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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

Activity at Sakurajima's Minamidake crater is not fading ... the JMA reported 7 explosions for November 13, 3 explosions for the 14th and 3 explosions on November 15th until 3pm.

They are accompanied by heavy ash falls on Kagoshima.

 

Sources: JMA & VAAC Tokyo

Sakurajima - activity of 12.11.2019

 Sakurajima - activity of 15.11.2019 - Doc. JMA
 Sakurajima - activity of 15.11.2019 - Doc. JMA
 Sakurajima - activity of 15.11.2019 - Doc. JMA

Sakurajima - activity of 15.11.2019 - Doc. JMA

Sakurajima - Volcanis Ash Advisory 15.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Sakurajima - Volcanis Ash Advisory 15.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

A good image of Stromboli by the Sentinel-2 satellite this November 14 shows successive explosions (staggered plumes) and two crater areas marked by hot spots.

The analysis of the images recorded by the cameras at 400 m elevation, 190 m altitude, and Punta dei Corvi has characterized the eruptive activity of Stromboli. In its November 10 report, INGV reports on the explosive activity, which was mainly produced by at least three eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the northern crater and at least three eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the South Central crater. . All the mouths are placed inside the depression which occupies the terrace of the crater.

The thermal anomalies recorded by Mirova oscillate between 2 and 13 MW on November 13 and 14.

 

Sources: INGV OE, Mirova and Sentinel-2

Stromboli - 14.11.2019 - image Sentinel Hub bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

Stromboli - 14.11.2019 - image Sentinel Hub bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

In Yellowstone, the Steamboat geyser was particularly active in October with five eruptions, respectively 1, 7, 16, 22 and 30 October 2019, an explosion every 6 to 8 days, and a total of 42 episodes for this year .

Yellowstone - Steamboat geyser - activity of October 2019 - Doc. M.Poland / YVO

Yellowstone - Steamboat geyser - activity of October 2019 - Doc. M.Poland / YVO

In October 2019, seismograph stations at the University of Utah, responsible for the operation and analysis of the Yellowstone seismic network, located 193 earthquakes in the Yellowstone National Park area. The most significant event was a minor magnitude 2.9 earthquake, 16 miles southeast of Mammoth, WY, on October 16 at 11:08 am (CDT).

The October seismicity at Yellowstone included a swarm of 39 earthquakes in the area east of West Yellowstone that occurred from October 4 to 12 (HAR). On October 5 at 1842 (HA), the largest swarm, a minor 2.1 magnitude earthquake, occurred 4.5 miles east-southeast of West Yellowstone.

A second swarm of 87 earthquakes took place from October 26th to 31st (HAR). On October 26 at 9:57 am (MDT), the largest swarm, a minor magnitude 2.6 earthquake, occurred 15 miles south-southwest of Mammoth, WY.

Earthquake sequences like these are common and account for about 50% of total seismicity in the Yellowstone region.

The seismic activity of Yellowstone remains at its initial level.

 

Soil deformation in the Yellowstone area has been variable but minor in recent months.

Subsidence of the Yellowstone Caldera is indicated at stations on the Sour Creek and Mallard Lake Reservoir domes, although subsidence may have stopped in October. In the Norris Geyser Basin area, GPS data indicate subsidence of about 2 cm (less than 1 inch) since September. This collapse is the first significant deformation at Norris since October 2018, when the uprising that began in 2015 ceased.

 

The volcanic alert level remains normal and the aviation code is green.

 

Source: Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and Utah University

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Fuego - activity of April 22, 2019 - photo archives / Clima Guatemala

Fuego - activity of April 22, 2019 - photo archives / Clima Guatemala

The Fuego, in Guatemala, presents since November 6 a lava flow towards the barranca Seca, long this November 13 of 900 meters.

The activity is effusive, according to the OVFGO, despite a remarkable incandescence in night and hours of low light, as well as a sustained degassing. This activity, similar to that recorded in April, could be prolonged in the following months.

Discrete emissions of ash and gas continue, with a plume at 4,700 m. asl., moving west and southwest for 20 km.

 

Source: Insivumeh

Fuego - incandescence of the lava flow in the Seca gorge, identified by Landsat 8 on 11 November - Doc. INSIVUMEH

Fuego - incandescence of the lava flow in the Seca gorge, identified by Landsat 8 on 11 November - Doc. INSIVUMEH

Magma Indonesia and PVMBG report a significant increase in local tectonic earthquakes at Lamongan Volcano in East Java.

