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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

A flow of considerable dimensions descends the southern slope of the volcano La Palma, in the central area of ​​Corazoncillo, before the district of San Nicolas in Las Manchas. During the night, it traveled many meters fed by the south-eastern mouth of Cumbre Vieja which, until yesterday, had emitted only pyroclasts. On October 23 afternoon, it began to release significant amounts of lava, viscous, without great speed, but forming an unstoppable incandescent wall, which has already traveled several meters to besiege the area where the houses are located. This area remained at the limit of the primordial flow, and it is here that the new flow, almost annexed, now passes towards the said population center, where there is also a photovoltaic plant and, below, the cemetery of Las Manchas, still in the region of Los Llanos de Aridane.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Photo Involcan 24.10.2021 / 08:45

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Photo Involcan 24.10.2021 / 08:45

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - new south flow / Las Manchas area - photo 24.10.2021 / IGME

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - new south flow / Las Manchas area - photo 24.10.2021 / IGME

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - ash at the top and flows at the base of the cone - photo 24.10.2021 / ~ 19h / Itahiza

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - ash at the top and flows at the base of the cone - photo 24.10.2021 / ~ 19h / Itahiza

A new mouth opened in the lower part of the secondary cone of the Cumbre Vieja volcano on October 24 around 8 p.m., from which abundant lava flows. A landslide is envisaged in the western part of the secondary cone.

The rest of the flows maintain their lava charge, fed by lava tunnels.

An increase in intermediate and deep seismicity is observed, with increasing magnitudes in the intermediate zone.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 24.10.2021 in the evening - photo Volcanes de Canarias

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 24.10.2021 in the evening - photo Volcanes de Canarias

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 24.10.2021 / around 8 p.m. - A new mouth has opened in the lower part of the secondary cone of the Cumbre Vieja volcano - photo GEVolcan

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 24.10.2021 / around 8 p.m. - A new mouth has opened in the lower part of the secondary cone of the Cumbre Vieja volcano - photo GEVolcan

As of October 24, 2021 at 07:14 UTC, Copernicus reports that the extent of the lava flows has reached 901.2 ha. (+9.3 ha in 24 hours due to the new southern flow). The number of buildings destroyed amounts to 2,146.

What is the total amount of seismic energy released by earthquakes in La Palma?
Since September 11, earthquakes located under the Cumbre Vieja volcano have released an amount of energy equivalent to 500 tonnes of TNT. All the energy released by these earthquakes would be equal to that of a single magnitude 5 earthquake.

 

Sources: IGNes, InVolcan, Copernicus

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - sunk at 24.10.2021 / 07:14 UTC - Copericus EMSR - one click to enlarge

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - sunk at 24.10.2021 / 07:14 UTC - Copericus EMSR - one click to enlarge

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the local magnitudes (Ml, Richter scale) of earthquakes recorded by the Canary Seismic Network managed by the Volcanic Institute of the Canary Islands (INVOLCAN) and the cumulative seismic energy curve, colored in red, expressed in tonnes of TNT. The blue bar indicates the start of the eruption. - one click to enlarge

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the local magnitudes (Ml, Richter scale) of earthquakes recorded by the Canary Seismic Network managed by the Volcanic Institute of the Canary Islands (INVOLCAN) and the cumulative seismic energy curve, colored in red, expressed in tonnes of TNT. The blue bar indicates the start of the eruption. - one click to enlarge

Between October 15, 2021 at 4 p.m. (UTC) and October 22, 2021 at 4 p.m. (UTC), the OVSM recorded at Montagne Pelée, Martinique, at least 44 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, associated with the formation micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice, of magnitude less than or equal to 0.1.

These earthquakes were located inside the volcanic edifice between 1 km and 0.1 km below the surface. None of these earthquakes were felt by the population.

A degassing zone at sea was detected at shallow depth (between St Pierre and le Prêcheur). The IGP is currently setting up experiments to map this gas emanation zone, carry out physicochemical measurements of the fluids and samples of these fluids in order to understand the origin of this degassing and to assess its possible relationship. with the hydrothermal system of Mount Pelée. This kind of manifestation is frequent on active or not active underwater volcanic sites. The analyzes underway by the OVSM-IPGP will make it possible to determine the possible relationship of this underwater degassing with the activity of Mount Pelée recorded by the OVSM since 2019.

A main area of ​​heavily degraded vegetation is still observed on the southwest flank of Mount Pelée, between the upper Claire River and the Chaude River.

The alert level remains at  YELLOW / vigilance.

 

Source: OVSM / IPGP.

Mount Pelée and the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Martinique, - photo OVSM

Mount Pelée and the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Martinique, - photo OVSM

In the Krasnodar Territory, the mud volcano Shugo, located in the region of the Kuban village of Varenikovskaya, Crimea, erupted.

The first confirmed signs of volcanic activity appeared on social networks on the morning of Wednesday, October 20, 2021

Right now there are some very powerful emissions. The mud dumping dome reaches 50 meters in diameter. The masses of mud, which are spat out by the volcano, disperse at a distance of 30 meters. The frequency of activity of a mud volcano depends on the tectonic movements of the earth's crust, the dynamics of the pressure of gases in the vent of the volcano. It could also be affected by a weak earthquake that happened somewhere nearby or by changes in the weather: recently there have been heavy rains, there have been large fluctuations in temperature.

The sludge disposal area has a diameter of approximately 230 m. The western area has been dug into swimming pools.

 

Source: Mark Tingay

Shugo / Varenikovskaya mud volcano, Crimea - Watch on You Tube

Shugo mud volcano - sat. Maxar tech. and location NE of the Black Sea - one click to enlargeShugo mud volcano - sat. Maxar tech. and location NE of the Black Sea - one click to enlarge

Shugo mud volcano - sat. Maxar tech. and location NE of the Black Sea - one click to enlarge

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Etna SEC - the eruptive column on 11.23.2021 - photo AIV - Associazione Italiana di Vulcanologia / prof M Viccaro

Etna SEC - the eruptive column on 11.23.2021 - photo AIV - Associazione Italiana di Vulcanologia / prof M Viccaro

Continuation of yesterday's article on the paroxysm of the south-eastern crater of Etna:

(http://www.earth-of-fire.com/2021/10/activity-of-etna-vulcano-cumbre-vieja-and-kilauea.html)

Explosive activity began to abate around 10:00 UTC and essentially ended at 10:30 a.m., as landslides and hot material slides continued in the fracture formed in the southeast flank of the southeastern crater. ; the lava flow emitted by the lower part of the fracture was still advancing on the western flank of the Valle del Bove, having reached an altitude of about 2,300 m.

The eruptive vents in the upper part of the south-eastern crater produced lava fountains which, in the phase of maximum intensity, reached about 800 m in height.

The eruptive column rose, during the culminating phase of the paroxysm, to more than 10 km above sea level. Relapses of pyroclastic material have occurred towards the east-northeast, along an axis that starts from the south-eastern crater passes to the Citelli refuge and crosses the towns of Vena, Presa, Piedimonte Etneo, Taormina and up to to the province of Reggio Calabria. Relapses of lapilli and ash have also been reported by Mascali and Linguaglossa.

Etna Sec - on the left, the flow fed / 13:39 - on the right: supply stopped, flow in cooling / 18:33 - INGV webcam - one click to enlarge
Etna Sec - on the left, the flow fed / 13:39 - on the right: supply stopped, flow in cooling / 18:33 - INGV webcam - one click to enlarge

Etna Sec - on the left, the flow fed / 13:39 - on the right: supply stopped, flow in cooling / 18:33 - INGV webcam - one click to enlarge

INGV field staff report that there is a breach on the southeast side of the CSE, from which the pyroclastic material flows described in previous press releases originate, and from which collapses and small Flows continue to be observed heading towards Valle del Bove reaching an altitude of about 2900 m.
After reaching the maximum amplitude at 10:00 UTC, the volcanic tremor began a rapid descent and at 10:20 UTC, its average values ​​are falling further.
The last location of the tremor, at 09:15 UTC, is near the southeast crater at a depth of about 3.0 km s.l.m.

