Klyuchevskoy - the lava from the flank eruption on the snow this 13.03.2021 - Sentinel-2 image via Coperncus - one click to enlarge
Klyuchevskoy - Sentinel 2 band image 12,11,8A from 03.15.2021 / 12:26 am via Mounts project
At Klyuchevskoy, a moderate flank explosive-effusive eruption and gas-vapor emission activity from the summit of Klyuchevskoy volcano continues.
KVERT satellite data showed a significant thermal anomaly on the flank eruption on the northwest slope of the volcano.
The color code for aviation remains orange.
Sources: KVERT & Mirova
Klyuchevskoy - high thermal anomalies at 03/16/2021 / 3:05 am - Doc. Mirova _MODIS_Latest10NTI
Klyuchevskoy - 16.03.2021 / 07:40 - current activity on the flank - webcam IVS FEB RAS KVERT
An eruption occurred at G. Sinabung, North Sumatra on March 15, 2021 at 18:08 h with an ash plume observed at ± 2,000 m above the summit (± 4,460 m above sea level) . The observable ash columns are gray, with a thick intensity, leaning towards the southwest and the west. This eruption is recorded by seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 15 mm and a duration of 6 min 27 sec.
Currently, Sinabung is in Activity Level 3 / siaga, with recommendations for society and visitors / tourists not to do activities on resettled villages, as well as locations within a 3 km radius of the summit. of Sinabung, as well as 5 km of sector radius for the south-eastern sector, and 4 km for the east-north sector.
Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia and Komunitas Beidar Sinabung
Sinabung - the dome(s) this 03/16/2021 / 07:48 WIB - photo Firdaus Surbakti via Beidar Sinabung
In the Reykjanes Peninsula, as of March 15, a total of 1,800 earthquakes have been detected by the IMO seismic network, including seven M3.0 or more. The strongest M4.3 earthquakes occurred at 10:32 p.m. northeast of Fagradalsfjall Most of the earthquakes detected today were located near Fagradalsfjall and in the evening mostly northeast of Fagradalsfjall.
Between midnight and 5:43 am on March 16, around 500 earthquakes were detected in the Reykjanes peninsula, no earthquakes were measured above M3.0. The activity was mostly centered around Mt. Fagradalsfjall and east of Mt. Þorbjörn.
Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest Iceland and the strongest earthquakes - Sentinel image 3 / 03.14.2021 via Copernicus
According to the latest InSAR document of Saturday March 13, there is an opening of 20 cm., and a progression of the dyke towards the southwest, in a line marked by the locations of the earthquakes.
Reykjanes - last InSAR document of 13.03.2021 indicating a widening and progression of the dyke towards the SO - Doc. IMO
Reykjanes Penisula - one of the many dykes exposed by erosion, illustrating what is happening underground today - photo dave McGarvie
Massive improvements have been made to the cGPS and seismic monitoring networks on the Reykjanes Peninsula. Many stations have been added, with the cooperation of ISOR, the Czech Academy of Sciences and the University of Cambridge with IMO.
Sources: IMO, ISOR
Reykjanes Peninsula - improvement of surveillance networks as of 15.03.2021 - Doc. via IMO - one click to enlarge
The 13th climax in a month at the southeastern crater of Etna occurred under heavy cloud cover on the night of March 14 to 15, 2021.
From the surveillance cameras from 20:10 UTC on 14.03.2021, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the Southeast crater is observed.
At the same time, Strombolian activity continues at the craters of Voragine, Bocca Nuova and the northeast crater.
The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor shows an increase reaching high values. The sources of the quake are located in the CSE at a depth of about 2.5 km asl.
Etna SEC - 13 ° paroxysme on 14-15.03.2021 - photo Boris Behncke
Following a further increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor, the second level threshold is reached, the source being located in correspondence with the south-eastern crater at about 3000 m altitude.
Infrasound activity is also supported both in the rate of occurrence and in the energy of events.
The strombolian activity of the south-eastern crater has turned into a lava fountain. Due to the cloud cover, it is not possible to observe the activity in progress.
Etna SEC - 13 ° paroxysme on 14-15.03.2021 - photo Boris Behncke
Etna SEC - 13 ° paroxysme on 14-15.03.2021 - photo Boris Behncke
Around midnight, the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etneo Observatory, reports that an overflow of lava is observed from the East zone of the SE Crater which extends towards the Valle del Bove.
In its report of 03.15 / 03.43 am, the INGV indicates that the activity of the lava fountain at the South-East crater is over. Moderate Strombolian activity persists and the lava flow that expands along the western slope of the Valle del Bove continues to be fed.
From the seismic point of view, the amplitude of the volcanic tremor has decreased, returning to average values. The source of the tremor is located near the SE crater at a depth of 2500 m above sea level.
Analysis of the clinometric data of the paroxysmal event showed variations at different stations, with cumulative maximum values (less than 3 microradians) recorded at the Cratere del Piano (ECP) station. GNSS network data over the past few hours did not show
Source; INGV OE
Taal volcano island - image archives AFP / Ed JONES 02.26.2021
In Taal, in the Philippine archipelago, the Phivolcs reports for the day from March 13 to 14 / 8 a.m. a total of 74 volcanic earthquakes, including 46 episodes of tremor of duration varying between 1 and 4 minutes.
The activity of the main crater consists of weak emissions of steam plumes at a height of ten meters.
