - un clic pour agrandir

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques

Notre Terre est une planète géologiquement active ... deux sources de chaleur interne la caractérisent : les braises restantes de sa naissance violente il y a 4,5 milliards d'années, et la chaleur produite par la décomposition de ses éléments radioactifs.

Cette énergie thermique doit s'échapper ... les éruptions volcaniques permettent une partie de ce refroidissement, une autre alimente e.a. la tectonique des plaques par la convection. Le déplacement des plaques tectoniques s'accompagne de séismes, mais aussi de l'édification des reliefs et de la formation de bassins océaniques.

2018.10.24 Krakatau - 24.10.2018 - photo Yohannes Tyas Galih Jati / Volcanodiscovery

2018.10.24 Krakatau - 24.10.2018 - photo Yohannes Tyas Galih Jati / Volcanodiscovery

Ce petit résumé de vie planétaire nous amène au rapport d'activité volcanique de la semaine par le Global Volcanism Program / Smithsonian / USGS. - link

 

Pour la semaine du 17 au 23 octobre 2018, il signale 18 volcans en éruptions, dont trois en nouvelle activité : Le Kerinci, le Kuchinoerabujima et le Sarychev peak.

Kerinci / Sumatra - 24.10.2018 / 06h59 - épais panache gris à 400-500 m au dessus du sommet - Doc.Magma Indonesia

Kerinci / Sumatra - 24.10.2018 / 06h59 - épais panache gris à 400-500 m au dessus du sommet - Doc.Magma Indonesia

C'est le moment choisi par l'USGS pour lister état par état les volcans les plus actifs parmi les 161 édifices des Etats-Unis.

Notre Terre volcanique est diverse et bien vivante.

C'est aussi celui du bilan dressé par le NOAA / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration et l'Oregon State University : au cours des dernières trente années, les scientifiques ont découvert environ 40 éruptions sous-marines, alors qu'avant 1990, ils n'en avaient trouvé aucune... grâce aux avancées en technologie d'exploration marine.

Arc volcanique des Marianes - Pillow lavas à 4;500 mètres de profondeur formant un champ de lave vitifié - Credit: Oregon State University

Arc volcanique des Marianes - Pillow lavas à 4;500 mètres de profondeur formant un champ de lave vitifié - Credit: Oregon State University

En réalité, ce sont 40 volcans qui sont en éruption en ce moment sur notre planète, sans compter l'activité sous-marine souvent occultée en partie. Tous ces volcans sont particuliers, et possèdent leur propre style d'éruption et leur propre rythme de vie / d'activité.

Notre Terre volcanique est diverse et bien vivante.

 

Le Stromboli en pleine forme - photo archives Thorsten Boeckel

Le Stromboli en pleine forme - photo archives Thorsten Boeckel

Ol Doinyo Lengai - le seul volcan à laves noires au monde - photo 10.2018  Cin-Ty Lee / Tw itter
Ol Doinyo Lengai - le seul volcan à laves noires au monde - photo 10.2018  Cin-Ty Lee / Tw itter

Ol Doinyo Lengai - le seul volcan à laves noires au monde - photo 10.2018 Cin-Ty Lee / Tw itter

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Actualités volcaniques
Kuchinoerabujima -  éruption du 3 février 2020 à 5h35 et 5h38 - webcam JMA
Kuchinoerabujima -  éruption du 3 février 2020 à 5h35 et 5h38 - webcam JMA

Kuchinoerabujima - éruption du 3 février 2020 à 5h35 et 5h38 - webcam JMA

Une coulée pyroclastique s'étendant sur environ 900 mètres a été observé du côté sud-ouest du mont Shindake, accompagnée d'un panache co-pyroclastique haut de 626 mètres, sur l'île Kuchinoerabu, dans la préfecture de Kagoshima. Cependant, elle n'a pas atteint les zones résidentielles et aucun blessé ni dommage aux résidences n'a été confirmé, selon le gouvernement local.

La hauteur du panache de cendres n'a pas pu être évaluée par le VAAC, en raison de la couverture nuageuse.

Selon la JMA, l'éruption s'est produite vers 5 h 30 du matin le 3 février 2020. De grands dépôts de cendres ont été trouvés dispersés dans des zones à environ 600 mètres du cratère.

 

Sources : JMA & VAAC Tokyo

Stromboli - débordement de lave dsns la Sciara del Fuoco le 03.02.2020, à 7h25 et 8h06 - webcam INGV - un clic pour agrandirStromboli - débordement de lave dsns la Sciara del Fuoco le 03.02.2020, à 7h25 et 8h06 - webcam INGV - un clic pour agrandir

Stromboli - débordement de lave dsns la Sciara del Fuoco le 03.02.2020, à 7h25 et 8h06 - webcam INGV - un clic pour agrandir

À partir de 08:20 h environ UTC, l'INGV a pu observer, via les caméras de surveillance, un modeste débordement de la zone nord de la terrasse cratèrique du Stromboli, qui reste actuellement confiné dans la zone sommitale.

Le front de la coulée se désintègre sur les pentes fortes et provoque le roulement de matériel le long de la Sciara del Fuoco.
L ' ampleur du trémor volcanique ne montre pas de variations significatives associées.

Le nombre quotidien de séismes VLP est élevé (18 épisodes / heure). L'activité thermique récupérée des caméras est moyenne. Le flux de SO2 se traduit par de faibles valeurs (59 t / j), comme le flux de CO2 (121 t / j).

L'activité explosive est centrée sur le secteur des cratères NE, avec l'émission de gaz, de cendres et de scories. Les secteurs des cratères Central et SW sont caractérisés par un dégazage continu

 

Source : INGVvulcani & LGS rapport journalier.