 

Etna - trémor at 23.10.2021 / 1 p.m. - Doc. INGV


The lava flow emitted by the eastern flank of the CSE, which has spread into the Valle del Bove, seems to be no longer fed and is gradually cooling down. At 17.00 UTC the amplitude of the tremor
volcanic is low. The last location of the tremor, at 4:15 p.m. UTC, is near the Bocca Nuova crater at a depth of about 3.0 km s.l.m. .


The number of infrasound events in the last 10 minutes at 10.12 UTC is very high.
The last infrasonic event is located near the CSE crater.
Analysis of the clinometric data of the paroxysmal event showed variations at different stations, with maximum cumulative values ​​(equal to approximately 3 microradians) recorded at the Cratere del Piano (ECP) station. GNSS network data over the past few hours has not shown any significant changes.

 

Source: INGV OE & INGVvulcani blog

Sheveluch, seen on 24.10.2021 / 07h24 from F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing Kamchatkan Volcanological Station -Klyuchi village, 45 km SSO of the volcano - IVS, KVERT, Weathernews inc.

Sheveluch, seen on 24.10.2021 / 07h24 from F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing Kamchatkan Volcanological Station -Klyuchi village, 45 km SSO of the volcano - IVS, KVERT, Weathernews inc.

Since the beginning of October, the KVERT has been reporting the activity of Sheveluch, and an Orange aviation code. Gas-vapor emissions containing a little ash continue.

On October 24, a plume was reported at 4,000 meters asl. drifting 33 km northeast.

The extrusive eruption continues and ash explosions can occur at any time.

 

Source: KVERT

Bagana - improved SO2 signal in the vicinity of Bagana with 5.66DU of SO2 on 24.10.2021 - Sentinel-5P tropomi

Bagana - improved SO2 signal in the vicinity of Bagana with 5.66DU of SO2 on 24.10.2021 - Sentinel-5P tropomi

Bagana - the bluish arc of sulfur dioxide is visible on the left - image Sentinel-2 bands4,3,2 from 24.10.2021

Bagana - the bluish arc of sulfur dioxide is visible on the left - image Sentinel-2 bands4,3,2 from 24.10.2021

Bagana is an isolated volcano located in the center of Bougainville Island in Papua New Guinea with eruptions dating back to 1842.
The current eruption period began in February 2000, with more recent activity characterized by thermal anomalies as well as gas and vapor plumes and ash (BGVN 44:12 and 45:07). Typical activity consists of episodes of lava flow and strong intermittent passive degassing, particularly of sulfur dioxide.
MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed a cluster of intermittent low-power thermal anomalies

Since October, many SO2 emissions have been detected by the Sentinel-5P / Tropomi satellite.

 

Sources: Sentinel-5P / Tropomi, Mounts project, Global Volcanism Program

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - ash emissions on 23.10.2021 - photo © Daniel Chereau

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - ash emissions on 23.10.2021 - photo © Daniel Chereau

La Palma / Cumbre vieja - partial collapse of the cone on 23.10.2021 / 11.30 a.m. - Doc. InVolcano

La Palma / Cumbre vieja - partial collapse of the cone on 23.10.2021 / 11.30 a.m. - Doc. InVolcano

In La Palma, four eruptive vents are active in various ways at Cumbre Vieja: emission of ash and pyroclasts, strombolian activity, effusion of lava and white degassing.

On October 23 around 11:30 am, part of the cone collapsed, with strong emission of ash.

The day was marked, according to Daniel Chereau, an on-site observer, by a lot of ash emitted, and a well-fed flow at the base of the cone, with overflows.

Copernicus EMSR reports an extension of the flows over 891.9 ha. And 2,143 buildings destroyed at 23.10 at 07:14 UTC.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the ashes hide the sun - webcam of El Paso on 23.10.2021 via volcanes de Canarias

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the ashes hide the sun - webcam of El Paso on 23.10.2021 via volcanes de Canarias

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the lava flows at 23.10.2021 / 07:14 UTC - Doc. Copernicus EMST

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the lava flows at 23.10.2021 / 07:14 UTC - Doc. Copernicus EMST

Ash emissions remain significant on the morning of October 24.

Seismicity is still recorded, in the same areas, with an increase in intensity.

DSN does not rule out the production of earthquakes of greater magnitude. Yesterday, an earthquake of M4.9 at a depth of 38 km. was felt in the south-east of the island.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Ash plume in the morning of 14.10.2021 - Photo Itahiza

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Ash plume in the morning of 14.10.2021 - Photo Itahiza

GEVolcan had access to some samples of "Palmerolitas", igneous rocks composed of two materials of different nature, as is the case of their counterparts the "Restingolitas" on el Hierro.
In principle, these samples would be composed of a white material with a trachytic-rhyolitic composition normally enveloped or encrusted with basaltic sideromelane.
Apparently, according to a known source, this type of rock has also been found in previous eruptions on the island, such as the Teneguía eruption.
Its origin is still the subject of scientific debate.

 

Sources: IGNes, InVolcan, DSN, Copernicus, Volcanes de Canarias, GEVolcan

Samples of "Palmerolitas" - phot GEVolcan

Samples of "Palmerolitas" - phot GEVolcan

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Etna SEC - on 10/21/2021 in the morning - photo Boris Behncke

Etna SEC - on 10/21/2021 in the morning - photo Boris Behncke

Etna - hot spots at the summit craters on 10/21/2021 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

Etna - hot spots at the summit craters on 10/21/2021 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

At Etna, the south-eastern crater has been in Strombolian activity since October 20 at the start of the day;

This October 23, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor continues the gradual upward trend, currently settling in the range of medium-high values, announcing a future paroxysm. The sources of the tremor are located in the SE crater at a depth of about 2900 m above sea level. At the same time, infrasonic activity increases with sources located mainly in the SE crater.

Etna -variations of the tremor at 23.10.2021 / 06h - Doc. INGV

Etna -variations of the tremor at 23.10.2021 / 06h - Doc. INGV

Currently, the unfavorable weather conditions allow an extremely discontinuous and partial display of the phenomenon in progress. In particular, from the visible camera of Montagnola and sometimes that of Monte Cagliato, one can glimpse frequent intermittent lightning, compatible with a probable Strombolian activity. Soil deformation monitoring networks do not show significant variations.

 

Update :

At 8:43 am, the Strombolian activity described in the previous press release rapidly evolved into a lava fountain.

At 08:49 UTC a flow of pyroclastic material was observed which detached from the east wall of the SE crater towards the Bove valley.

The INGV announces that the activity of the lava fountain is continuing. The ashes produced are driven by winds to the north.
At approximately 08:48, 09:02 and 09: 3 UTC, three streams of pyroclastic material occurred which detached from the eastern wall of the SE crater, covering approximately 1.5 km in the Valle del Bove. There is also a lava flow from the eastern flank of the CSE heading towards the Bove valley. The current phenomena were observed with discontinuity by the network of cameras, due to
adverse weather conditions.


09:37 UTC : From the camera array, another flow of pyroclastic material was observed from the eastern flank of the CSE, which traveled approximately 1.5 km towards the Valle del Bove.

