The extreme southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula , although less visited, has a set of interesting volcanic structures.
Among these , the Kuril Lake , discovered in 1703 by the Cossacks .
It is located in the eastern part of the caldera Pauzhetka , extending east- west for 25 km ; it is intersected by a major fault system .
The Kuril lake, 13 km by 10 , has an irregular bottom; its northern part shaped plate gravy boat has a maximum depth of 300 meters , while the more irregular southern part , is even more profound. The lake is fed by snowmelt and rainwater , as well as some rivers, Etimynk , Hakytsin , Vychenkiya and Kirushutk . It drains into the Ozernaya River, which flows westward into the Sea of Okhotsk.
Kurile Lake caldera was formed in two steps, one dated to the late Pleistocene , 41,500 years ago ( radiocarbon dating ) .
The second step , dated 6440 BC, is considered one of the largest eruptions of the Holocene , ranked VEI 7 by the GVP , the order of magnitude of those of Santorini or Tambora . A total of 140 - 170 km ³ of material was ejected , and pyroclastic deposits have cleared the whole country . Ash from the eruption have been found in more than 1,000 km. on the Asian continent.
The lake has several islands , named Chayachy , Serdtze , Nizkii , Glinyanii and Samang . Serdtze Alaida, in the center of the lake, is a rhyodacitic lava dome with steep walls , which was formed at the end of the caldera -forming eruption .
Several bays were formed by lava flows , the Tioploï Bay has hot springs where the temperature reaches 45 ° C.
Pyroclastic deposits in the valley of the river Ozernaya , 4 km . west of Lake Kuril , reach a thickness of 100 meters. The erosion of the non-welded ignimbrites formed the famous obelisks of Kutkhiny Baty .
According to local legend , they resemble to giant canoes stood up to dry :
Kutkhu, god and creator of Kamchatka, would have used for fishing on the lake and the close ocean . Before leaving the Kamchatka Kutkhu raised its boats ( Baty ) ... since this place is considered sacred by local tribes .
The Kuril Lake is famous for being the greatest place in Asia spawning kokanee red salmon or alternatively , sockeye . Between 3 and 5 million salmon spawn in the lake between July and March. This attendance is the happiness of brown bears, about 200 individuals, river otters and foxes , supported by Steller eagles ( estimated at between 300-700 individuals population), white-tailed eagles (150-200 ) and golden eagles (50). The lake is also the place of wintering for the whooper swans and ducks (1 500-2 000 ) .
Nearby, the volcanoes Ilyinsky , Kambalny , Koshelev and Zhelotovsky ... to see soon.
- La caldeira Pauzhetka - Oregonstate University - link
- Global Volcanism Program - Kuril lake
- Les photographes du Lac Kourile. Sergey Gorchkov. - link