The sulfur dioxide flow is measured at an average of 596 tonnes / day on March 13, 2021. The water temperature of the crater lake is measured at 71.8 ° C and the pH at 1.59 (at 04.03, 2021)
From March 14 to 15/8 a.m., a total of 252 volcanic earthquakes are recorded, including 17 tremor episodes and 5 hybrid events.
The deformation parameters reflect a slow and constant inflation and expansion of the Taal region since the eruption of January 2020, and indicate increasing magmatic activity at shallow depth.
Level 2 / Increased Unrest is maintained.
Bagana - Thermal anomalies at 03/13/2021 / 00h18 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.8A / MIROVA MODIS thermal activity Last
Bagana - Thermal anomalies from mid-February to mid-March - Doc. Mirova Modis
The eruptive phase, which began in Bagana, on Bougainville Island in Papua New Guinea in February 2000, continues, characterized by thermal anomalies identified on March 8-9, with 35 MW max. and March 11-13, with 25 MW max.
The Bagana volcano, which occupies a remote part of central Bougainville Island, is one of the youngest and most active volcanoes in Melanesia. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been built in about 300 years at its current rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by a non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. The lava flows form spectacular, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50m thick with prominent dikes running down the flanks on all sides.
Sources: Mirova, Mounts project, Sentinel-2 and Global Volcanism Program
Bagana - image Sentinel 4,3,2 & bands12,11,8A from 13.03.2021 - via Mounts project
Yesterday March 14, 2021, just over 3,000 earthquakes were located on the Reykjanes Peninsula.
The largest M5.4 earthquake was measured just west of Nátthagi at 2:15 p.m. It was widely felt, north of Sauðárkrókur and east of Vestmannaeyjar.
Twenty-eight earthquakes greater than M3.0 were counted, mostly south of Mount Fagradalsfjall, but just under 10 earthquakes greater than M3.0 were scattered west towards the Blue Lagoon.
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 15.03.2021 / 08:10 - Doc. IMO
Popocatépetl - exhalation of 13.03.2021 / 06:14 - webcams of Mexico / Cenapred
Popocatépetl - exhalation of 13.03.2021 / 07:19 - webcams of Mexico / Cenapred
During the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 63 exhalations and 487 minutes of tremor have been identified, accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash.
Based on information from the National Communications Center (CENACOM), yesterday a slight fall of ash was reported in the municipalities of Amecameca and Tlalmanalco around 22:50.
Meanwhile, a constant emission of water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash is observed, which is dispersed in a north-westerly (NW) direction.
The recent flyby confirms that there was no lava dome inside the crater.
The volcanic alert remains at amarillo Fase 2.
Sources: Cenapred and webcams of Mexico
Pacaya - ash plume on 03.13.2021 - Doc. Insivumeh
Pacaya - ash plume and lava flow on 03.13.2021 - Conred video screenshot
The Pacaya maintains a high level of activity, with bursts of explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 4,500 meters asl. moving southwest and south, for 30 km.
Expulsions of ballistic materials are observed up to 400 meters above the pit.
The active lava flow on the southern flank has a length of 1,500 meters. Blocks falls are generated from the lava front.
Ash falls are possible on El Patricinio, San José El Rodeo, Los Pacitos, Pacaya and Finca El Chupadero.
The Conred invites the municipalities of San Vicente Pacaya and Villa Canales to close access to the flanks of the volcano, and recalls that the Pacaya National Park must continue to prohibit access to areas of active lava flows.
Sources: Insivumeh & Conred
Sinabung - the summit and the dome on 03.13.2021 - photo Firdaus Surbakti
A white plume with a strong thickness is observed this March 13 at about 50 to 700 meters from the summit of Sinabung.
Seismicity is characterized by:
- 1 eruption earthquake, with an amplitude of 26 mm, and the duration of the earthquake was 277 seconds.
- 47 collapse / avalanche earthquakes, with an amplitude of 2-34 mm and the earthquake lasted 20-130 seconds.
- 14 emission earthquakes
- 21 low frequency earthquakes.
- 102 hybrid / multiphase earthquakes
- 4 local tectonic earthquakes
- 2 remote tectonic earthquakes.
The dome (s) is (are) constantly evolving, and these photos differ depending on the point of view.
Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, the photographers cited.
Sinabung - the dome from various points of view on 03.11.2021 - photos Endro Rusharyanto - one click to enlarge the thumbnails
In the Reykjanes Peninsula, today March 14, more than 700 earthquakes have been automatically located. The two largest at 01:19 from M3.7 to SW-Fagradalsfjall and at 04:40 from M4.2 in the same area.
Yesterday, around 2,600 earthquakes were detected. The biggest earthquake occurred at 1:34 am on M4.6. by the southwest end of Mt. Fagradalsfjall, it was widely felt, on the Reykjanes peninsula, north of Borganes and east of Fljótshlíð. In the evening at 10:06 p.m., an earthquake from an M4.1 was also measured by Mt. Fagradalsfjall.
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 14.03.2021 / 08:20 - Doc.IMO
It is important to keep track of activity in the southern region of Mt. Fagradalsfjall to assess whether the dike is expanding to the south.
The latest satellite images and GPS data show that the magma buildup is concentrated at the southern end of the dike under Mt. Fagradalsfjall. It is currently the most likely site for a possible eruption.
According to the Meteorological Bureau's lava flow model yesterday, a fissure is located where the magma tunnel is in Nátthaga, near Fagradalsfjall.