On November 13, there were 252 earthquakes, and a tremor of magnitude between 10 and 30 mm / dominant at 5 mm.

Lamongan - seismicity on 14.11.2019 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

Lamongan - seismicity on 14.11.2019 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

Lamongan seen from the lake of the same name - photo Tom Casadewall / USGS

Lamongan seen from the lake of the same name - photo Tom Casadewall / USGS

The Lamongan, a small stratovolcano located between the massive volcanic complexes of Tengger and Iyang-Argapura, is surrounded by many maars and slag cones. The currently active cone was built 650 m southwest of Gunung Tarub, the highest point of the volcano.

About 27 maars of 150 to 700 m in diameter, some of which contain crater lakes, surround the volcano, with about 60 cones of ash and cones. Maars filled with lakes, including Ranu Pakis, Ranu Klakah and Ranu Bedali, are located on the east and west flanks; Dry maars are mainly located on the northern flanks. None of the maars broke out during the historical period, although several young maars cut drainage canals at Gunung Tarub. The volcano was very active from the earliest eruption of 1799 to the end of the 19th century, producing frequent explosive eruptions and lava flows from vents on the west side, from the summit at about 450 m altitude.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia and Global Volcanism Program

Map of the flanks of Lamongan and its volcanic field issued during the 19th century - Doc.S.Carn 2000

Map of the flanks of Lamongan and its volcanic field issued during the 19th century - Doc.S.Carn 2000

The Copahue, on alert Amarillo / Change of behavior of the volcanic activity, shows a constant degassing, with episodes of expulsion of ashes. Nighttime glow is observed when conditions permit.

On November 12 and 13, thermal anomalies of respectively 33 and 8 MW, are reported by Mirova.

Some instability marks the volcanic system, and higher ash emissions and / or minor explosions can affect the crater's surroundings within 1,000 meters.

 

Source: Sernageomin

Copahue - ash emission from 13.11.2019 / 15h23 - webcam Sernageomin mellizas

Copahue - ash emission from 13.11.2019 / 15h23 - webcam Sernageomin mellizas

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity, #Sismologie

The INGV - Osservatorio Etneo has put online a new version of its website, expected for years: it puts in the foreground the latest releases, and an easy search of different parameters, tremor, seismicity, webcams and VONA .

New version of INGV website - Osservatorio Etneo

New version of INGV website - Osservatorio Etneo

For the period from 4 to 10 November, the Strombolian intra-crateric activity of Bocca Nuova (BN), Voragine (VOR) and the new crater South-East (NSEC) of Etna is maintained, accompanied by modest emissions of ash; the Northeast Crater (NEC) degasses, with occasional ash emission.

At the seismicity level, earthquakes linked to fracturing remain low, and tremor levels oscillate between medium and high.

The deformation does not show significant variations from the previous period.

Sulfur dioxide flow remains average, with a slight upward trend.

Etna, active craters on 11.11.2019 - From left to right, the NEC, in the center the BN and the VOR, on the right the crater complex SE - photo © Gio Giusa

Etna, active craters on 11.11.2019 - From left to right, the NEC, in the center the BN and the VOR, on the right the crater complex SE - photo © Gio Giusa

For the same period, at Stromboli, a normal Strombolian explosive activity accompanied by degassing is maintained; the frequency of explosions remains between medium to high with 16 to 23 episodes per hour.

The parameters of seismicity and deformation do not show significant variations.

The flow of SO2 remains at an average level.

The Civil Protection has raised the alert level from orange to yellow on November 7, without changes in the prohibited navigation zone in front of the Sciara del Fuoco, nor concerning the prohibition of access above 290 meters.

 

Detailed reports on the new site of the INGV OE

 

Source: INGV - Osservatorio Etneo - http://www.ct.ingv.it/

Stromboli - photo archive L.G.S.

Stromboli - photo archive L.G.S.

The seismic swarm started on Thursday, November 7, just east of Askja, continues.

This morning at 7:30 am, an M3.1 event occurred in Askja.

About 1000 earthquakes have been recorded in the area since the beginning of the swarm. The largest earthquake was M3.4 and occurred on November 9th. In addition to this swarm, an earthquake> M3.0 has been detected during the swarm so far and about 20 earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 2.0.