Saunders island - image Sentinel Hub 02.02.2020 bands 4,3,2 - un clic pour agrandir

Saunders island - image Sentinel Hub 02.02.2020 bands 4,3,2 - un clic pour agrandir

Saunders island - image Sentinel Hub 02.02.2020 bands 4,3,2 (zoom éclairci) - un clic pour agrandir

Saunders island - image Sentinel Hub 02.02.2020 bands 4,3,2 (zoom éclairci) - un clic pour agrandir

L'activité reste importante sur Saunders island , dans les îles sandwich du sud, comme en témoignent les images satellites du 2 février 2020 montrant un important panache blanc de gaz et vapeur.

 

Source : Sentinel Hub

La morphologie actuelle du sommet du Nevado del Ruiz (5321 m. asl.) et de son cratère principal est la conséquence de l'interaction complexe entre les processus volcaniques, effusifs et explosifs (activité après les éruptions de 1845, 1985, 1989 et 2012, l'instabilité du système volcanique produite par le cycle d'activité actuel (2010-2020)) , la distribution des dépôts volcaniques, l'érosion causée par le réchauffement climatique et la dynamique de la couverture glaciaire

Actuellement, le cratère Arenas a une morphologie irrégulière et allongée, un diamètre supérieur à 980 m dans le sens SO-NE, un diamètre inférieur à 900 m dans le sens SE-NW et une profondeur approximative de 300 m. Le cratère Arenas a de grandes dépressions contenues dans des corniches ou des terrasses plus petites, des murs internes, un fond et plusieurs champs de fumerolles avec émission de gaz et de cendres. Ces champs de fumerolles sont restés avec une activité intermittente après les éruptions de 1985 et 1989 et avec une grande intensité pendant le cycle d'activité actuel (2010-2020).

Nevado del Ruiz - à partir de 2020 (A) et 2010 (B), pris en survol avec le soutien de la Colombian Air Force (FAC). On peut observer le cratère Arenas, les eaux d'amont de la rivière Azufrado, la zone de la calotte glaciaire adjacente au cratère, le dépôt de cendres, l'émission de gaz et de vapeur et les parois des corniches intérieures. - Doc. SGC

Nevado del Ruiz - à partir de 2020 (A) et 2010 (B), pris en survol avec le soutien de la Colombian Air Force (FAC). On peut observer le cratère Arenas, les eaux d'amont de la rivière Azufrado, la zone de la calotte glaciaire adjacente au cratère, le dépôt de cendres, l'émission de gaz et de vapeur et les parois des corniches intérieures. - Doc. SGC

Nevado del Ruiz - Photographies du cratère Arenas de janvier 2020, prises en survol avec le soutien des FAC. On observe: le bord du cratère (A), un cratère secondaire de 150 m de diamètre situé à l'ouest (B), les corniches intérieures (C), le dôme de lave (D), une dépression au centre du dôme causée par un éventuel affaissement et refroidissement de la lave (E), un centre d'émission de gaz et de cendres d'un diamètre d'environ 15 m (cratère secondaire) (F) et plusieurs sources d'émission de gaz situées autour du cratère (G, H e I). - Doc SGC

Nevado del Ruiz - Photographies du cratère Arenas de janvier 2020, prises en survol avec le soutien des FAC. On observe: le bord du cratère (A), un cratère secondaire de 150 m de diamètre situé à l'ouest (B), les corniches intérieures (C), le dôme de lave (D), une dépression au centre du dôme causée par un éventuel affaissement et refroidissement de la lave (E), un centre d'émission de gaz et de cendres d'un diamètre d'environ 15 m (cratère secondaire) (F) et plusieurs sources d'émission de gaz situées autour du cratère (G, H e I). - Doc SGC

Nevado del Ruiz - croquis du cratère Arenas - Doc. SGC 31.01.2020

Nevado del Ruiz - croquis du cratère Arenas - Doc. SGC 31.01.2020

La partie supérieure (zone la plus superficielle) du conduit volcanique est située juste au bas du cratère Arenas. Cette zone du volcan est considérée comme la plus instable et jusqu'en août 2015, elle était caractérisée par la présence de multiples sources actives d'émission de vapeur d'eau, de dioxyde de soufre (SO2) et d'autres gaz volcaniques, accompagnées d'émissions de cendres.

Après les éruptions de 2012, le Nevado del Ruiz a maintenu un comportement instable avec l'occurrence de séismes associés à la fracturation des roches et à la dynamique des fluides à l'intérieur du système volcanique, d'émissions permanentes (principalement vapeur d'eau, SO2 et cendres) et l'enregistrement d'une forte inflation continue. En août 2015, un nouveau magma s'est mis en place et un dôme de lave a commencé se construire au fond du cratère Arenas. Il a continué de croître pendant plusieurs mois, atteignant en janvier 2020 un plus grand diamètre estimé à 173 m , une hauteur maximale estimée 60 m et un volume approximatif de 1.500.000 m3.

 

Source : El Nuevo Domo de Lava del Volcán Nevado del Ruiz y la Geomorfología Actual del Cráter Arenas 2020 – Servicio Geologico Colombiano

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Tinakula - steam plume on 16.01.2019 - photo Zey Yian / Facebook

Tinakula - steam plume on 16.01.2019 - photo Zey Yian / Facebook

The activity seems to have resumed, on Tinakula (also called Tamani, or Tinakoro) according to aerial photos (16.01.2019) and satellites (Sentinel 2 on 27.01.2019).