At approximately 09:58 UTC, there was another flow of pyroclastic material from the eastern flank of the CSE. The flow was divided into two portions, the first heading towards the S stopping after a few hundred meters, while the second heading towards the Bove Valley. The activity of the lava fountain continues.
The activity produces an ash cloud directed towards the NE, relapses of pyroclastic material have been reported in the towns of Piedimonte and Linguaglossa. 

 

Source: INGV OE

 Etna SEC - coulée pyroclastique d'effondrement - Photo S.Mugnos 23.10.2021 / 08h49 UIC

Etna SEC - coulée pyroclastique d'effondrement - Photo S.Mugnos 23.10.2021 / 08h49 UIC

 Etna SEC - une des coulées pyroclastiques (petite et sans dommages)- photo Boris Behncke 23.10.2021

Etna SEC - une des coulées pyroclastiques (petite et sans dommages)- photo Boris Behncke 23.10.2021

Etna SEC - new climax underway on 23.10.2021 / 11:08 am - photo © Pippo Scarpinati

Etna SEC - new climax underway on 23.10.2021 / 11:08 am - photo © Pippo Scarpinati

Vulcano - fumaroles on the edge of the crater - photo INGV / 22.10.2021 - one click to enlarge

Vulcano - fumaroles on the edge of the crater - photo INGV / 22.10.2021 - one click to enlarge

This week, INGV researchers mainly engaged in sampling and analyzing four fumaroles placed on the edge and inner flank of the Crater de la Fossa in Vulcano.

These samples confirmed the presence of very high concentrations of gases such as CO2, SO2, Helium and Nitrogen, which continues to suggest a magmatic origin that underlies the current increase in fumarole activity present. on the island.

The temperature of the gases emitted by the fumarole system of the Crater de la Fossa reached 360 ° C in the area of ​​the crater rim and 220 ° C on its inner flank. Unfortunately, due to frequent and heavy rains in the last week, the average continuously recorded temperature is quite disturbed by the weather conditions.

On the other hand, the CO2 emissions on the ground recorded on a continuous basis have slightly increased in the Camping de Sicile and Remise areas, two localities which are respectively a few kilometers to the south-west and south-east of the inhabited region of Vulcano Porto. .

With regard to seismicity, the earthquakes of very small magnitude located at a shallow depth in the region of the Crater de la Fossa have decreased slightly compared to the previous week.

The cumulative deformation since September 13 is 2.5 cm. approximately, and does not seem to be progressing.

 

The agitation phase continues to be confirmed, some values ​​have increased during the week, while others have decreased ... the INGV concludes that the situation is not urgent. No evacuation is planned at this time, as there is no evidence that a volcanic eruption could begin anytime soon.

 

Source: CME INGV.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - activity from 10/22/2021 / 8:25 p.m. - photo Carlos Lorenzo / IGEM / Canarias radio - one click to enlarge

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - activity from 10/22/2021 / 8:25 p.m. - photo Carlos Lorenzo / IGEM / Canarias radio - one click to enlarge

At Cumbre Vieja, the reconnaissance flight on October 22 was carried out by descending along the main feed channel of the active flows, from the effusive lava outlet (note that the channel is open, like a ditch). Then, following the channel, one observes areas of lava tube (that is to say closed with a roof of solidified lava) which sometimes have "windows" or skylights through which the gases and the incandescent lava exit. . - Video footage recorded by the #IGME Aerial Work Service (#STA) in collaboration with the Emergency and Rescue Group (#GES) of the Government of the Canary Islands.

La Palma / Cumbre vieja - effusive lava exit on 21.10.2021 - IGME-CSIC video

On the night of the 22nd, a lava overflow took place, probably following an obstruction of the channel, the formation of a temporary lava lake which eventually overflowed.

The intermediate mouth of the main cone of the La Palma eruption has become a secondary cone, growing and gaining in height ... it could join the main crater and widen it, or partially crumble and reform into an iron cone -on horseback towards the north-west.

 

Sources : IGNes, InVolvan IGME, Canarias radio

La Palma / Cumbre vieja - 22.10.2021 - the intermediate mouth of the main cone grows in the shape of a secondary cone - photo Itahizo - one click to enlarge

La Palma / Cumbre vieja - 22.10.2021 - the intermediate mouth of the main cone grows in the shape of a secondary cone - photo Itahizo - one click to enlarge

The Kīlauea volcano is erupting. Since this morning of October 21, 2021, lava continues to emerge from a single vent in the western wall of Halema'uma'u crater. All lava activity is confined to Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. volcanic gas emission rates remain high.
No significant change observed in summit tilt or GPS observations. The seismic activity remains below the background noise and the volcanic tremor has remained high since the start of the eruption.

The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of about 791 meters above sea level by the HVO permanent laser range finder on October 21, 2021, which is an increase of 1 meter from the measurement of October 19, 2021 and a total increase of about 47 meters since lava emerged on September 29. The total erupting volume since the start of the eruption was estimated to be around 19.9 million cubic meters on October 15.
The west vent had constant fountain heights of up to 5m with occasional bursts of up to 10m observed by field crews on October 20.

 

Source: HVO

Kilauea - Halema'uma'u lava lake - Spattering at the west vent - USGS photo by D. Downs 20.10.2021 - one click to enlarge

Kilauea - Halema'uma'u lava lake - Spattering at the west vent - USGS photo by D. Downs 20.10.2021 - one click to enlarge

Kilauea - high thermal anomalies at 22.10.2021 / 12h15 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Kilauea - high thermal anomalies at 22.10.2021 / 12h15 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Kilauea - eruptive volcanic activity at 20.10.2021 - Doc. USGS - one click to enlarge

Kilauea - eruptive volcanic activity at 20.10.2021 - Doc. USGS - one click to enlarge

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Etna SEC - Strombolian activity in the evening of 21.10.2021 - photo Boris Behncke / INGV

Etna SEC - Strombolian activity in the evening of 21.10.2021 - photo Boris Behncke / INGV

The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etneo Observatory, announces that from approximately 5:20 pm UT on October 21, 2021, a gradual increase in explosive activity is observed at the level of the southeast crater of Etna.

It generates the projection of scraps of incandescent material beyond the edge of the crater. Currently, the current activity produces discontinuous and soft ash emissions which disperse in the direction of the eastern quadrants of the volcanic building.
The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor is currently at average levels with a slight tendency to increase. The location of the centroid of the sources of the volcanic tremor remains located in the area between Voragine and Bocca Nuova at an altitude between 2900 and 3000 m above sea level. Infrasound activity remains at low levels.
At present, soil deformation monitoring networks do not show significant variations.

 

Sources: INGV OE AND Boris Behncke

Yasur - ash and gas emission on the rise - VGO webcam 10/22/2021 3 p.m.

Yasur - ash and gas emission on the rise - VGO webcam 10/22/2021 3 p.m.

The activity of the Yasur volcano in Vanuatu continues in the state level of major unrest. The volcanic alert level remains at level 2.

New ground observations suggest that Yasur's volcanic activity emits plumes of volcanic gas and / or ash and few earthquakes were reported on September 28, 2021. With this current activity, with the presence of volcanic gases and / or volcanic ash around the summit crater, the danger zone remains at 600 meters around the volcanic cone. The danger zone for the safety of persons is limited to the danger zone A.
Analysis of the latest Yasur seismic data from the volcanoes monitoring system confirms that the activity of the Yasur volcano remains in a state of major unrest. The activity consists of continuous explosions with gas plumes and / or volcanic ash. Some explosions remain intensified and volcanic projectiles or bombs may fall in and / or around the summit crater.

The Yasur Volcanic Alert Level (VAL) has been at level 2 since October 18, 2016. Current observations are consistent with the activity of volcanic alert level 2. Level 2 indicates “major level of unrest; The danger zone remains at 600 m around the volcanic cone ”. With this current volcanic activity, it's a helpful reminder that eruptions can occur with little to no warning.