"There are two possibilities: no eruption or eruption ... as the magma and the corridor lengthens towards the south, we have to prepare for it to start to erupt, but that is not certain. . ", according to Magnús Tumi Guðmundsson, professor of geophysics in an interview with mbls.
Sources: IMO & mbls
Everything seems calm in Nátthaga (probable site of the potential eruption - on the webcam), but in the basement, things are moving!
According to the Darwin VAAC, an ash plume has been identified in satellite images as high as 3 km (10,000 feet) above sea level. (i.e. 600 m above the summit) and drift NW on March 5. The observatory noted that avalanches of material traveled 500m along the southeastern flank from March 6 to 7 and that an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted northwest at 19 10:10 am on March 7.
The lava domes atop Sinabung, in partly new, appear to have developed at two points, with potential for collapse generation in 2 different directions.
Sinabung - 03.10.2021 / 11:49 am - photo Nachelle Homestay
Sinabung - evolution of the dome - top photo: 10.03.2021 / 11:09 am / Nachelle homestay - bottom photo: 10.03.2021 / Sadrah Peranginangin
The seismicity on March 10 is characterized by:
- 3 eruption earthquakes, with an amplitude of 25 to 94 mm, and the duration of the earthquake was 183 to 341 seconds.
- 52 collapse / avalanche earthquakes, with an amplitude of 2-120 mm and the earthquake lasted 17-180 seconds.
- 10 blast / emission earthquakes
- 6 low frequency earthquakes
- 22 hybrid / multiphase earthquakes
- 1 episode of non-harmonic tremor, with an amplitude of 5 mm, and the duration of the earthquake was 898 seconds.
This March 11, 2021, at 09:22 WIB, a pyroclastic avalanche flow was observed, moving 3,000 meters to the southeast.
The alert level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1 to 4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, Beidar Sinabung, Endro Lewa (Awel Ordne), Nachelle Homestay, Global Volcanism Pogram weekly report.
Sinabung - 03.11.2021 / 09:22 - photo Alin dari Naman Teran via Komunitas Beidar Sinabung
Sinapred reports that a series of five moderate to strong vulcanian-type explosions occurred on March 9, 2021 at the San Cristobal volcano, Nicaragua, between 1:06 p.m. and 1:32 p.m. local time.
The strongest eruption at 1:25 p.m. local time was observed for 20 minutes and generated a dense, dark ash column at an estimated altitude of 2,400 m, which extended about 17 km southwest of the volcano. Ash falls were reported in the towns of El Viejo, Chinandega and Chichigalapa, severely reducing visibility there.
The last activity of the volcano dates back to March 2019 (GVP) ... a new eruptive cycle could begin in 2021.
Sources: Ineter, Sinapred and local media
San Cristobal - 03.09.2021 - doc. Ineter
San Cristobal - 03.10.2021 / 06:20 San Cristobal - Webcam Ineter
Sabancaya's activity between March 1 and 7 was maintained at a moderate level, with an average of 85 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2,000 meters above the summit.
During this period, I.G. Peru recorded 1,867 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal fluids. The VT earthquakes, related to the fracturing of rocks, occurred mainly to the southeast and northeast of the volcano, of magnitude between 2.1 and 2.6.
The slight inflation of the Hualca Hualca volcano, northern sector, is still observed.
The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, with an inaccessible area of 12 km in radius.
Sabancaya - activity between March 1 and 7, 2021 - Doc. I.G. Peru
Scientists are closely monitoring the magma channel that has formed between Keilir and Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula.
The magma chamber is only about a meter wide but about 7 kilometers long and has moved two to three kilometers south over the past two weeks as the magma entered it. At the bottom of the magma chamber, at a depth of about five kilometers, there is a channel and from there flows about 15 to 20 cubic meters per second upwards, about three to four times the average flow of the Elliðaán rivers. The magma chamber is estimated to be about one kilometer from the earth's surface on the south side, but about two kilometers at Keilir. The lava on the south side is also hotter and therefore more likely that the magma will rise to the surface.If the magma continues to flow into the magma chamber, it goes without saying that it will expand and seek out the magma where it is. find the least obstacle. It will probably continue to expand southwards or the magma will rise to the surface.
It is therefore the southern end that is under study, due to seismic activity and crustal movements show that there has been most of the changes in recent days, ”explains Freysteinn Sigmundsson, geophysicist at the University of Iceland Earth Institute.
If there is an eruption, Freysteinn says it can be similar in size to the Fimmvörðuháls eruption, and he bases that on the flow of magma flowing through the magma tunnel. In fact, it can happen at any time and without much warning.
Reykjanes Peninsula - shematic description of the dyke between Keilir and Fagradalsfjall - warmer and closer to the surface at SW (left) - Doc. RUV - one click to enlarge
On March 10, around 2,500 earthquakes were detected in the Reykjanes Peninsula. About 30 of these were of magnitude M3.0 and above, the largest of which was M5.1 at 3:14.
About 800 earthquakes have been detected since midnight. The largest was M3.4 magnitude at 2:10 a.m.
Sources: IMO and local press
Reykjanes Peninsula - number and magnitude of earthquakes as of 11.03.2021 / 8:30 am - Doc. IMO
Strombolian activity resumed at the level of the SE crater of Etna on March 9, 2021. As for the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor from 17:30 GMT, there is an increase, which for the moment remains in average values -high. The source of the quake is located at the SE Crater at a depth of about 2,500 meters above sea level.
The infrasound activity also increases and is localized in the SE crater. Data from GNSS soil deformation monitoring networks and clinometry show no significant changes.