This small island, 3.5 km wide, is the emerged summit of a massive stratovolcano, located northwest of the Santa Cruz Islands, in the group of Solomon Islands (Melanesia).

Its topography is similar to that of Stromboli, with a breached summit and a "sciara" from the summit to below sea level.

The current activity is likely strombolian type, and marked by a weak thermal anomaly and a vapor plume.

Its last eruption, VEI 3, dates back to October 2017.

 

Sources: Sentinel 2 and Zey Yian / FB

Tinakula - Sentinel2 images from 27.01.2019, left in natural colors, right bands 12,11,4, in which we notice a thermal anomaly - a click to agarndirTinakula - Sentinel2 images from 27.01.2019, left in natural colors, right bands 12,11,4, in which we notice a thermal anomaly - a click to agarndir

Tinakula - Sentinel2 images from 27.01.2019, left in natural colors, right bands 12,11,4, in which we notice a thermal anomaly - a click to agarndir

Tinakula - Sentinel2 images from 29.01.2019 bands 12,4,2

Tinakula - Sentinel2 images from 29.01.2019 bands 12,4,2

The Gunungapi Ibu, on Halmahera in the Moluccas, has a level 2 / waspada activity, with a 2 km forbidden zone, extended to 3.5 km on the north side.

Many gray-white plumes are reported up to 800 meters above the summit.

The seismicity of January 28 is characterized by 84 earthquakes of eruption, 81 earthquakes of blast, 25 earthquakes of avalanches, 13 episode of harmonic tremor, one of type tornilo.

 

Source: PVMBG and Magma Indonesia

Gunungapi Ibu - 28.01.2019 / 14:15 WIB - photo PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

Gunungapi Ibu - 28.01.2019 / 14:15 WIB - photo PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

JMA and VAAC Tokyo report an eruption in Kuchinoerabujoma on January 29, 2019 around 5pm local time. The Shindake plume rose to 2,800 meters asl at 5:14 pm to 5:16 pm, accompanied by a pyroclastic flow to the southwest for 600 meters.

 

Sources: JMA & VAAC Tokyo

Kuchinoerabujima on 29.01.2019, respectively at 17:14 and 17:16, where we can see a pyroclastic flow developping - JMA webcam
Kuchinoerabujima on 29.01.2019, respectively at 17:14 and 17:16, where we can see a pyroclastic flow developping - JMA webcam

Kuchinoerabujima on 29.01.2019, respectively at 17:14 and 17:16, where we can see a pyroclastic flow developping - JMA webcam

At Karangetang, at activity level 3 / Siaga on Siau Island, north of Sulawesi, emissions continue, white or gray, depending on the emitting craters.

For January 29, the PVMBG reports 70 avalanche earthquakes, 25 earthquakes of blast, 4 superficial and 4 deep volcanic earthquakes, and a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 0.25 mm.

The forbidden zone remains 2.5 km radius around the craters, extended 3 km to the northwest.

 

Source: PVMBG

Karangetang - white and gray plumes according to crater transmitter on 30.01.2019 / 05:51 WITA - webcam PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

Karangetang - white and gray plumes according to crater transmitter on 30.01.2019 / 05:51 WITA - webcam PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

At Merapi / Java, activity at the summit dome does not change. On January 29, 40 avalanche earthquakes, 3 low-frequency earthquake earthquakes and 2 hybrids were reported. The avalanches of incandescent blocks spread out over 50 to 1,400 meters.

The activity level remains at 2 / waspada.

 

Source: BPPTKG

Merapi - some avalanches of blocks on 29.01.2019 at 5:02, local time 20:17 and 21:39 - BPPTKG webcam - one click to enlargeMerapi - some avalanches of blocks on 29.01.2019 at 5:02, local time 20:17 and 21:39 - BPPTKG webcam - one click to enlargeMerapi - some avalanches of blocks on 29.01.2019 at 5:02, local time 20:17 and 21:39 - BPPTKG webcam - one click to enlarge

Merapi - some avalanches of blocks on 29.01.2019 at 5:02, local time 20:17 and 21:39 - BPPTKG webcam - one click to enlarge

Merapi - summary of activity at 29.01.2019 - Doc. BPPTKG

Merapi - summary of activity at 29.01.2019 - Doc. BPPTKG

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

On November 5, with the support of the National Guard, a reconnaissance flight was conducted in the crater of the Popocatepetl volcano.

During this overview, specialists from CENAPRED, CNPC, and researchers from the UNAM Institute of Geophysics were able to observe the formation of the No. 85 dome, 210 m in diameter and 80 m in diameter. thickness, with an irregular surface. The inner crater has a diameter of 350 m and an approximate depth of 90 m.

Popocatépetl - overflight of volcano and dome # 85 - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad
Popocatépetl - overflight of volcano and dome # 85 - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad
Popocatépetl - overflight of volcano and dome # 85 - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad

Popocatépetl - overflight of volcano and dome # 85 - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad

During the last 24 hours, 96 exhalations were identified, accompanied by gas and light amounts of ash, as well as six explosions, two moderate at 11:07 and 22:19 which generated a column of 1.5 km and ejected incandescent materials; and four minors at 17:24, 21:49, 22:27 and 00:09 today. In addition, a volcano-tectonic earthquake with a preliminary magnitude of 1.9 and 148 minutes of tremor was recorded.

At 11:00 am on October 5th, there was a slight steady emission of water vapor and volcanic gases. Any emission containing ash will be scattered west-southwest.

The volcanic alert is maintained at YELLOW PHASE 2.