Source: VGO

Matupit island and Tarvurvur - photo archives Chris Bray / Australian geographic

Matupit island and Tarvurvur - photo archives Chris Bray / Australian geographic

Map of the Rabaul caldera - Doc. USGS / L. Topinka

Map of the Rabaul caldera - Doc. USGS / L. Topinka

On October 6, RVO raised the alert level for Rabaul to Level 1 (the lowest level on a four-level scale) due to ongoing deformation and recent increases in seismicity.

During the month of September, the seismic network detected a total of 22 high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes, more than the 12 recorded in August. The earthquakes were spread across the regions of Beehives, Vulcan, Greet Harbor and Namanula.

Deformation data from a GPS station located in the S part of Matupit Island showed a continuous uplift trend, with 39 mm / month in August and 35-39 mm / month in September. Diffuse white fumarolic plumes rose from the bottom of the crater and the interior walls.

 

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO / PNG / via GVP

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Heavy ash emissions leaving a lifeless gray landscape - 21.0.2021 / 10:27 - PTZ IP webcam

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Heavy ash emissions leaving a lifeless gray landscape - 21.0.2021 / 10:27 - PTZ IP webcam

Since the last press release, 124 earthquakes have been located in the area affected by the volcanic reactivation of Cumbre Vieja on La Palma.

Twelve of these earthquakes were felt by the population, the maximum intensity being in the epicentral zone IV (EMS98), with the earthquakes which occurred at 13:43 UTC on the 20th, with a magnitude of 3.6 mbLg and at 2:14 today, with a magnitude of 4.3 mbLg and depths of 11 and 37 km respectively. The earthquake of 2:14 today (4.3 mbLg) is the largest earthquake of the period considered.

A single earthquake was located at a depth of about 30 km, the rest of the hypocenters of the period are located at a shallower depth, about 12 km.

The volcanic tremor signal maintains a high average amplitude, with few intensifying pulses.
The height of the scattering cloud measured at 08:00 UTC is estimated at 4000 m.
The island's network of permanent GNSS stations still shows no clear tendency to warp from stations closest to eruptive centers, while at more distant stations a slight deflation is maintained, possibly related to deep seismicity. .

As of October 21, 2021 / 12:06 UTC, Copernicus reports an extension of lava flows over 886.6 ha., 6,800 ha. Covered by ashes and 2,122 buildings destroyed.
 

Source: IGNes, InVolcan, Copernicus

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja  - 21.10.2021 / 14h30 - nouvelle webcam IGN / Tazacorte

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 21.10.2021 / 14h30 - nouvelle webcam IGN / Tazacorte

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Castings at 21.10.2021 / 12:06 - Doc.Copernicus EMSR

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Castings at 21.10.2021 / 12:06 - Doc.Copernicus EMSR

Cumbre Vieja - 20.10.2021 Activity - Vidéo IGME-CSIC

Cumbre Vieja - Overflow of lava from the main canal - 20.10.2021 / 19h30 - Vidéo IGME-CSIC

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Etna SEC - small explosion and puff of ash and gas on 20.10.2021 / 09:17 - photo © Pippo Scarpinati

Etna SEC - small explosion and puff of ash and gas on 20.10.2021 / 09:17 - photo © Pippo Scarpinati

The INGV communicates that on October 20 from around 02:47 UTC, a weak resumption of Strombolian activity is observed at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna.

So far, activity has produced sporadic isolated explosions accompanied by small puffs of gas / ash, which move southwest, dispersing into the atmosphere. Over the next few minutes, sporadic faint glows were observed, accompanied by gas emissions.

The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor oscillates between low and medium-low values. The locations of the tremor sources are concentrated in the area of ​​the central craters with depth between 2600 and 2700 m; altitude. The rate of occurrence of infrasonic events is moderate with sources located in the area of ​​the Bocca Nuova crater and some events at the SE crater.

 

Sources: INGV OE, Pippo Scarpinati and Gio Giusa

Etna SEC - explosion and puff of ash and gas on 20.10.2021 - photo Gio Giusa

Etna SEC - explosion and puff of ash and gas on 20.10.2021 - photo Gio Giusa

Map of the summit craters of Etna, morphological update from the SEC carried out following the drone and GPS campaign of October 4, 2021. - Doc. INGV OE

Map of the summit craters of Etna, morphological update from the SEC carried out following the drone and GPS campaign of October 4, 2021. - Doc. INGV OE

A strong eruption occurred on the volcano of the island-volcano of Manam in Papua New Guinea at 22:40 UTC on October 19, 2021. The ash plume rose to more than 15 km of altitude. The color of the air alert has changed to Red.

Another plume rose more than 10 km a few hours later.


A heavy blanket of ash on the island obscures it from the mainland. An abundant lava flow is reported in the valley northwest of the village of Budua, as well as a pyroclastic avalanche or pyroclasts fall on the villages of Baliau, Boda and Kuluguma.
The island is plunged into darkness, the mobile network is poor.

 

Sources: VAAC Darwin, local observers.

Manam - huge plume of gas and ash - photo PNG EVI / FB 20.10.2021

Manam - huge plume of gas and ash - photo PNG EVI / FB 20.10.2021

Manam - plume of gas and ash - photo Mangi Tais Agamguar 20.10.2021 / via Shérine France

Manam - plume of gas and ash - photo Mangi Tais Agamguar 20.10.2021 / via Shérine France

No significant changes in the activity of Cumbre Vieja on the island of La Palma; the volcano continues to feed the lava field at high effusion rates.

The flows further north continue to cause damage in the La Laguna area, destroying infrastructure, businesses and homes.

La Palma - lava flows by Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A on 20.10.2021

La Palma - lava flows by Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A on 20.10.2021

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the mouths aligned on the eruptive fissure - photo IGME 21.10.2021

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the mouths aligned on the eruptive fissure - photo IGME 21.10.2021

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the eruptive site at 21.10.2021 / 08:55 - photo IGME

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the eruptive site at 21.10.2021 / 08:55 - photo IGME

A cloud of sulfur dioxide (SO2) extended yesterday from the Canary Islands, passing over Spain, France and Germany, to Belarus.

As of October 19 at 18:56 UTC, the extent of the lava covered 866.1 ha (+ 54.3ha in 48 hours). 2185 buildings have been destroyed to date (+229 in 48 hours) - Copernicus data.

New evacuations were decided on October 20 at 8:30 p.m. by the Pevolca: Las Martelas, Marina alta, Marina Baja, La Condesa and Cuesta Zapata.

 

Sources: IGNes, InVolcan, IGME, RTVC, GEVolcan

Eruption of La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 20.10.2021 the sulfur dioxide cloud over Europe - Doc. Adam Platform

Eruption of La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 20.10.2021 the sulfur dioxide cloud over Europe - Doc. Adam Platform

La Palma - Lava flows of Cumbre Vieja at 19.10.2021 / 19h13 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

La Palma - Lava flows of Cumbre Vieja at 19.10.2021 / 19h13 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

During the 2021 North Atlantic Stepping Stones Expedition, the NOAA Ocean Exploration mapping team mapped (to varying degrees) about 40 seamounts in New England, 20 of which had little to no pre-existing data.

This expedition fills the gaps in our collective understanding of the North Atlantic seamount chains.

This image shows new New England seamount bathymetric data collected with the EM 304 MK II variant on the NOAA Okeanos Explorer ship during the expedition, overlaid on the multi-resolution global topographic data summary grid.

 

Source: NOAA Ocean Exploration

New England and Corner Rise Seamounts - Image courtesy of NOAA Ocean Exploration, 2021 North Atlantic Stepping Stones.