Scenes documented by the INGV-Osservatorio Etneo surveillance camera show simultaneous explosions at the Voragine crater and the southeast crater. March 9, 2021 in the evening
From the surveillance cameras, from around 19:13 UTC, an overflow of lava can be observed from the SE crater towards the Valle del Bove.
From 20:00 UTC, there is an increase in strombolian activity at the CSE, accompanied by the emission of ash which rapidly disperses in the atmosphere towards the NE. The lava flow continues to be fed and the front is at an altitude of about 2900 meters above sea level advancing towards the Valle del Bove.
The intracrateric explosive activity at the summit craters continues.
Etna SEC - strombolian activity and lava flow in the Valle del bove 09.03.2021 / 20h58 - LAVE webcam
The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed a further increase, reaching high values; the sources of the quake are in the CSE at a depth of about 3000 meters above sea level.
After a short return phase, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, from 9:30 p.m. GMT, began to increase again to reach the second level threshold, with the Strombolian activity located at the southeast crater, which increases to a lava fountain; the lava flow is fed and reached an altitude of about 2200 meters above sea level. Due to cloud cover, it is not possible to observe the ongoing activity continuously.
Etna - last tremor diagram on 10.03.2021 - Doc. INGV OE - one click to enlarge
Etna SEC - Strombolian activity and lava flow in the Valle del bove on 03.10.2021 / 00:28 Etna - LAVE webcam
The activity of the lava fountain at the southeast crater ended at 03:30 UTC, the lava emission that is developing along the western slope of the Valle del Bove continues to be moderately fed and at the time the lava front reached the altitude of about 1800 m asl.
From the seismic point of view, the amplitude of the volcanic tremor has returned to average values.
Source: INGV OE
Etna - end of paroxysm - LAVE webcam 03.10.2021 / 03h58
Clear satellite images of the 03/07/2021 eruption showed ash emissions from the small cone in the Veniaminof summit caldera, in addition to the probable lava eruption from a vent at ~ 1 km (0.6 miles ) east of the top of the cone on the flank cone under the intracaldera glacier.
This activity produces incandescence and greatly elevated surface temperatures, as well as a small plume of steam and meltwater. A low-level plume of volcanic ash and gas is likely continuing and has been observed by pilots, as well as web cameras and satellite imagery during periods of clear weather over the past day. The ash and gas plume was below 10,000 feet asl yesterday and was not observed in cloudy conditions overnight or this morning. The plume extended up to 150 km (93 miles) northeast yesterday afternoon, but the ashfall is mostly confined to the summit caldera near the vent. No ash fall has been reported in neighboring communities.
Veniaminof - 07.03.2021 / 07:29 UTC - DOC. Planet via AVO
In the Reykjanes Peninsula, around 5:20 a.m. on March 9, 2021, increased seismic activity was detected in the southernmost part of the magma passage beneath Fagradalsfjall. A tremor pulse was detected at around the same time and lasted until about 7 a.m. This probably means that the passage of magma is developing towards the SW. Since then, there has been regular activity of small earthquakes.
The latest satellite images, GPS measurements and models all indicate that the flow of magma has diminished since the start of last week. Still, the magma is close to the surface and we have to continue to assume that an eruption could occur. If the magma passage continues to grow over the next few days and weeks, we might also expect earthquake waves similar to that of the weekend, which was powerful enough to destabilize the people of Grindavík.
Experts still assume that one of the four scenarios is the most likely:
- Seismic activity will decrease in the days or weeks to come
- Activity will increase with larger earthquakes, up to M6 by Fagradalsfjall
- An earthquake of up to M6.5 will come from Brennisteinsfjöll.
- The magma intrusion at Fagradalsfjall continues, leading ... either to a diminishing magma flow, with magma cooling and hardening, or to a fissure eruption and lava flow that will probably not threaten inhabited areas.
Reykjanes Peninsula - The red line marks the magma intrusion (dike) below the area between Fagradalsfjall and Keilir. Gray areas indicate places where tension release earthquakes can occur - Doc. IMO 09.03.2021 via Kristín Jónsdóttir
At 23:01, an earthquake of M4.0 occurred in Fagradalsfjall, a few minutes later another of M3.7 followed. They were felt in the southwest of Iceland.
At 6:45 p.m. last night, the frequency of minor earthquakes increased but no sign of a volcanic tremor was detected. A few earthquakes of magnitude greater than M3.0 were detected during this activity, the largest one M3.4 at 8:40 p.m.
Popocatépetl - overflight of the crater on 03.05.2021 - photos Cenapred / CNPC / Seguridad
During the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 82 exhalations and 234 minutes of tremor have been identified, accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash.
Since March 6 in the morning, we observe an intermittent emission of volcanic gases and sometimes ash, which disperse in an east-south-east direction.
As part of the monitoring of the Popocatépetl volcano, expert staff from the Institute of Geophysics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the National Center for Disaster Reduction (CENAPRED), carried out an overview, with the support of the National Guard, yesterday March 5, 2021.
It has been observed that the inner crater maintains a diameter of 360-390 meters and an approximate depth of 150-180 meters, which is covered with various fragmented materials (tephra). Likewise, it was confirmed that there was no lava dome inside the crater.
Volcanic alert remains at Amarillo Fase 2
Popocatépetl - overflight of the summit on 03.05.2021 - photo Cenapred / CNPC / Seguridad
At Etna, from around 1.00 UTC, a small lava flow is observed emitted by the effusive vent which opened on March 4, 2021 at the base of the SE crater. At the same time, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the level of the SE crater is also observed.