Popocatépetl - explosion of 05.11.2019 / 22:52 (post Cenapred report) - WencamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - explosion of 05.11.2019 / 22:52 (post Cenapred report) - WencamsdeMexico

NB: An overview of the Iztaccihuatlcan was made on November 5th, without observing any activity.

Sources : Cenapred, Unam, NCPC

Iztaccíhuatl volcano - no activity noticed during the flight on 05.11.2019 by Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad

Iztaccíhuatl volcano - no activity noticed during the flight on 05.11.2019 by Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad

On Kyushu, Aso and Sakurajima still have ash emissions.

The ash of the Aso is expected to disperse to the northeast.

A Sakurajima ash plume is reported on October 5 at 4,000 meters altitude, dispersed to the southeast (VAAC Tokyo), moving northeast (JMA Version).

The JMA recorded a total of 31 eruptions and 18 explosions at the Minamidake crater for the period from 1 to 5 November 2019.

Asosan - Volcanic Ash Advisory of 06.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Asosan - Volcanic Ash Advisory of 06.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Sakurajima - Volcanic Ash Advisory of 06.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Sakurajima - Volcanic Ash Advisory of 06.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

In Kuchinoerabujima, in the Ryukyu archipelago,volcanic earthquakes (20 on 05.11), and sulfur dioxide fluxes are increasing. A volcanic plume is reported at 1,050 meters above sea level.

 

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency and VAAC Tokyo

Situation map of the thermal zones and the El Ángel fault system - Chiles volcanoes / Cerro Negros - Doc. IGEPN

Situation map of the thermal zones and the El Ángel fault system - Chiles volcanoes / Cerro Negros - Doc. IGEPN

Thermal springs and fumarolic zones associated with the Chiles-Cerro Negros Volcanic Complex have been periodically monitored by the IGEPN since 2014.

Due to the remarkable temperature increase of an area south of the volcanic complex, staff members of the Institute of Geophysics conducted gas measurements, with MultiGAS and temperature, pH and conductivity measurements, in the fumarole fields and thermal springs of El Hondón, Aguas Hediondas and Lagunas Verdes, located south of the volcano Chiles, in late October.

Hot springs area of ​​El Hondón, south of Chiles volcano - Doc. IGEPN - October 22, 2019.

Hot springs area of ​​El Hondón, south of Chiles volcano - Doc. IGEPN - October 22, 2019.

The observatory concludes:

• Fumeral zones do not show SO2 concentrations, this gas could possibly be retained in the hydrothermal system.

• The proportion and concentration of CO2 and H2S in Aguas Hediondas and Lagunas Verdes are very high. This must be taken into account by staff in future work campaigns.

• A decrease in CO2 / H2S ratios has been observed, which could indicate a disturbance of the hydrothermal system, with a possible increase in the amount of sulfur.

• The conductivity and temperature of Aguas Hediondas hot springs continue to increase, while the pH continues to decline, increasing its acidity.

• The El Hondón field has the highest temperature (85 ° C) found in thermal springs in the region and throughout Ecuador. The proportion of water in the gas is 96.8% with 3.2% CO2.

 

Source: IGEPN

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

Our Earth is a geologically active planet ... two sources of internal heat characterize it: the remaining embers of its violent birth 4.5 billion years ago, and the heat produced by the decomposition of its radioactive elements.

This thermal energy must escape ... the volcanic eruptions allow part of this cooling, another feeds the plate tectonics by convection. The displacement of tectonic plates is accompanied by earthquakes, but also by the construction of reliefs and the formation of ocean basins.

Krakatau - 24.10.2018 - photo Yohannes Tyas Galih Jati / Volcanodiscovery

Krakatau - 24.10.2018 - photo Yohannes Tyas Galih Jati / Volcanodiscovery

This little summary of planetary life brings us to the volcanic activity report of the week by the Global Volcanism Program / Smithsonian / USGS. - link

For the week of 17 to 23 October 2018, he reported 18 erupting volcanoes, including three in new activity: Kerinci, Kuchinoerabujima and Sarychev peak.

Kerinci / Sumatra - 24.10.2018 / 06h59 - thick gray plume at 400-500 m above the summit - Doc.Magma Indonesia

Kerinci / Sumatra - 24.10.2018 / 06h59 - thick gray plume at 400-500 m above the summit - Doc.Magma Indonesia

This is the moment chosen by the USGS to list state by state the most active volcanoes among the 161 structures of the United States.

Our volcanic Earth is diverse and alive.

The NOAA / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Oregon State University report also show that in the last 30 years, scientists have discovered about 40 underwater eruptions, whereas before 1990, found none ... thanks to advances in marine exploration technology.

Marianas Volcanic Arc - Lavas Pillow at 4, 500 meters deep forming a vitrified lava field - Credit: Oregon State University

Marianas Volcanic Arc - Lavas Pillow at 4, 500 meters deep forming a vitrified lava field - Credit: Oregon State University

In fact, there are 40 volcanoes that are erupting on our planet right now, not to mention the underwater activity that is often obscured in part. All these volcanoes are unique, and have their own eruption style and their own pace of life / activity.

Our volcanic land is diverse and alive.