New England and Corner Rise Seamounts - Image courtesy of NOAA Ocean Exploration, 2021 North Atlantic Stepping Stones.

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La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 4 mouths are active this 19.10.2021 - Doc. IGME

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 4 mouths are active this 19.10.2021 - Doc. IGME

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Overview of the summit vents on 17.10.2021- Doc. IGME-CSIC

In La Palma, the release of magma from the eruption of Cumbre Vieja continues on a similar pattern to the previous days. The lava flow south of Montana de La Lagune has advanced up to a hundred meters from the coast.

Containment has been decreed for San Borodon, La Condesa, Marina Alta, Marina Baja and Tazacorte, in anticipation of gas emissions produced during the meeting between lava and seawater.

Poor air quality, due to thermal inversion, requires self-containment and the use of FFP2 type masks, or higher, in case of exit.

The lava affected area is 780 ha. ; the castings have a max. of 2,900 meters.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - lava enters La Laguna 19.10.2021 - Doc. PlametaCanario

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - lava enters La Laguna 19.10.2021 - Doc. PlametaCanario

An overview of the 4 summit mouths was carried out on October 19 by the IGME. The 3 vents located at the highest levels present a more explosive activity, with a predominance of gas and pyroclastic emissions. In the NW mouth, at a lower level, the lava emission predominates. (IGME-CSIC).

Overview of the lava flows - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=362YfwlILiE

 

An interesting diagram of the plumbing has been posted by volcanes de Canarias, for information / with a scale not respected.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - diagram of the plumbing of the volcano, for information /  scale not respected. - Association Volcanes de Canarias via Alexia Guzman Lopez 18.10.2021 - one click to enlarge

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - diagram of the plumbing of the volcano, for information / scale not respected. - Association Volcanes de Canarias via Alexia Guzman Lopez 18.10.2021 - one click to enlarge

The Canaries are a biodiversity hotspot in Europe, with the highest concentration of endemic species, thanks to volcanic eruptions.

Without approaching more than 1 km from the volcano's cone and 200 m from the lava flows, the scientists take an x-ray of what will be swallowed up a few hours later. The same work is done on historic flows that are fifty or seventy centuries old, to see how ecosystems are rebuilt. It is a look to the past to try to reconstruct the future, sums up the naturalist.

This work is also being done by the World Biosphere Reserve of La Palma. "We have a lot of data on the affected submarine area", explains biologist Laura Concepción. "We will have the chance to follow its recovery, then to compare."

In the meantime, on earth, animals are completely confused, in their behavior and their diet. Like the vegetation: in the south of the island, nearly 90% of the flora is dead or will soon be, estimates Manuel Nogales. Some endangered species are under close scrutiny, although they are not threatened by the lava at the moment. However, biologists are unanimous: in the long term, the eruption will be beneficial for a large number of species.

 

Sources: IGNes, InVolcan, IGEM, DSN, local press, RTVC.

Asosan - Nakadake crater - Photo JMA 14.10.2021

Asosan - Nakadake crater - Photo JMA 14.10.2021

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported that Mount ASO erupted early this Thursday, October 14, 2021.

The explosion occurred in the volcano from its Nakadake crater at 4:43 a.m. local time this morning, according to the JMA. A column of gas vapor containing a quantity of ash rose 600 meters (1,900 feet) above the crater.

Professor Takahiro Okura from Kyoto University's Volcanoes Research Center said when they got to the site, they found a volcanic boulder or two that allegedly broke a fence around the crater.
The event was preceded by a gradual increase in the volcanic tremor starting at 3:30 p.m. local time yesterday. It reached a sharp peak of tremor during the eruption, then decreased again to medium-low values.
As the webcam images show, it seems likely to be a phreatic or hydrothermal explosion, although this detail has yet to be confirmed by the volcano observatory.

Asosan - phreatic episode of 14.10.2021 - a beautiful bomb damaged the barrier - KKT / Tiempo Extremo Noticias video extracts
Asosan - phreatic episode of 14.10.2021 - a beautiful bomb damaged the barrier - KKT / Tiempo Extremo Noticias video extracts

Asosan - phreatic episode of 14.10.2021 - a beautiful bomb damaged the barrier - KKT / Tiempo Extremo Noticias video extracts

On October 20, a strong explosion occurred at Nakadake Crater at around 11:43 a.m. local time.
During a phase of intense vapor emissions, an explosion suddenly occurred, with the emission of a large column of ash several kilometers high, as well as a dense circular base wave close to the ground - base surge - which has almost reached the visitor center. Large ballistic projectiles can be seen ejected from the center of the explosion and also landing several hundred meters away.

Tropomi has detected a Sulfur Dioxide signal with 3.54 DU of SO2.

Tours of the crater have been canceled and the park has been closed under security restrictions. The warning bulletin states that ballistic impacts from volcanic bombs and pyroclastic flows could affect an area about 1 km from the main crater.

Alert is at level 3 .

 

Sources: JMA & KKT

Asosan - phreatic explosion and surge base on 20.10.2021 - cam. KKT

Asosan - phreatic explosion and surge base on 20.10.2021 - cam. KKT

Asosan - SO2 signal in the vicinity of Asosan on 20.10.2021, with 3.54DU of SO2. - Sentinel-5P Tropomi image - DLR / BIRA / ESA

Asosan - SO2 signal in the vicinity of Asosan on 20.10.2021, with 3.54DU of SO2. - Sentinel-5P Tropomi image - DLR / BIRA / ESA

A weekly bulletin of the situation of Vulcano, from October 12 to 19, 2021, has been issued by the INGV OE

The temperature of the fumaroles of the crater is slightly increasing in the internal slope of La Fossa while at the edge there are no definite signs due to the frequent rains which have occurred in recent days which disturb the thermal state;

Geochemistry of fumarolic gases: the last sample of 12.10.2021 indicates very high levels of magmatic gases in the fumaroles of the crater.

 

The flow of SO2 in the crater area occurs at a high level of outgassing.

The flow of CO2 in the crater area is slightly lower but with high degassing levels;
The flow of CO2 at the base of the La Fossa cone and in the area of ​​Vulcano Porto remains constantly high in the area of ​​Grotta dei Palizzi and growing in the Sicila campsites and at the foot of the Old Forge (Rimessa site); in the other sites no significant variation is observed;
Geochemistry of thermal aquifers: the upward trend continues, although slightly down, in the water temperature on the Sicilia Campsite, while the conductivity values ​​are down slightly; no significant change in the other monitored sites;


Regarding local seismicity, we note a decrease in the rate of occurrence of low frequency events (<1Hz).
Regional seismicity: no fracturing event during the week considered.

Vulcano - Daily frequency and cumulative number of micro-tremors (peak frequency between 1 and 30 HZ) that characterize the local seismicity of Vulcano from 06/01/2021. The blue curve indicates the cumulative number of events - Doc. INGV

Vulcano - Daily frequency and cumulative number of micro-tremors (peak frequency between 1 and 30 HZ) that characterize the local seismicity of Vulcano from 06/01/2021. The blue curve indicates the cumulative number of events - Doc. INGV

In terms of deformations: GNSS data show that the strong variations, which started in mid-September, seem to have stopped last week.
In recent days, the clinometric network shows an attenuation of the variations that began on September 13.

Two continuous gravity stations were installed between October 12 and 13, 2021. The acquired signals and some recorded variations are displayed.

The possible phenomena expected in the short / medium term are listed below:
- continued increase in fumarolic and diffuse degassing;
- increases in the temperature of the gases and their flow rates, with variations in the thermal layer;
- increase in seismicity linked to hydrothermal activity and the appearance of volcano-tectonic seismicity;
- increase in deformations;
- slope movements;
- impulsive explosive phenomena such as phreatic explosions can occur suddenly.