Strombolian activity continues confined to the craters of Voragine, Bocca Nuova and and NE.
Also from 1.00 UTC there is an increase in the volcanic tremor which at the moment is on medium-high values. The source of the tremor is located near the SE crater. Infrasound events are few in number and low in energy.
From 01:30 UTC there is a further rapid increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor which is currently at high values. The source of the tremor is located near the SE crater.
From around 03:30 UTC, there is an increase in Strombolian activity at the SE crater.
The activity forms an eruptive cloud which reaches a height of about 5000 m above sea level. dispersing towards E. Regarding the lava flow, the front is about 2900 m above sea level.
A lava overflow from the eastern slope of the SEC is observed from approximately 03:50 UTC. The lava flow produced by the effusive vent at the base of the CSE is still fed and its front reached an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level.
From 4:20 UTC there is a further rapid increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor which is currently at high values. The source of the tremor is located near the SE crater.
From around 06:00 UTC, the Strombolian activity at the SE crater (SEC) passed through a lava fountain and from 06:20 UTC, it formed an eruptive column which has now exceeded the height of 10,000 m above sea level. . dispersing eastward. As for the lava flows, which develop in the Valle del Bove, due to the cloud cover, it is not possible to make observations to estimate the share of the fronts.
The volcanic tremor of the last half hour reached a very high average amplitude and is constantly located near the SE crater
The number and energy of infrasound events are high and their locations are in the crater of the SEC.
From around 07:20 UTC, the SE Crater lava fountain ceased.
Source: INGV OE
Etna SEC - 2021.03.07, respectivement à 07h12 et 07h39 - webcam INGV OE - one click to enlarge
The ICE-SAR rescue teams took advantage of the good weather this Saturday, March 6 to install a new VHF repeater at the top of the mountain in order to obtain better radio coverage in the area affected by the seismic swarm and a potential eruption on the Reykjanes Peninsula.
Reykjanes Peninsula - installation of a new VHF relay by local ICE-SAR teams - photo via Gisli Olafsson
Just after midnight at 12:22 am on March 07, 2021, a tremor was detected which lasted 20 minutes. This tremor was similar to that measured on March 3, which had lasted several hours.
Following these events the seismicity intensified with earthquakes of more than 4. The biggest earthquake of the night was M5 at 2:02 am about 3 km west of Fagradalsfjall. As of midnight, more than 30 earthquakes on M3 have been located and 5 larger than M4.
More than 22,000 earthquakes have been detected in the region since the start of the activity.
Sources: IMO & Gisli Olafsson
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 07.03.2021 / 07:35 - Doc. IMO
Pacaya - Strombolian activity at Mackenney on 05.03.2021 - photo Nanci Pineda via Conred
In Guatemala, the Strombolian eruption of the Pacaya continues: strong explosions expel incandescent materials 500 - 700 meters above the Mackenney crater, and generate a dense plume of ash and gas, at a sustained height of 4,500-5,500 m. asl., moving to a western and southern area.
Tephra and lapilli between 2mm and 6 cm, and blocks larger than 6 cm are likely to fall in the "red" zone (see map)
Ash falls are reported in the surroundings of Cerro chino, El Patrocinio and El Rodeo, etc.
The lava flows on the southern flank reach lengths between 700 and 1,300 meters, and present various ramifications and avalanches generated at the flow front.
Insivumeh recommends maintaining the closure of Pacaya National Park until further notice, and applying the protocols in the event of falling ballistic projectiles, within a radius of 6 km around the volcano, as well as those provided in the event of ash fall.
A warning has been issued for civil aviation, due to the presence of ash at an altitude of 5,500 m asl. dispersing over 40 km, mainly west and southwest.
Sources: Insivumeh & Conred
Pacaya - area likely to be impacted by falling ballistic materials as of 05.03.2021 - Insivumeh map - one click to enlarge
Pacaya - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,5 from 05.03.2021 - Doc. Insivumeh - one click to enlarge
In Merapi, on Java, between February 26 and March 4, 2021, pyroclastic avalanche flows occurred 10 times, with a maximum glide distance estimated at 1,900 m towards the southwest and recorded on a seismogram of 'a maximum amplitude of 60 mm and a duration of 171 seconds.
The volume of the lava dome in the southwest sector is 711,000 m³ with a growth rate of 13,900 m³ / day.
Morphological analysis of the peak area based on photos of the southeast sector from March 1 to March 5, 2021 shows a change in the height of the dome. The height of the dome in the middle of the crater measures 45 m.
The activity level is at 3 / siaga
The current potential dangers come in the form of lava avalanches and hot clouds in the south-southwest sector, including Kali Kuning, Boyong, Bedog, Krasak, Bebeng and Putih, with a maximum distance of 5 km and in the south-eastern sector, the Gendol River up to 3 km.
The ejection of volcanic material in the event of an explosive eruption can reach a radius of 3 km from the summit.
Merapi - risk zones map, updated on 05.03.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG
The explosive activity continues in Sakurajima, with this March 5 an episode accompanied by a plume of ash and gas at 2,000 m. above the Minamidake crater, with dispersion to the south-east.
The JMA reports large bombs dispersing in the 800 to 1,100 m. from the crater.
Sakurajima - 05.03.2021 / 19:03 - Doc. JMA
Seismic activity is not weakening in the Reykjanes Peninsula.