Sources : in the article

Stromboli in full shape - photo archives Thorsten Boeckel

Stromboli in full shape - photo archives Thorsten Boeckel

Ol Doinyo Lengai - the only black lava volcano in the world - photo 10.2018 Cin-Ty Lee / Tw itter
Ol Doinyo Lengai - the only black lava volcano in the world - photo 10.2018 Cin-Ty Lee / Tw itter

Ol Doinyo Lengai - the only black lava volcano in the world - photo 10.2018 Cin-Ty Lee / Tw itter

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Piton de La Fournaise - overflight of the eruptive site by the PGHM on 05.04.2020: lava fountain 50 m high. and rapid construction of a cone - photo SAG and PGHM via OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - overflight of the eruptive site by the PGHM on 05.04.2020: lava fountain 50 m high. and rapid construction of a cone - photo SAG and PGHM via OVPF

Following a reconnaissance flight by the SAG and the PGHM carried out on April 5 at around 10:30 am local time at Piton de La Fournaise, the casting front could be located with precision (white star on the map). It was 550 m above sea level, about 2.7 km from national road 2 (compared to 800 m above sea level and 3 km from the road yesterday at 6:52 pm). The activity focuses on 2-3 eruptive mouths, with lava fountains reaching 50 meters high.

Note that from an altitude of 400m the slopes will be much less steep (12-13% on average) which will have the consequence of slowing the spread of the flow.

Piton de La Fournaise - Mapping of the lava flow dated 4/4/2020 at 18:52 local time. The white star represents the position of the pouring front at 10:12 local time on 5/4/2020 (© OVPF / IPGP / LMV / OPGV).

Piton de La Fournaise - Mapping of the lava flow dated 4/4/2020 at 18:52 local time. The white star represents the position of the pouring front at 10:12 local time on 5/4/2020 (© OVPF / IPGP / LMV / OPGV).

The intensity of the volcanic tremor (indicator of the intensity of the eruption) has been relatively stable over the past 24 hours.

Strong seismic activity has been recorded under the summit craters since morning, and 189 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded. These earthquakes are located less than 2 km deep below the southeast edge of the summit.

These earthquakes testify to the weakening of the environment, either by a circulation of fluid or the emptying of a reservoir, most certainly in connection with the supply of the eruptive site and its revival of activity since approximately 24 hours.

Given this weakening, a risk of collapse of the Dolomieu crater (or part of the crater) is not excluded.

Piton de La Fournaise- Evolution of the RSAM (volcanic tremor indicator) since 02/04/2020 at 00h UT time (04h local time) on the seismological station DSO located at the top of the volcano. (© OVPF / IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise- Evolution of the RSAM (volcanic tremor indicator) since 02/04/2020 at 00h UT time (04h local time) on the seismological station DSO located at the top of the volcano. (© OVPF / IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Histogram representing the number of surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded since 4/4/2020 00 (UT time).

Piton de La Fournaise - Histogram representing the number of surface volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded since 4/4/2020 00 (UT time).

Thermal images taken by an OVPF team yesterday evening and images from OVPF webcams that night show that the pour is still very active. Last night, the OVPF team on site reported that the northernmost casting fronts had stopped, with activity focusing on a new casting arm to the south. The lava front on this new  arm most certainly progressed last night. The Sainte Rose gendarmerie will go on site to regularly monitor its development, given the increase in lava flows.

The estimated surface flows, from satellite data via the HOTVOLC (OPGC - University of Auvergne) and MIROVA (University of Turin) platforms, although still greatly disturbed by the cloud cover around Piton de la Fournaise, are still within the rise. Over the past 12 hours, average flows have been estimated at 30 m³ / s.

Thermal anomalies, when not disturbed by cloud cover, are very high, with a VRP of 5,218 MW on April 5 at 6:55 p.m.

Piton de La Fournaise - Shooting of the eruptive site on 5/4/2020 around 8pm local time from the RN2 - note the temperature difference between the two lava arms (© OVPF-IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Shooting of the eruptive site on 5/4/2020 around 8pm local time from the RN2 - note the temperature difference between the two lava arms (© OVPF-IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - thermal anomalies on 05.04.2020 / 22h00 - Doc. Mirova Modis

Piton de La Fournaise - thermal anomalies on 05.04.2020 / 22h00 - Doc. Mirova Modis

Piton de La Fournaise - SO2 mass 5,66 kt on 05.04.2020 - Doc. Sentinel-5 P Tropomi -  DLR / BIRA / ESA

Piton de La Fournaise - SO2 mass 5,66 kt on 05.04.2020 - Doc. Sentinel-5 P Tropomi - DLR / BIRA / ESA

The Réunion air observatory (ORA) has recorded a concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) since Sunday, April 5, 2020 since 5 am in the town of Tampon (observation station "Bourg Murat"). Consequently, the prefect of Réunion decided to implement the information and recommendation procedure relating to atmospheric pollution.

Short-term exposure may have limited and transient health effects for sensitive people such as young children, asthma or allergies, chronic respiratory failure or the elderly with respiratory disorders, over 65 years and women pregnant.

Weather news draws attention to the dispersion of Pélé's hair over an area up to 50 km from the eruption site, e.g. on the Plaine des Palmistes, Bras Panon, etc.

 

Sources: OVPF, ORA, Weather news 974 & Ludovic Leduc / Onactif volcans

Find all the information relating to the activity of Piton de la Fournaise on the various media of the OVPF-IPGP:
- the website (http://www.ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf),
- the Twitter account (https://twitter.com/obsfournaise?lang=fr),
- and the facebook account (https://www.facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise/)

Piton de La Fournaise - 06.04.2020 / 01:50 UT - Cascades webcam

Piton de La Fournaise - 06.04.2020 / 01:50 UT - Cascades webcam

Piton de La Fournaise - 06.04.2020 / 5h47 - HD camera OVPF IRT

Piton de La Fournaise - 06.04.2020 / 5h47 - HD camera OVPF IRT

In the Ryukyu arc, the activity of the Kuchinoerabujima continues, according to the JMA with plumes of gas and ash observed this April 6 at 8:10 a.m. JST, from a height of 400 meters, and at 3 p.m. JST, with a plume reaching 700 meters.