No volcanic tremor has been detected in the area. This is more like fragile-type tectonic earthquakes related to continental drift. Swarms of earthquakes occur regularly around Herðubreið and Askja. IMO monitors the activity 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

 

Source: IMO

Askja - seismic swarm (location, number of earthquakes and magnitude) at 13.11.2019 / 08h10 - Doc. IMO
Askja - seismic swarm (location, number of earthquakes and magnitude) at 13.11.2019 / 08h10 - Doc. IMO

Askja - seismic swarm (location, number of earthquakes and magnitude) at 13.11.2019 / 08h10 - Doc. IMO

 Askja - picture Michael Ryan 1984 USGS

 Askja - picture Michael Ryan 1984 USGS

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Dukono - Emissions of ashes on 11.11.2019 / 9:39 - Photo Magma Indonesia

 Dukono - Emissions of ashes on 11.11.2019 / 9:39 - Photo Magma Indonesia

At Dukono, in the Maluku archipelago, VAAC Darwin reports ashes at flight altitude 70 on 12 November, visible by the Himawari-8 satellite.

Yesterday, the white-gray plume, thick, is reported by the PVMBG at 200-500 meters above the summit.

The seismicity is marked by a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 2 mm.

The activity level is 2 / waspada, with a 2 km forbidden zone. The aviation code is orange

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia & VAAC Darwin

 Dukono - Volcanic ash advisory 11.11.2019 / 11h00Z - Doc. VAAC Darwin IDY65290

 Dukono - Volcanic ash advisory 11.11.2019 / 11h00Z - Doc. VAAC Darwin IDY65290

In Kamchatka, Sheveluch continues its explosive-extrusive activity. Ash explosions produced a cloud of ash at 9,500-10,000 meters on November 11 drifting towards ESE for 55 km.

Thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova, between 3 and 49 MW on 11 and 12 November.

The aviation code is orange, due to a possible continuation of activity, characterized by ash plumes between 10 and 15 km.

 

Sources: KVERT & VAAC Tokyo

 Sheveluch - Thermal anomalies on 12.11.2019 / 2h30 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS - one click to enlarge  Sheveluch - Thermal anomalies on 12.11.2019 / 2h30 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS - one click to enlarge 

 Sheveluch - Thermal anomalies on 12.11.2019 / 2h30 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS - one click to enlarge 

Sheveluch - hotspots on the webcam of 12.11.2019 / 7:10 - KVERT

Sheveluch - hotspots on the webcam of 12.11.2019 / 7:10 - KVERT

At Shishaldin, the AVO reports an increase in activity with fountaining observed on overnight webcam. Small to moderate ash emissions are observed, drifting north.

Since November 10th, high surface temperatures have been reported at the summit and on the flanks. Thermal anomalies are measured by Mirova on November 11, between 446 and 1,652 MW.

Seismicity has increased over the past few days to find lower levels today.

 

Sources: AVO & Mirova

Shishaldin - RSAM ISNN_SHZ from 11.11.2019 - Last 24 hours, 5 minutes average. - Doc. AVO

Shishaldin - RSAM ISNN_SHZ from 11.11.2019 - Last 24 hours, 5 minutes average. - Doc. AVO

Shishaldin - hot spots at the top and on the flanks - Sentinel-2 L1C image bands12,11,4 of 11.11.2019 - one click to enlarge

Shishaldin - hot spots at the top and on the flanks - Sentinel-2 L1C image bands12,11,4 of 11.11.2019 - one click to enlarge

Shishaldin - thermal anomalies of 10-11.11.2019 - Doc. Mirova / 12.11.2019

Shishaldin - thermal anomalies of 10-11.11.2019 - Doc. Mirova / 12.11.2019

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

In October 2019, a team of geophysicists published a description of a large igneous province (LIPs) located in the Philippine Sea east of Luzon Island.

A multi-beam bathymetry with a coverage of almost 100% reveals the morphology of Benham Rise: it consists of a main body, 310 km on 330 km / 0,11Mkm², and three spurs, named Narra, Moro and Molave , extending 100 to 200 km on its east side.

Bathymetry revealing the different underwater structures of the western Philippine Basin - Doc. Benham Rise unveiled: Morphology and structure of an Eocene broad igneous province in the West Philippine Basin (Version 18.1, Geodesy Satellite, 2014, Smith and Sandwell, 1997).

Bathymetry revealing the different underwater structures of the western Philippine Basin - Doc. Benham Rise unveiled: Morphology and structure of an Eocene broad igneous province in the West Philippine Basin (Version 18.1, Geodesy Satellite, 2014, Smith and Sandwell, 1997).