According to IMO, on 5.03.02021, around 2800 earthquakes were detected and as of midnight around 700 were detected. At 11:29 p.m. an M3.5 earthquake was located by Fagradalsfjall No quakes were measured overnight, but the seismic activity is still significant.
At 4:11 am on 03/06/2021, an M3.7 earthquake occurred by Fagradalsfjall. Five other earthquakes were measured above M3 this evening. There were 3 earthquakes of magnitude greater than M3 detected at noon, felt by the population.
A volcanic eruption in Keilir could trigger magma intrusions on other fissures on the Reykjanes Peninsula, according to geophysicist Pál Einarsson. The Reykjanes Peninsula is an active area and the region's volcanic activity is connected between systems. Pál Einarsson considers that it is possible that magma intrusions occur in the system of Reykjanes, Svartsengi, Krísuvík, Brennisteinsfjöll and Hengill.
In recent years, there have been repeated intrusions of magma into these systems, but they have not caused any damage. However, it cannot be ruled out that if an eruption did occur, it would lead to magma intrusions in other places on the Reykjanes Peninsula that could open cracks above ground without erupting there.
Such cracks could damage various infrastructure such as roads, power lines, waterways and telecommunications.
Sources: IMO and Mbls
2021.03.04 Reykjanes - Review of eruptions in the Peninsula since the year 800, and their lava flows - graph mbl.is
The explanations of Pál Einarsson concerning the evolution of the situation in the Reykjanes Peninsula - Doc. mbls 04.03.2021
Ninth paroxysm in two weeks at Etna, ... from 00:20 UTC, a resumption of weak strombolian activity at the SEC is observed. A slight increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor is observed. Infrasound activity also shows an increase in the number of events. The locations of the tremors indicate a movement from the source to the SEC.
Etna - 04.03.2021 / 00h20 UTC - a resumption of weak Strombolian activity is observed at the SEC - INGV OE webcam
From 01:00 UTC, there is an increase in strombolian activity at the SEC, accompanied by the emission of ash which rapidly disperses in the atmosphere towards the NE. At the same time, the Voragine crater also shows lively Strombolian activity with episodic explosions that rise above the level of the crater rim.
Etna- 04.03.2021 / 01h20 - from 01h UTC, an increase in the strombolian activity of the SEC is observed - INGV webcam
According to a now classic step pattern, the Strombolian activity at the SEC gradually increased and to pass at around 02:20 UTC to the stage of lava fountain. At the same time, there is a further gradual increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor, the source of which is located in correspondence with the SEC at nearly 3000 m.
Then from 03:05 UTC, an overflow of lava can be observed from the SEC towards the Valle del Bove.
Etna - lava flow from 03:05 UTC on 04.03.2021 - INGV
From 02:50 UTC, there is a decrease in the amplitude of the tremor which is at an average level; from 3:15 a.m., there is also a decrease in infrasonic activity, both in the frequency of occurrence and in the amplitude of the signals. At 4:15 a.m., the strombolian activity at the SEC is also significantly reduced while the lava overflow towards the Valle del Bove remains active.
Etna - 04.03.2021 / 06:41 - increase in the tremor from 06:00 UTC - INGV webcam
The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etna Observatory, announces that from around 06:00 UTC, the tremor has started to rise, returning to a high level, while intrasonic activity remains low. The small flow continues to be fed through an open mouth at the eastern base of the CSE which shows spattering activity. The activity also continues at the other summit craters.
Source: INGV OE
Pacaya - 03.03.2021 - photo Luis Alejandro Fuentes / via Conred
Pacaya - activity of 03.03.2021 / 08:43 - Doc. W. Chigna / Insivumeh - Conred - Univ. Bristol
Pacaya - effusion on 03.03.2021 / 10:10 a.m. - W. Chigna / Insivumeh - Conred - Univ. Bristol
In Pacaya / Guatemala, the level of volcanic activity is increasing significantly.
Strong Strombolian explosions expel ballistic materials 800 meters above the Mackenney crater (see map of possible ballistic fallout), and develop a plume of ash and gas at 5,500 m. asl.
The dispersion of the ashes is towards the west for more than 170 km. And impacts the communities of El Rodeo, Rl Patrocinio, Los Jazmines, el Cedro, San Francisco de Sales, Calderas y San vincente Pacaya.
The lava flow reaches 400 meters on the southern flank.
Sources: Insivumah, Conred, Univ. Bristol
Pacaya - map of possible ballistic fallout as of 03.03.2021 - Doc. Insivumeh
Pacaya from El Pedregal farm, Los Pocitos, Villa Canales on 04.03.2021 - photo Conred
In the Reykjanes Peninsula, a tremor pulse was detected at 2:20 p.m. on March 3, 2021, and was observed at most seismic stations in Iceland. The pulse is located near Litli-Hrutur, halfway between Keilir and Fagradalsfjall.
Similar signals have been observed leading to rashes, but no rash has been confirmed. IMO is working on a more in-depth analysis of the tremor drive.
Reykjanes peninsula - pulse of trémor on 03.03.2021 / 14h21 - Doc. IMO
An intense earthquake swarm began on the Reykjanes Peninsula on February 24 with an M5.7 and M5.0 earthquake. Since then, two earthquakes on M5.0 have been detected. They occurred on February 27 and March 1. About 18,000 earthquakes have been detected in the region since the start of the activity.