Ash and lapilli falls are expected.

The alert level is 3 / do not approach the volcano.

 

Sources: JMA & NHK

 Kuchinoerabujima - 06.04.2020 / 8h26 JST - NHK image

 Kuchinoerabujima - 06.04.2020 / 8h26 JST - NHK image

On Suwanosejima, on alert level 2 / not to approach the crater, an eruption occurred on March 6 from 3 p.m. local time, and ash falls are expected.

 

Source: JMA

Suwanosejima - activity of 06.04.2020 and ash dispersal area - Doc. JMA

Suwanosejima - activity of 06.04.2020 and ash dispersal area - Doc. JMA

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Rincon de La Vieja - 04.24.2020 / 10.25 a.m. - photo Teresa Lopez / Ovsicori

Rincon de La Vieja - 04.24.2020 / 10.25 a.m. - photo Teresa Lopez / Ovsicori

The Rincon de La Vieja, in Costa Rica, after the phreatic episode of April 19, presented on the evening of April 20 and on April 21 several exhalations (puffs) of gas and low-energy vapor, the main one at 6:26 local time (link)

On April 22 at 5:35 am local time, a hydrothermal eruption was signaled by the Ovsicori, accompanied by projections and a gas plume reaching 1,500 meters. The activity lasted 1 minute and did not generate any lahar.

On April 24, small eruptions / exhalations were recorded at Rincon de La Vieja, respectively at 5:38 am, 6:40 am, 7:52 am and 10:20 am local. The stronger hydrothermal eruption at 10:20 is characterized by a column of water and solid materials reaching up to 300 meters above the edge of the crater and a plume of vapor up to a height of 1,000 meters. New lahars are reported.

 Rincon de La Vieja - black glassy fragments of less than 1 millimeter which are drops of solidified fresh magma - Via M.Martinez / Ovsicori

 Rincon de La Vieja - black glassy fragments of less than 1 millimeter which are drops of solidified fresh magma - Via M.Martinez / Ovsicori

Maria Martinez reports that the samples of sediment ejected during eruptions dated between April 15 and April 19 contained 20% glassy black fragments of less than 1 mm which would be fresh juvenile drops of magma.

                                                     *  *  *

During a maintenance visit of the measuring devices installed at the Irazu, the Ovsicori teams noted the disappearance of the lagoon from the main crater, as well as the material falling almost continuously from the unstable edge of the crater .

 

Source: Ovsicori-UNA

Popocatépetl - 24.04.2020 / 5h07 - Doc. Mexico's Webcams

Popocatépetl - 24.04.2020 / 5h07 - Doc. Mexico's Webcams

Over the past 24 hours, using the Popocatépetl surveillance system, 215 exhalations have been identified, accompanied by volcanic gases and sometimes ash, and two explosions, one moderate and one minor, were recorded today at 4:58 am and 5:07 am respectively.

In addition, 304 minutes of tremor were recorded.

An incandescence was observed during the night during certain exhalations.

At the time of this report, there is no visibility on the crater of the volcano, any emission will be dispersed in a northeast direction.

The Popocatépetl volcanic alert remains at amarillo Fase 2.

 

Source: Cenapred

 Popocatépetl - exhalation on 24.04.2020 / 07.10 am - Doc. Mexico's Webcams

 Popocatépetl - exhalation on 24.04.2020 / 07.10 am - Doc. Mexico's Webcams

 Popocatépetl - exhalation on 24.04.2020 / 07h56 - Doc. Mexico's Webcams

 Popocatépetl - exhalation on 24.04.2020 / 07h56 - Doc. Mexico's Webcams

Very small eruptions occur intermittently in the crater of Shindake, on Kuchinoerabujima.

This April 24 at 11:15 p.m., a plume is reported 300 meters above the crater. No volcanic block collapse or pyroclastic flow was observed.

A field study from April 21-23 revealed a crack on the west side of the Shindake crater, where a slight increase in temperature in the nearby geothermal field is reported.

JMA reports an increase in activity level this April 24.

 

Source / JMA
 

Kuchinoerabujima - summit crater of Shindake, seen from the east. note the cracks - Doc. archives Narod.ru

Kuchinoerabujima - summit crater of Shindake, seen from the east. note the cracks - Doc. archives Narod.ru

The KVERT reports a moderate explosive eruptive activity at the Ebeko, with the observation of an ash plume at 2,500-2,800 meters asl. drifting east for 5 km.

Aviation code stays orange

 

Sources: KVERT & VAAC Tokyo

 Ebeko - 04.25.2020 / 06.52 am - Severo-Kurilsk City / SVERT webcam

 Ebeko - 04.25.2020 / 06.52 am - Severo-Kurilsk City / SVERT webcam

The volcanic activity of Stromboli was characterized between 17 and 23 April by Strombolian explosions rich in pyroclastic material located mainly in the NE crater and continuous degassing in the C / SW crater. This activity is associated with a high to very high number of VLP earthquakes and acoustic pressures with variable values ​​between between medium and high (max 1.08 bar).

Stromboli - seismicity and infrasonic parameters between 17 and 23.04.2020 - Doc.LGS

Stromboli - seismicity and infrasonic parameters between 17 and 23.04.2020 - Doc.LGS

The degassing (puffing) activity, mainly located in the C / SW sector of the crater terrace, was maintained between medium and low values ​​(max 60 mbar).
The signal associated with the earthquake shows a stable trend on the average values.
The SO2 and CO2 fluxes measured during the last week show values ​​that range from medium to low; while the C / S ratio remains stable at low values.
MODIS satellite thermal anomalies detected low to moderate heat flux values ​​(maximum of 26 MW on April 19), in agreement with the explosive activity recorded by the other parameters.
Analysis of the seismic signals associated with landslide activities recorded during the past week has highlighted a series of material rolling events along the Sciara del Fuoco.