 

Source: INGV OE

Vulcano - fumaroles from 10/18/2021 / 3:36 p.m. - INGV OE webcam

Vulcano - fumaroles from 10/18/2021 / 3:36 p.m. - INGV OE webcam

Vulcano - From the edge of La Fossa, view to Vulcanello, Lipari and Salina - photo archives © Bernard Duyck 2008 - one click to enlatge

Vulcano - From the edge of La Fossa, view to Vulcanello, Lipari and Salina - photo archives © Bernard Duyck 2008 - one click to enlatge

Activity in Manam, Papua New Guinea, is strong according to satellite data.

Mirova recorded thermal anomalies on October 18.19 between VRP 2378 and 314MW.

Sentinel-5P Tropomi reports for this October 20 a strong sulfur dioxide signal 112km from Manam, with 16.87 DU of SO2 at an altitude of about 10 km. The estimated mass within 300 km is 7.5 kt.

VAAC Darwin announces a Vona Rouge.

 

Source: Mirova, Sentinel-2, VAAC Darwin

Manam - Hot spot on the image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 from 16.10.2021 - one click to enlarge

Manam - Hot spot on the image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 from 16.10.2021 - one click to enlarge

Manam - 2021.10.20 - strong SO2 signal at 112.6 km from Manam with 16.87DU of SO2 at ~ 10 km altitude - image Sentinel-5P Tropomi -DLR / BIRA / ESA

Manam - 2021.10.20 - strong SO2 signal at 112.6 km from Manam with 16.87DU of SO2 at ~ 10 km altitude - image Sentinel-5P Tropomi -DLR / BIRA / ESA

Manam - Volcanic ash advisory of 20.10.2021 - VAAC Darwin IDY65295

Manam - Volcanic ash advisory of 20.10.2021 - VAAC Darwin IDY65295

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Reunion / Piton de La Fournaise - Dolomieu and Bory craters - photo archives © Bernard Duyck

Reunion / Piton de La Fournaise - Dolomieu and Bory craters - photo archives © Bernard Duyck

The seismic crisis that began at 4:33 am local time (12:33 am UTC) at Piton de La Fournaise gradually subsided this morning.

This morning, only rare earthquakes are still recorded and their location remains confined to the Plaine des Osmondes sector to the west-northwest of Piton de Crac.

A total of 679 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and 241 long-period and deep-type earthquakes were recorded by the OVPF between 10/18/2021 and 10/19/2021 at 8 a.m. local time. This seismicity was localized under the summit area and under the northeast flank (between 0.7 km above sea level and 1.4 km below sea level.

The alert level is at 1

 

Update : in its 14:30 press release, the OVPF declares that the seismic crisis has stopped. The intrusion that has taken place in the Plaine des Osmondes no longer seems to be progressing today. Apart from a Magnitude M1.9 earthquake at 10:51 (local time) located 1.4 km below sea level, no Magnitude M> or = 0.5 earthquake has been recorded today by the OVPF , whether under the summit or in the Plaine des Osmondes.

Despite the end of the seismic crisis and the cessation of the deep intrusion, a resumption of the progress of the intrusion further downstream or in another area is not excluded.

 

Source : OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise: Location map (epicenters) and north-south and east-west sections (showing the location in depth, hypocenters) of the earthquakes recorded and located by the OVPF-IPGP between 10/18/2021 and 19 / 10/2021 8h under the Piton de la Fournaise massif. Only a few characteristic earthquakes have been located at this time (© OVPF-IPGP)

Piton de La Fournaise: Location map (epicenters) and north-south and east-west sections (showing the location in depth, hypocenters) of the earthquakes recorded and located by the OVPF-IPGP between 10/18/2021 and 19 / 10/2021 8h under the Piton de la Fournaise massif. Only a few characteristic earthquakes have been located at this time (© OVPF-IPGP)

Vedurstofan has lowered the aviation alert (aviation color code) from orange to yellow for the Krísuvík volcanic system - Fagradalsfjall / Geldingadalur eruption.

From September 18 to the present day, no lava flow has been observed from Fagrdalsfjall crater. Gas is still measured, but in very small quantities, signs of temperature are also visible, but at longer intervals. Every now and then there is glowing lava from the previous outing and especially when it's dark. The heat and embers can continue for weeks / months even if no new lava comes out of the crater. Seismic activity southwest of Keilir, which began on September 27, has declined significantly in recent days.

No rash has been observed for an entire month

 

Sources: Kristín Jónsdóttir / IMO & Icelandic volcanoes

Trouble graph showing activity from September 18 to October 18 around the Fagradalsfjall eruption - Doc. IMO

Trouble graph showing activity from September 18 to October 18 around the Fagradalsfjall eruption - Doc. IMO

In La Palma, the eruption of Cumbre Vieja continues, the lava flows mainly concern the northern flank, and progress in a west-north-west direction.

A flow channel is 160 meters from the sea; its speed slowed down to about 2 m./hour.The height of the plume of gas and ash is about 4,200 meters

After a month of eruption, the affected area reached 763 hectares. Copernicus reports 1956 destroyed buildings.

Two educational centers were closed in the Tazacorte area, given the possibility of lava reaching the coast.

LaPalma Cumbre Vieja - This photograph taken by IGME staff - CSIC shows three of the four mouths that are active at this time in the Volcano de La Palma, as well as the large accumulation of ash in the surrounding areas

LaPalma Cumbre Vieja - This photograph taken by IGME staff - CSIC shows three of the four mouths that are active at this time in the Volcano de La Palma, as well as the large accumulation of ash in the surrounding areas

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the castings at 17.10.2021 / 18:56 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the castings at 17.10.2021 / 18:56 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

Since the last declaration, 101 earthquakes have been located in the area affected by the volcanic reactivation of Cumbre Vieja, 7 of these earthquakes were felt by the population, the maximum intensity being in the epicentral zone IV (EMS98) , in the earthquakes that occurred at 11:06 am and 11:57 pm UTC on the 17th, with magnitudes of 4.0 and 4.6 (mbLg) at depths of 35 and 36 km, respectively. Moreover, this last earthquake was the most important of the period under consideration.
A total of 35 earthquakes were located at depths of about 30 km, the rest of the hypocenters of the period are located at a shallower depth of about 12 km.
The volcanic tremor signal maintains a high average amplitude, with intensifying pulses, since the last communication.

 

Sources: InVolcan de Canarias, GEVolcan IGME, DSN, IGNSpain

La Palma - Seismicity at 18.10.2021 / 12:06 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - Seismicity at 18.10.2021 / 12:06 - Doc. IGNes

In the Ogasawara Islands, an activity still marks Nishinoshima and Fukutoku Okanoba, revealed by the discoloration of the waters around these volcanoes.

On October 17, crustal movements brought up sunken shipwrecks.

 

Source: ANNnewsCH & Japan Coast Guards Video

Nishinoshima - 12.10.2021 - by Japan Coast Guards

Nishinoshima - 12.10.2021 - by Japan Coast Guards

Fukutoku - discolored waters surrounding the Niijima - photo JCG

Fukutoku - discolored waters surrounding the Niijima - photo JCG

ANNnewsCH video - from Nishinoshima to Fukutoku

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LaRéunion - Piton de La Fournaise - east and northeast flanks of the Dolomieu, with a cloud "trapped" in the crater - photo archives © Bernard Duyck

LaRéunion - Piton de La Fournaise - east and northeast flanks of the Dolomieu, with a cloud "trapped" in the crater - photo archives © Bernard Duyck

The seismic crisis that began at 04:33 local time (00:33 UTC time) at Piton de la Fournaise continues.