About 1,700 earthquakes have been detected since midnight. on March 3, the largest with a magnitude of 4.1 to. 2:12 am, but most of the earthquakes this afternoon are smaller, but the largest tonight at 8:17 pm was 3.8.
At 4:20 p.m., the measurements do not give clear indications on if and when the magma will reach the surface. Experts from the Meteorological Bureau are currently carrying out surveillance flights to see if silt depressions are forming in the area, indicating that the magma is very shallow.
As a precautionary measure for domestic and international air travel, the Reykjanes Peninsula volcanic aviation color code has been raised from yellow (high unrest) to orange (increased unrest). The orange alert represents the third highest level, with red reserved for an imminent or ongoing volcanic eruption.
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes on 03.03.2021 / 6:20 p.m. - Doc. IMO
Today March 4 at 12:59 am, an M4.1 earthquake was detected 1.4 km SE of Fagradalsfjall. Most of the activity since midnight has taken place near Fagradalsfjall and has drifted somewhat southwest compared to yesterday. Earthquake and earthquake activity decreased a bit overnight, but increased again around 5 am. 15-20 earthquakes above M3.0 have been detected since midnight.
Reykjanes Peninsula - area of possible lava flow extension from a 2 km fissure. in length near Fagradalsfjall - Doc. IMO 03.03.2021
Reykjanes - The location of a potential eruption on the Reykjanes Peninsula is in an uninhabited area, but the SO2 emitted could cause problems in neighboring towns and villages - IMO Map
As the area is uninhabited, potential volcanic eruptions are unlikely to threaten the settlements; Kelir's area was cordoned off, however. On the other hand, if there is an eruption, sulfur dioxide could impact populations both on the Rekjanes Peninsula and in Reykjavik.
Sinabung - ash plume and pyroclastic flows on 03.02.2021 - photo Komunitas Beidar Sinabung - one click to enlarge
In Sinabung, in the province of Karo on Sumatra, from 6:42 a.m. to 8:20 a.m. WIB on March 2, 2021, there were 13 pyroclastic avalanche flows, with a sliding distance of 2,000 to 5,000 meters to the southeast, and the height of the ash column is more than 5,000 meters, the wind is weak to the west - southwest. Warm clouds reach the Lauborus River in the east-southeast sector.
The aviation code is red, before being reduced to orange.
Sinabung - 03.02.2021 - ash fall on the surrounding villages - photos Gung Pinto News & Beidar Sinabung - one click to enlarge
Ash falls are found in various villages, with a thickness of 3 cm.
The Himawari-8 satellite picked up an ash cloud drifting west.
Ash falls are found in various villages, with a thickness of 3 cm. The Himawari-8 satellite picked up an ash cloud drifting west.
Sumatra - Sinabung ash cloud seen by Himawari-8 on 02.03.2021 / 11h WIB - Doc. BMKG
Sinabung - plume and co-pyroclastic cloud 02.03.2021 - ANTARA FOTO /Sastrawan Ginting
The seismicity of March 2 between 00 and 6 a.m. is characterized by:
- 1 eruption earthquake, with an amplitude of 40 mm, and the duration of the earthquake was 191 seconds.
- 13 earthquakes linked to pyroclastic flows, with an amplitude of 120 mm and an earthquake duration of 143-485 seconds.
- 35 collapse / avalanche earthquakes, with an amplitude of 10 to 65 mm and a duration of 22 to 160 seconds of the earthquake.
- 23 low frequency earthquakes, with an amplitude of 5 to 25 mm and the duration of the earthquake was 10 to 40 seconds.
- 1 remote tectonic earthquake
- 1 episode of continuous tremor with an amplitude of 2-5 mm, dominating 3 mm.
The activity level remains at 3 / siaga with prohibitions of 3 to 5 km. depending on the flanks concerned
Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, Beidar Sinabung, Nachelle Homestay, and local news agencies
THE PACAYA VOLCANO. The volcano prevention unit -UPV-, the strategic intervention team -EIE-, the immediate intervention team -ERI- and the CONRED I region, are deployed at different strategic points to check the conditions and coordinate actions with the hierarchical system of coordinators.
In the early hours of March 1, 2021, Insivumeh recorded a notable increase in the internal seismic activity of the Pacaya, corresponding to an increase in Strombolian activity.
According to observers of the observatory, explosions expel ballistic materials to a height of up to 500 meters above the crater; this activity is accompanied by a plume of ash and gas at 3,500 m. asl., moving west and southwest.
Ash falls are observed in El Patrocinio, with possibilities in Los Rios, Los Jazmines El Rodeo, San José, and the municipalities in the same direction.
To be continued
Sabancaya- activity from 22 to 28.02.2021 - Doc. I.G. Peru
The eruptive activity of Sabancaya between February 22 and 28 remains at moderate levels, with an average of 91 daily explosions, and the observation of plumes of ash and gas up to 2,000 meters above the summit.
During this period, I.G. Peru recorded 1977 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal fluids. VT earthquakes, of magnitude between 1.9 and 2.8, occur mainly north of the volcano.
The deformations do not present any significant anomalies, except for slight inflation in the north. The satellites did not identify any thermal anomaly.
The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, with an inaccessible area of 12 km. radius
Reykjanes peninsula - surroundings of Fagradalsfjall - Doc. Skjáskot Iceland 360 VR via mbls
New data provides reason to take a closer look at the magma intrusion scenario beneath the Fagradalsfjall area on the Reykjanes Peninsula.