Bathymetric map of the Benham Rise region - Doc. Benham Rise unveiled: Morphology and structure of an Eocene broad igneous province in the West Philippine Basin

Bathymetric map of the Benham Rise region - Doc. Benham Rise unveiled: Morphology and structure of an Eocene broad igneous province in the West Philippine Basin

On this basis, the study suggests that the peaks of the plateau have the morphology corresponding to a huge caldera about 150 km in diameter ... it was named caldera Apolaki, (in Filipino : "Giant Lord") qualifying the mythical god sun and war ... for comparison, the biggest calderas known are the Yellowstone (60 km), La Garita (35 x 75 km), Lake Toba (30 x 80 km).

Morphostructural characteristics of the Caldeira Apolaki (red dots). BB = Bank Benham. - Doc. Benham Rise unveiled: Morphology and structure of an Eocene broad igneous province in the West Philippine Basin

Morphostructural characteristics of the Caldeira Apolaki (red dots). BB = Bank Benham. - Doc. Benham Rise unveiled: Morphology and structure of an Eocene broad igneous province in the West Philippine Basin

Bathymetry and geological and geophysical data define three main stages in Benham Rise's tectonic history: shield building, caldera formation, and post-caldera / late volcanism.

The base of the platform is thought to have formed on a hot spot under the central basin spreading center during the shield construction phase, between about 47.9 and 42.5 million years ago.

It is believed that the arrow-shaped Molave ​​spur formed late in this stage along a ridge that has spread far away from the hot spot.

The formation of the caldera followed and is presumed to have occurred before ~ ​​41.3-41.5Ma, when Benham Rise was still united to the Urdaneta Plateau.

The Narra spur was formed by late volcanism related to hot spots, the separation of Benham Rise and the Urdaneta Plateau, and ended with the eruptions of Mount Vinogradov at about 26Ma.

 

Further studies on Benham raise are needed not only to understand the processes that formed it, but also to study the possible impact of this LIP on its local and regional environments. Apolaki Caldera could be the biggest caldera in the world. The short but immense magmatic impulses, associated with its formation, had to modify the chemistry and the physics of the waters and the atmosphere in this part of the Pacific.

Full text: see sources.

 

Sources:
- Benham Rise unveiled: Morphology and structure of an Eocene broad igneous province in the West Philippine Basin - By Jenny Baretto, Ray Wood and John Milsom - link
- Scientists discover what might be the world's best known caldera - 08/11/2019 / GNS Science - link

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity, #Sismologie
Chapparastique - 08.11.2019 / 10:28 - photo MARN

Chapparastique - 08.11.2019 / 10:28 - photo MARN

Chaparrastique / San Miguel volcano, in El Salvador, changes its seismic behavior

From the first week of October, the seismicity recorded via the seismic monitoring network of the San Miguel volcano began to change gradually and has been maintained to this day. This change is associated with larger impulse events, highlighting the presence of small fractures in the duct of the volcanic system.

San Miguel - Frequency index, shows the evolution of the genesis of seismicity recorded in 2019

The state of volcanic activity is not considered a danger in the very short term, but it indicates that there are variations in the equilibrium conditions of the system.

The images captured by the volcanic camera, located in the Pacayal volcano, do not show the presence of gas or vapor from the crater.

 

Source: Special information from Marn - 08.11.2019 / 16:45

Popocatépetl - 09.11.2019 / 09h12 - photo WebcamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - 09.11.2019 / 09h12 - photo WebcamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - 09.11.2019 / 09h43 - photo WebcamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - 09.11.2019 / 09h43 - photo WebcamsdeMexico

At Popocatépetl, 64 exhalations were identified, accompanied by gas and sometimes slight amounts of ash during the last 24 hours. The most important ones were presented on November 9 at 08:58 and 09:41., both at a height of 2 km northwest ; 

an explosion occurred at 09:23, between the last two exhalations. In addition, 52 minutes of tremor were recorded.

As of today morning and at the time of writing this report, the steady emission of volcanic gases scattered to the northwest is observed.

This activity is part of the Amarillo fase2 alarm.

 

Source: November 9, 2019 Activity Summary / Local 11am - Cenapred

Askja - a caldera complex - photo Tour guide in Iceland 08.2019

Askja - a caldera complex - photo Tour guide in Iceland 08.2019

In Iceland, a seismic swarm marks the Askja volcano since the beginning of the week from 04 to 10 November. The Magnitude 3.4 strongest  earthquake occurred on November 9th at 9:36 pm.

More than 200 earthquakes have marked a north-south fault.