Between 04:33 and 10:50 local time, 537 volcano-tectonic earthquakes and 81 long-period type earthquakes were recorded by the OVPF. This seismicity is localized under the summit zone and under the eastern flank (between 0.6 km above sea level and 1.2 km below sea level).

The seismicity and the source of the deformations show a migration of the magma in depth towards the north northeast flank of the volcano, in the Piton de Crac sector, a little further north than the intrusion of September 28-30, 2020.

In 2020, the seismic crisis, which accompanied this intrusion, lasted two days and did not lead to an eruption, the magma having stopped at depth.

An eruption is likely shortly within the next few minutes or hours.

Piton de La Fournaise - seismic crisis in progress this 18.10.2021 - doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - seismic crisis in progress this 18.10.2021 - doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - location of the earthquakes in progress on October 18, 2021 - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - location of the earthquakes in progress on October 18, 2021 - Doc. OVPF

Under these conditions, the prefect decided to trigger again the alert phase 1 "probable or eminent eruption" of the specific ORSEC volcano device as of today at 7 a.m.

Consequently, public access to the upper part of the Piton de la Fournaise enclosure, whether from the Pas de Bellecombe trail or from any other trail, remains prohibited. It is recalled that the landing of aircraft in the volcano area is regulated and subject to authorization from the Prefecture.

 

Sources: OVPF & Préfecture de La Réunion.

La Palma - Explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieje at 17.10.2021 -  photos InVolcan  de Canarias
La Palma - Explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieje at 17.10.2021 -  photos InVolcan  de Canarias

La Palma - Explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieje at 17.10.2021 - photos InVolcan de Canarias

In La Palma, the Cumbre Vieja flows, which have the best lava supply near the Laguna, continue to advance west and north-west.

The flow to the southwest of Montana de LaLaguna is 200 m. from the sea, and new precautions against explosions and gas fumes are taken for the nuclei of Tazacorte inhabitants.

The Southeast vent is clearly visible on the webcams; it is an old vent, reactivated in contact with water. The phreatomagmatic explosions have now diminished, but the production of ash persists.

La Palma - earthquakes at 18.10.2021 / 08:08 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - earthquakes at 18.10.2021 / 08:08 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - advance of the lava flows at 15.10.2021 / 18:56 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

La Palma - advance of the lava flows at 15.10.2021 / 18:56 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

La Palma -  explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieja / 17.102 021 -photo I love the world
La Palma -  explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieja / 17.102 021 -photo I love the world

La Palma - explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieja / 17.102 021 -photo I love the world

At La Palma airport, flights were suspended due to the ash cloud

 

Sources: InVolcan de Canarias, IGME, IGNes, Copernicus, DSN, Ilovethe world

La Palma - the eruption of Cumbre Vieja drowns the countryside and nearby homes in ashes - photos Ilovethe world / Twitter
La Palma - the eruption of Cumbre Vieja drowns the countryside and nearby homes in ashes - photos Ilovethe world / Twitter

La Palma - the eruption of Cumbre Vieja drowns the countryside and nearby homes in ashes - photos Ilovethe world / Twitter

At Otake Crater on Suwanosejima, active eruptive activity continues.

Four explosions (preliminary figures) occurred, accompanied by an ash plume which rose to 2,700 m. altitude. Pyroclasts are scattered up to about 500m from the center of the crater.

Ashfall is confirmed at Toshima, about 4 km SW of the crater.

The volcanic tremors mainly occurred with the eruption.

On the inclinometer of the Nabetao station, slight variations to the west are detected.

 

Source: October 18, 4:00 p.m., Fukuoka District Weather Observatory, Kagoshima Local Weather Observatory

Suwanosejima - explosion of 18.10.2021 - 08:16 loc. - JMA webcam

Suwanosejima - explosion of 18.10.2021 - 08:16 loc. - JMA webcam

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The PHIVOLCS published an abnormally high SO2 volcanic gas emission notice from the Taal volcano.
A total of 23,576 tonnes / day of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions from the main Taal crater was recorded on the morning of October 15, the second highest after Taal's peak SO2 emission of 25,456 tonnes / day on the 5th October 2021. SO2 flux this month averaged 9,872 tonnes / day while the average flux trend continues to increase since March 2021. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 9,154 tonnes / day on October 16, 2021.

Taal - gas and steam plume at Taal volcano Island on 15.10.2021 - Doc. Pengasa FB

Taal - gas and steam plume at Taal volcano Island on 15.10.2021 - Doc. Pengasa FB

News of Taal, Cumbre Vieja and Erta Ale.

The degassing of the main Taal crater, moreover, was noticeably large and generated steam-laden plumes reaching 3,000 meters above the volcanic island of Taal or TVI.

The thick VOG observed over the Taal Caldera area can be expected to drift northwesterly based on PAGASA's air particle track forecast.

Volcanic seismic activity in Taal resumed on October 11, 2021 after a period of calm that began on September 27, 2021. A total of 145 events consisting mainly of weak low frequency earthquakes and volcanic tremor associated with magma and magmatic gas flows have been recorded since seismic activity resumed until 4:00 pm today. Finally, a sudden inflation of TVI was detected by GPS monitoring in August 2021, compatible with a new pressurization of the underground hydrothermal system due to continuous magmatic degassing.
In view of the above, DOST-PHIVOLCS reminds the public that alert level 2 prevails over the Taal volcano and that the current SO2 parameters indicate high levels of magmatic degassing from the main crater that could lead to explosive activity.

 

Sources: DOST-PHIVOLCS and PNA.gov.ph

La Palma - seismicity at 16.10.2021 / 07:40 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - seismicity at 16.10.2021 / 07:40 - Doc. IGNes

Since the last survey, 90 earthquakes have been located in the area affected by the volcanic reactivation of Cumbre Vieja, 10 of these earthquakes were felt by the population. An earthquake occurred at 06:07 UTC on October 16, with a magnitude of 4.5 (mbLg) at a depth of 37 km.

At 4:41 am, the largest earthquake occurred since the start of the eruption (4.6 mbLg), at a depth of 37 km, which was felt by the population with intensity III-IV.
A total of 11 earthquakes were located at depths of about 30 km, the rest of the hypocenters of the period are located at a shallower depth, about 12 km.

The volcanic tremor signal maintains a high average amplitude, with intensifying pulses, since the last communication.

 LaPalma / Cumbre Vieja - Anomalies thermiques en hausse au 16.10.2021 / 23h15 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_VRP

LaPalma / Cumbre Vieja - Anomalies thermiques en hausse au 16.10.2021 / 23h15 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_VRP

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the two eruptive columns, seen from the Mirador Astronómico Llano de Jable on 16.10.2021 - photo Jorge Eduardo Romero Moyano geologist

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the two eruptive columns, seen from the Mirador Astronómico Llano de Jable on 16.10.2021 - photo Jorge Eduardo Romero Moyano geologist

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja -brown ash coat at the ENE of the active vents - photo Jorge Eduardo Romero Moyano, geologist, 16.10.2021

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja -brown ash coat at the ENE of the active vents - photo Jorge Eduardo Romero Moyano, geologist, 16.10.2021

Les coulées de lave ont affecté une surface de 742 ha. et détruit 1.058 bâtiments.

The height of the cloud is measured at 08:00 UTC and is estimated at 4,500 m.

The eruptive mouth that opened this Friday is not a new earthly opening, but rather an old one that would have been reactivated.

The two columns of gas and ash stand out well, the one that opened yesterday seems quite active, with a lot of water vapor and gas.