The seismic network at 15:02:19 h 22/04/2020 recorded a volcanic earthquake (VT) of magnitude 2.2. This event was also recorded on the average hydrophone from Punta Labronzo placed 14 m deep. The seismic event is probably located at a depth of 2.5 km inside the volcanic structure.

The global analysis of geophysical and geochemical parameters shows during the week a constant level of volcanic activity on average values.

 

Source: LGS

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Satsuma-Iojima - photo archives 2018

Satsuma-Iojima - photo archives 2018

The Japan Meteorological Agency has raised the alert level of Satsuma-Iojima to 2 / do not approach the crater on November 2 at 17:50 JST, following an eruption at 17:35 local, accompanied by a plume of ash that has desegregated the 1,000 meters above the crater.

The ashes dispersed in a northwesterly direction, with little impact on the village of Mishima.

 

Source JMA & VAAC Tokyo

Satsuma-Iojima - 02.11.2019 / 17h37-17h39 - JMA webcam - one click to enlargeSatsuma-Iojima - 02.11.2019 / 17h37-17h39 - JMA webcam - one click to enlarge

Satsuma-Iojima - 02.11.2019 / 17h37-17h39 - JMA webcam - one click to enlarge

Location of volcanoes on alert 2 and 3 in the south of Japan - we notice the proximity with Kuchinoerabujima on alert raised this week - JMA map 02.11.2019

Location of volcanoes on alert 2 and 3 in the south of Japan - we notice the proximity with Kuchinoerabujima on alert raised this week - JMA map 02.11.2019

Satsuma-Iojima - the subaerial expression of the Kikai caldera includes two large islands: Satsuma-Iojima (5.5 km long) and Takeshima (4.5 km long), and three small islands: Unose, Asase and Showa Iojima - From Fukashi Maeno (2008). GVP

Satsuma-Iojima - the subaerial expression of the Kikai caldera includes two large islands: Satsuma-Iojima (5.5 km long) and Takeshima (4.5 km long), and three small islands: Unose, Asase and Showa Iojima - From Fukashi Maeno (2008). GVP

At Sakurajima, still on the alert 3 / do not approach the volcano, several explosions were accompanied by plumes between 1,500 and 1,800 meters above the crater on November 2; the JMA notes the episodes of 1:45 pm / plume 1,500 m., 17:51 / plume 1,800 m., 17:51 / plume 1,500 m., and 20:34 / plume 1.500 m.

The dispersion of the ashes was towards NNE-NE

 

Source: JMA, VAAC Tokyo and MyKagoshima

Sakurajima - eruptive episodes of November 2, respectively at 13:51, 17:21 and 20:45 - JMA webcam images - one click to enlarge
Sakurajima - eruptive episodes of November 2, respectively at 13:51, 17:21 and 20:45 - JMA webcam images - one click to enlargeSakurajima - eruptive episodes of November 2, respectively at 13:51, 17:21 and 20:45 - JMA webcam images - one click to enlarge

Sakurajima - eruptive episodes of November 2, respectively at 13:51, 17:21 and 20:45 - JMA webcam images - one click to enlarge

Sakurajima - Volcanic ash advisory - Doc VAAC Tokyo 02.11.2019

Sakurajima - Volcanic ash advisory - Doc VAAC Tokyo 02.11.2019

At Nevados de Chillan, the seismicity of the past 24 hours is marked by volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the most energetic located 3.4 km northwest of the active crater and 3.2 km deep, LP and VLP earthquakes, and tremor.

Emissions of gases and particles have been episodic; during the night, the explosions projected glowing materials around the crater.

The alert level remains in Naranja.

Source: Sernageomin / OVDAS

Nevados de Chillan - 02.11.2019 / at 8:58 am, by the webcams Portezuela and Andarivel / Sernageomin
Nevados de Chillan - 02.11.2019 / at 8:58 am, by the webcams Portezuela and Andarivel / Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - 02.11.2019 / at 8:58 am, by the webcams Portezuela and Andarivel / Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - episodes of 02.11.2019 / respectively at 10:18 and 11:53 - webcam Sernageomin - a click to enlargeNevados de Chillan - episodes of 02.11.2019 / respectively at 10:18 and 11:53 - webcam Sernageomin - a click to enlarge

Nevados de Chillan - episodes of 02.11.2019 / respectively at 10:18 and 11:53 - webcam Sernageomin - a click to enlarge

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
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Kuchinoerabujima - eruption of February 3, 2020 at 5:35 am and 5:38 am - JMA webcam
Kuchinoerabujima - eruption of February 3, 2020 at 5:35 am and 5:38 am - JMA webcam

Kuchinoerabujima - eruption of February 3, 2020 at 5:35 am and 5:38 am - JMA webcam

A pyroclastic flow extending for about 900 meters was observed on the southwest side of Mount Shindake, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic plume 626 meters high, on Kuchinoerabu Island, in the Kagoshima prefecture. However, it did not reach the residential areas and no injuries or damage to the residences were confirmed, according to the local government.

The height of the ash plume could not be assessed by the VAAC due to the cloud cover.

According to JMA, the eruption occurred around 5.30 a.m. on February 3, 2020. Large deposits of ash were found scattered in areas about 600 meters from the crater.