The cause of this seismic activity is not well identified: in relation to a tectonic activity, or with a dyke injection.

 

The volcanic system of the Askja, 190 km long and more than 20 km wide is part of the northern volcanic zone, and consists of a central volcano, culminating at 1,510 meters asl. and containing a complex of calderas, the youngest of which is Öskjuvatn, occupied by a lake, and a swarm of fissures.

The type of activity that marks these cracks is either effusive or explosive type phreatomagmatic. The last eruption dates back to 1961, and was effusive.

 

Sources: IMO and Icelandic volcanoes

Activity of Chapparastique, Popocatépetl and Askja.
Activity of Chapparastique, Popocatépetl and Askja.
Activity of Chapparastique, Popocatépetl and Askja.

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Merapi / Java - eruption of the 09.11.2019 / 6h21 - photo BPPTKG

Merapi / Java - eruption of the 09.11.2019 / 6h21 - photo BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity of the week (at 09.11.2019) - BNPB

On November 9, 2019 at 06:21 WIB an eruption, accompanied by a small pyroclastic flow, occurred at Merapi. The eruptive plume reached 1,500 meters above the crater, leaning to the west. The fingerprint was recorded on a seismogram of maximum amplitude. 65 mm and with a duration of ± 160 seconds.

 

Sources: BPPTKG & Magma Indonesia

Merapi - the eruptive plume at 6:24 on 09.11.2019 - photo Magma Indonesia

Merapi - the eruptive plume at 6:24 on 09.11.2019 - photo Magma Indonesia

At Sakurajima, a strong explosion took place yesterday, November 8th at 5:24 pm (just after the previous article). The ash plume was 5,500 meters above the Minamidake crater, with lightning at the beginning of the eruptive episode.

Source: JMA

Sakurajima - eruptive episode of 08.11.2019, at 17:25 and 17:29 - Doc.JMA - one click to enlargeSakurajima - eruptive episode of 08.11.2019, at 17:25 and 17:29 - Doc.JMA - one click to enlarge

Sakurajima - eruptive episode of 08.11.2019, at 17:25 and 17:29 - Doc.JMA - one click to enlarge

Sakurajima - eruptive episode of the 08.11.2019; the plume has grown up to 5,500 m. above the crater

Sakurajima - eruptive episode of the 08.11.2019; the plume has grown up to 5,500 m. above the crater

Sakurajima - Sentinel-2 L1C image bands12,11,4 from 08.11.2019 - one click to enlarge

Sakurajima - Sentinel-2 L1C image bands12,11,4 from 08.11.2019 - one click to enlarge

In Cleveland, in the Aleutian volcanic arc, the aviation color code was raised to ORANGE and the WATCH volcano alert level by AVO in the day of November 8, 2019, thanks to the evidence satellite that the slow lava spilling into the summit crater had probably begun. High surface temperatures have been observed throughout the week and their intensity has increased significantly over the past day. Mirova recorded thermal anomalies on November 8 of 6 and 2 MW.

Cleveland - 08.11.2019 / 17h04 - activity obscured by cloud cover - AVO webcam

Cleveland - 08.11.2019 / 17h04 - activity obscured by cloud cover - AVO webcam

This activity is interpreted as being due to the recovery of the lava effusion. Vigorous steam has been observed in the webcam data over the last few days, which also corroborates the interpretation that the lava has been erupted. The presence of a lava dome in the summit crater can be used to pressurize the system, which could lead to a small explosive event and associated minor ash emissions.

Additional episodes of effusion and lava explosions are likely and will occur without notice. The last Cleveland explosion occurred on January 9, 2019. These explosions are generally short-lived and pose a threat to aviation in the immediate vicinity of the volcano. Larger explosions with a more widespread aviation hazard are possible, but less likely and / or frequent.

 

Source: AVO

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
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Krakatau - 06.11.2019 - Sentinel-2 L1C nat. colors - one click to enlarge

Krakatau - 06.11.2019 - Sentinel-2 L1C nat. colors - one click to enlarge

According to the PVMBG, the seismicity of the last days shows a continuation of activity at Anak Krakatau.

On November 5th, 19 earthquakes of eruption and 78 breath earthquakes were reported.

On November 6, an earthquakeof eruption  and 71 breath earthquakes were recorded.