After the opening of the new emission center to the SE, an increase in lava flow is observed at the NW end of the eruptive fissure. Slowed flows can be reactivated.

 

Sources: IGNes, IGME, Involcan, DSN

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja -the thermal image of the lava delta ... still very hot on 16.10.2021 - Doc. CSIC

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja -the thermal image of the lava delta ... still very hot on 16.10.2021 - Doc. CSIC

Thermal anomalies, weak between VRP2 and 17 MW, were spotted by Mirova in October at Erta Ale in Ethiopia.

On the Sentinel-2 images, the activity seems more important at the northern pit crater

 

Sources: Mirova and Sentinel-2

Erta Ale - Thremic anomalies at 16.10.2021 / 22:45 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Erta Ale - Thremic anomalies at 16.10.2021 / 22:45 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Erta Ale - Sentinel-2 bands images 12,11,8A from 10.15.2021 / 07:39 am - via Mounts Project
Erta Ale - Sentinel-2 bands images 12,11,8A from 10.15.2021 / 07:39 am - via Mounts Project

Erta Ale - Sentinel-2 bands images 12,11,8A from 10.15.2021 / 07:39 am - via Mounts Project

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity, #Sismologia

Effusive and explosive activity continues in La Palma / Cumbre Vieja, at high levels. During the night and this morning, frequent lava rises occurred at the level of the crater.
Large amounts of lava can be seen flowing in waves from the pierced crater, covering the lower northwest flanks of the cone with leaf-shaped flows.
These lava floods are likely caused by partial collapses at or around the lower vent in particular.

According to Pevolca & InVolcan, a new eruptive vent has opened southeast of the main vent. It ejects gases and pyroclasts.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - gas and pyroclast emissions from the new vent - photo CSIC 15.10.2021

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - gas and pyroclast emissions from the new vent - photo CSIC 15.10.2021

The two streams that are south of La Laguna mountain are monitored, as they could converge and reach the sea.

The last Copernicus map dated October 14 at 19:02 UTC mentions 733 ha covered by lava flows, and 1,817 buildings destroyed.

La Palma - Cumbre Vieja - images Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.4 (top) and bands 12.11.8A (bottom) from 15.10.2021- one click to enlarge
La Palma - Cumbre Vieja - images Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.4 (top) and bands 12.11.8A (bottom) from 15.10.2021- one click to enlarge

La Palma - Cumbre Vieja - images Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.4 (top) and bands 12.11.8A (bottom) from 15.10.2021- one click to enlarge

La Palma Cumbre Viela - the lava flows at 14.10.2021 / 19:02 UTC - Doc.Copernicue EMSR

La Palma Cumbre Viela - the lava flows at 14.10.2021 / 19:02 UTC - Doc.Copernicue EMSR

The CSIC posted a video in which Vincente Soler, titular volcanologist, exhibits a sample taken by a colleague in an area near the eruptive center which, in the absence of laboratory verification, is inclined to classify as pre-oceanic sediment. island (more than 2 million years old), with strong similarities with the "restingolitas" emitted during the eruption of the submarine Tagoro volcano, in El Hierro.

 

Sources: IGNes, CSIC, InVolcan, Pevolca, IGM, Copernicus.

La Palma Cumbre Vieja - 14.10.2021- sample similar to "restingolitas" presented by Vicente Soler, volcanologist at CSIC. - Image CSIC

La Palma Cumbre Vieja - 14.10.2021- sample similar to "restingolitas" presented by Vicente Soler, volcanologist at CSIC. - Image CSIC

Lava effusion continued this week at the Great Sitkin in the Aleutian Arc, and lava now fills more than half of the summit crater. Satellite imagery from October 11 showed that two lava lobes, flowing over low points on the crater rim, extend down a slope 330 m to the south and 350 m to the west. Lava also reached the rim of the crater on its northern periphery. In a few areas, lava advanced over snow and ice, but no abnormal melting, vapor formation or water accumulation was observed. This indicates that melt rates are likely low and that there is no indication of impending hydrological hazards.

The lava lobes which have passed the edge of the summit crater flow into small valleys developed on the volcanic edifice. The terrain is steep in these areas, and boulders of lava and lava rubble could break away from the terminus of the flow lobes without warning and form small rock avalanches in these valleys. Such avalanches can release ash and gas and could travel several hundred meters beyond lava flows; they would be dangerous for anyone in these areas.

Satellite imagery shows a likely-formed boulder deposit extending 450 m beyond the western flow lobe terminus.

The level of seismicity has been slightly elevated over the past week and there have been persistent small earthquakes likely associated with the ongoing lava flow. No explosive activity or ash emission was detected in seismic, infrasound, satellite or web camera data.

There is no indication of how long the lava flow lasted during the current eruption, and it is possible that explosive activity could occur with little or no warning.

Current volcano alert level: Watch
Current Aviation Color Code: Orange.

 

Source: AVO

Great Sitkin - WorldView-3 SWIR image from 02.10.2021 / 22:56 UTC - Doc.AVO MM.Loewen (The red-orange areas are high temperature lava, while the blue is snow. The light blue is the vegetation and browns to blacks are the rock.) - one click to enlarge

Great Sitkin - WorldView-3 SWIR image from 02.10.2021 / 22:56 UTC - Doc.AVO MM.Loewen (The red-orange areas are high temperature lava, while the blue is snow. The light blue is the vegetation and browns to blacks are the rock.) - one click to enlarge

In Merapi, on Java, during the week of October 8 to 14, 2021, the BPPTKG reports avalanches of incandescent blocks were observed 41 times towards the southwest with a maximum sliding distance of 2,000 m.

The height of the southwest lava dome has decreased by ± 2 m, and the height of the central lava dome has been increased by approximately ± 4 m. The volume of the southwest lava dome is 1,609,000 m³ and the central dome is 2,927,000 m³.

This week's seismicity is higher than that of last week. The Merapi deformation which was monitored using EDM and GPS this week showed no significant changes.

Merapi - activity from 09.10.2021 / 05.37 loc. - Doc. PVMBG Magma Indonesia

Merapi - activity from 09.10.2021 / 05.37 loc. - Doc. PVMBG Magma Indonesia

Merapi - morphological changes of the past week - Doc. BPPTKG 10/14/2021

Merapi - morphological changes of the past week - Doc. BPPTKG 10/14/2021

Merapi - seismicity between 8 and 14.10.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity between 8 and 14.10.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga.

The current potential danger consists of lava avalanches and hot clouds in the southeast-southwest sector for a maximum of 3 km to the Woro River, and 5 km to the Gendol, Kuning, Boyong rivers. , Bedog, Krasak, Bebeng and Putih. During this time, the ejection of volcanic material in the event of an explosive eruption can reach a radius of 3 km from the summit.

 

Sources: BPPTKG, PVMBG and Magma Indonesia.

Bali - Tectonic earthquake of M 4.8 and localization near the Agung - Doc. BMKG - one click to enlarge
Bali - Tectonic earthquake of M 4.8 and localization near the Agung - Doc. BMKG - one click to enlarge

Bali - Tectonic earthquake of M 4.8 and localization near the Agung - Doc. BMKG - one click to enlarge

An earthquake of M4.8 was recorded between Agung and Batur, on Bali, this 16.10.2021 at 03:18 WIB; destruction is reported in Rendang / Karangasem.

Three aftershocks followed.

To be monitored carefully: landslides are likely to occur and new cracks may open following these earthquakes.

 

Source: BMKG

Bali / NW of Agung - Damage after the M4.8 earthquake on October 16, 2021 - BMKG photos

Bali / NW of Agung - Damage after the M4.8 earthquake on October 16, 2021 - BMKG photos

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