 

Sources: JMA & VAAC Tokyo

 Stromboli - lava overflow in the Sciara del Fuoco on 03.02.2020, at 7:25 a.m. and 8:06 a.m. - INGV webcam - one click to enlarge Stromboli - lava overflow in the Sciara del Fuoco on 03.02.2020, at 7:25 a.m. and 8:06 a.m. - INGV webcam - one click to enlarge

Stromboli - lava overflow in the Sciara del Fuoco on 03.02.2020, at 7:25 a.m. and 8:06 a.m. - INGV webcam - one click to enlarge

From around 08:20 h UTC, the INGV was able to observe, via surveillance cameras, a modest overflow from the northern area of ​​the Stromboli crater terrace, which is currently confined to the summit area.

The flow front disintegrates on steep slopes and causes the rolling of material along the Sciara del Fuoco.
The magnitude of the volcanic tremor does not show significant associated variations.

The daily number of VLP earthquakes is high (18 episodes / hour). The thermal activity recovered from the cameras is average. The flow of SO2 results in low values ​​(59 t / d), like the flow of CO2 (121 t / d).

The explosive activity is centered on the NE crater sector, with the emission of gas, ash and slag. The Central and SW crater sectors are characterized by continuous degassing

 

Source: INGVvulcani & LGS daily report

Saunders island - Sentinel Hub image 02.02.2020 bands 4,3,2 - one click to enlarge

Saunders island - Sentinel Hub image 02.02.2020 bands 4,3,2 - one click to enlarge

Saunders island - Sentinel Hub image 02.02.2020 bands 4,3,2 (zoom cleared) - one click to enlarge

Saunders island - Sentinel Hub image 02.02.2020 bands 4,3,2 (zoom cleared) - one click to enlarge

Activity remains significant on Saunders Island, in the southern sandwich islands, as evidenced by satellite images of February 2, 2020 showing a significant white plume of gas and vapor.

 

Source: Sentinel Hub

The current morphology of the summit of Nevado del Ruiz (5321 m. asl.) and its main crater is the consequence of the complex interaction between volcanic, effusive and explosive processes (activity after the eruptions of 1845, 1985, 1989 and 2012 , the instability of the volcanic system produced by the current activity cycle (2010-2020)), the distribution of volcanic deposits, the erosion caused by global warming and the dynamics of ice cover

Currently, the Arenas crater has an irregular and elongated morphology, a diameter greater than 980 m in the SW-NE direction, a diameter less than 900 m in the SE-NW direction and an approximate depth of 300 m. The Arenas crater has large depressions contained in cornices or smaller terraces, internal walls, a bottom and several fields of fumaroles with emission of gas and ash. These fumarole fields remained with intermittent activity after the eruptions of 1985 and 1989 and with great intensity during the current activity cycle (2010-2020).

Nevado del Ruiz - from 2020 (A) and 2010 (B), taken in overflight with the support of the Colombian Air Force (FAC). You can observe the Arenas crater, the headwaters of the Azufrado river, the area of ​​the ice cap adjacent to the crater, the deposit of ash, the emission of gas and vapor and the walls of the interior ledges. - Doc. SGC

Nevado del Ruiz - from 2020 (A) and 2010 (B), taken in overflight with the support of the Colombian Air Force (FAC). You can observe the Arenas crater, the headwaters of the Azufrado river, the area of ​​the ice cap adjacent to the crater, the deposit of ash, the emission of gas and vapor and the walls of the interior ledges. - Doc. SGC

Nevado del Ruiz - Photographs of the Arenas crater from January 2020, taken over with the support of the CAF. We observe: the edge of the crater (A), a secondary crater 150 m in diameter located to the west (B), the interior cornices (C), the lava dome (D), a depression in the center of the dome caused by a possible subsidence and cooling of the lava (E), a gas and ash emission center with a diameter of about 15 m (secondary crater) (F) and several sources of gas emission located around the crater (G, H e I). - Doc SGC

Nevado del Ruiz - Photographs of the Arenas crater from January 2020, taken over with the support of the CAF. We observe: the edge of the crater (A), a secondary crater 150 m in diameter located to the west (B), the interior cornices (C), the lava dome (D), a depression in the center of the dome caused by a possible subsidence and cooling of the lava (E), a gas and ash emission center with a diameter of about 15 m (secondary crater) (F) and several sources of gas emission located around the crater (G, H e I). - Doc SGC

Nevado del Ruiz - sketch of the Arenas crater - Doc. SGC 31.01.2020

Nevado del Ruiz - sketch of the Arenas crater - Doc. SGC 31.01.2020

The upper part (the most superficial area) of the volcanic duct is located just at the bottom of the Arenas crater. This area of ​​the volcano is considered the most unstable and until August 2015, it was characterized by the presence of multiple active sources of emission of water vapor, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other volcanic gases, accompanied by ash emissions.

After the eruptions of 2012, the Nevado del Ruiz maintained an unstable behavior with the occurrence of earthquakes associated with the fracturing of rocks and the dynamics of fluids inside the volcanic system, permanent emissions (mainly vapor of water, SO2 and ash) and the recording of a continuous high inflation. In August 2015, a new magma was set up and a lava dome began to build at the bottom of the Arenas crater. It continued to grow for several months, reaching in January 2020 a larger diameter estimated at 173 m, an estimated maximum height 60 m and an approximate volume of 1,500,000 m3.

 

Source: El Nuevo Domo de Lava del Volcán Nevado del Ruiz y la Geomorfología Actual del Cráter Arenas 2020 - Servicio Geologico Colombiano

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