Mount Fagradalsfjall, the westernmost part of the Reykjanes Peninsula's mountain ridge, is actually a small plateau. Some hyalocaslite ridges protrude, especially in the western part. Its highest altitude is 385 m. above sea level.
I reproduce the IMO update from 03/01/2020 at 6:15 p.m.:
“The Scientific Council for Civil Protection met in a teleconference today to discuss the earthquake on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The meeting was attended by representatives of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, University of Iceland, Environment Agency, Isavia-ANS, HS-Orka and ÍSOR.
It was stated at the meeting that the Meteorological Bureau's automatic seismic system has measured around 1,800 earthquakes since midnight and that they are mostly confined to the SW area of Keilir and Trölladyngja. Of those 1,800, 23 earthquakes of magnitude 3 or greater and about 3 earthquakes are of magnitude 4 or greater. The largest of midnight was measured at 4:35 p.m., with a size of 5.1 and it came from about 1 km ASA through Keilir.
The Scientific Council also reviewed the satellite images (InSAR) received today. Excerpts from these images show more entries than has been previously seen in the region in recent days. The most likely explanation is that magma is forming under the area where the greatest seismic activity has taken place in recent days. These new data will be better processed, for example by means of a model, in order to better inform the course of events.
In light of this new data which was discussed at a Scientific Council meeting today and which has been reviewed by experts, it is important to take a closer look at the magma intrusion scenario beneath the area. by Fagradalsfjall.
The possible scenarios are:
1. Seismic activity will decrease in the coming days or weeks.
2. The eruption will increase with larger earthquakes, up to magnitude 6 near Fagradalsfjall
3.An earthquake with a magnitude of up to 6.5 will have its source in the Sulfur Mountains.
4. Magma intrusions continue near Fagradalsfjall with either:
- The magma intrusion activity decreases and the magma solidifies
- they lead to a lava flow which will probably not threaten the colonies.
Current activity on the Reykjanes Peninsula is divided into chapters and it is difficult to predict the exact development and whether one scenario is more likely than another. New data is expected later this week that could further shed light on the reasons for this crash. The Scientific Council will meet again tomorrow to make a new assessment of the available data as well as to assess new measures. "
Sources: IMO & mbls
Reykjanes peninsula - location and magnitude of the seisms - Doc. IMO at 02.03.2021 / 08h35
Sinabung - seismicity at 02.26.2021 - note a gradual increase over the past month - Doc. Magma Indonesia
Sinabung's main crater emits a thin, white plume about 50-200 meters from the summit.
The seismicity of February 26 is broken down into:
- 111 collapse / avalanche earthquakes, with an amplitude of 2 to 120 mm and an earthquake duration of 25 to 250 seconds.
- 31 emission earthquakes, with an amplitude of 3 to 27 mm and the earthquake lasted 12 to 110 seconds.
- 373 low frequency earthquakes, with an amplitude of 2 to 11 mm, and the duration of the earthquake was 5 to 26 seconds.
- a local tectonic earthquake.
The activity level remains at 3 / siaga /
Communities and visitors / tourists not to conduct activities in the villages that have been displaced, as well as the location within a radial radius of 3 km from the summit of G. Sinabung, as well as within a sector radius of 5 km for the south-eastern sector, and 4 km for the east-north sector.
Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia
Taal - everything seems calm on 02.26.2021 - photo Phivolcs
During the last 24 hours, the Taal volcanic monitoring network recorded twenty-eight (28) volcanic earthquakes and one hundred and thirty (130) episodes of volcanic tremor lasting from one (1) to five (5) minutes. . Despite this, only weak steam-laden plumes were emitted by fumarole activity at the vents of the main crater. Elevated temperatures of 74.6 ° C and a pH of 1.59 were last measured from the main crater lake on February 18 and 12, 2021, respectively. The ground deformation parameters of the continuous electronic tilt on the volcano island have recorded slight deflation around the main crater since October 2020, but overall, very slow and steady inflation of the Taal region was recorded by continuous GPS data after the eruption.
Alert level 1 (abnormal) is maintained on the Taal volcano. DOST-PHIVOLCS reminds the public that at Alert Level 1, sudden steam or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ash falls and fatal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas of the volcanic island of Taal (TVI). DOST-PHIVOLCS strongly recommends that entry into TVI, the Taal Permanent Danger Zone or PDZ, especially around the main crater and Daang Kastila fissure, remain strictly prohibited.
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 02/27/2021 / 7:10 am - Doc. IMO
An intense earthquake swarm began on the Reykjanes Peninsula at 10 a.m. on February 24 with an M5.7 earthquake followed by an M5.0 Earthquakes were widely felt in the southwestern part of the country, in the north-west of Iceland to Ísafjörður.
About twenty earthquakes of M4 and more have been recorded and more than 100 on M3. Earthquake rate decreased on February 25
Since noon on the 26th it started to increase again and several earthquakes above M4 were recorded. The largest earthquake on February 26 was M4.9 at 10:38 p.m. This was widely felt in the SW eg. in Vestmanneyjar, Borgarfjörður, Rangárþing. Three earthquakes on M3.0 were detected around 2:30 a.m. The largest was M3.8 and was felt in the southwest and west of Iceland.
Such intense swarms are not unheard of eg. on June 10, 1933, five earthquakes M4.9-M5.9 were recorded at Fagradalsfjall.
The swarm is still ongoing and since February 23, the SIL system has detected more than 6,000 earthquakes in the region.