For November 7, an orange Vona was issued, following an eruption at 7:34 local, accompanied by a gray-white plume at 150 meters in height and a seismogrammic imprint of maximum amplitude. 40 mm, lasting 43 seconds; the daily total is 10 eruptions and 3 blasts earthquakes.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia and Sentinel-2

Anak Krakatau - seismicity on 08.11.2019 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

Anak Krakatau - seismicity on 08.11.2019 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

The seismicity of Merapi is dominated by the number of hybrid earthquakes in recent days; the current alert is level 2 / waspada.

Merapi news has made a video of the evacuation simulation of two villages in the Shaman / Mangelang district in case the alert level goes to awas, under the aegis of the BPBD.

Link to the video: https://twitter.com/i/status/1192420200299188230

 

Sources: PVMBG & Merapi news

Merapi - summit and dome 07.11.2019 / 15h22 - photo Live Frekom Klangon

Merapi - summit and dome 07.11.2019 / 15h22 - photo Live Frekom Klangon

Merapi - activity of 07.11.2019 - Doc. PVMBG

Merapi - activity of 07.11.2019 - Doc. PVMBG

The activity does not weaken at Sakurajima, as evidenced by some episodes taken by the JMA this November 8: at 9 am, an ash plume is observed at 1,300 meters above the volcano, at 16:12, a plume of similar height is reported. The ashes dissipate in a southeasterly direction.

The JMA reports volcano inflation and a significant sulfur dioxide flux.

To note, the efforts of Kagoshima to give a positive image of the volcano, in terms of energy and heat .. the public relations put forward the hot springs and the productions of fruits and daikon, and the concept "Magma City" (Asahi)

 

Sources: JMA & VAAC Tokyo

Sakurajima - Volcanic ash advisory 07.11.2019 / 23h48 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Sakurajima - Volcanic ash advisory 07.11.2019 / 23h48 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Sakurajima - webcams and ash advisory of 08.11.2019 / 16:21 - Doc. JMA

Sakurajima - webcams and ash advisory of 08.11.2019 / 16:21 - Doc. JMA

Summaries of Phlegraean Fields, Ischia and Vesuvius activity are published, in addition to the monthly bulletins since the first quarter of 2019.

They allow to quickly visualize the main information recorded by the monitoring networks: alert level, seismicity, deformation and soil temperature, geochemistry of the fluids 

 

Source: INGV Osservatorio Vesuviano

Communication on the current state of the Phlegrean field caldera - Doc. INGV OV October 2019

Communication on the current state of the Phlegrean field caldera - Doc. INGV OV October 2019

Communication on the current state of Vesuvius - Doc. INGV OV October 2019

Communication on the current state of Vesuvius - Doc. INGV OV October 2019

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

An explosion is reported on Manam, Papua New Guinea, on Nov. 6, at 3:20 pm, accompanied by a heavy ash drop on the village of Yassa on the west coast.

The volcanic alert was increased to 2, following tremor recording and an increase in seismicity by the RVO.

A red aviation code was issued by VAAC Darwin.

Despite the cloud cover, Mirova identified a thermal anomaly of 63 MW this November 7 at 0:40.

 

Sources: VAAC Darwin, Mirova & RVO

Manam - thermal anomaly on 07.11.2019 - Doc.Mirova

Manam - thermal anomaly on 07.11.2019 - Doc.Mirova

Since October 28, 2019, a lava flow can be observed by the Sentinel-2 satellite and thermal anomalies reported by the Mirova site on Heard Island. It marks the high west flank of the Mawson peak, well visible despite the clouds on an image bands 12,11,8A (atmospheric penetration)

On November 2, 2019, the lava flow remains visible , less intense, on a more unobstructed image of the volcano.

Because of its remoteness, surveillance of the island is mainly by satellites. The Big Ben volcano has been active intermittently since 1910, then during October 2017- September 2018, (GVP) and in May-June, then October-November 2019 (Mirova)

 

Sources: Sentinel-2 and Mirova.

 Heard island - Sentinel-2 L1C image bands 12,11,8A from 02.11.2019 - one click to enlarge (zoom in below)

 Heard island - Sentinel-2 L1C image bands 12,11,8A from 02.11.2019 - one click to enlarge (zoom in below)

Heard island, Mawson peak - images Sentinel-2 bands12,11,4 of 28.10.2019 / above and 02.11.2019 / below - Sentinel Hub
Heard island, Mawson peak - images Sentinel-2 bands12,11,4 of 28.10.2019 / above and 02.11.2019 / below - Sentinel Hub

Heard island, Mawson peak - images Sentinel-2 bands12,11,4 of 28.10.2019 / above and 02.11.2019 / below - Sentinel Hub

October activity at Piton de La Fournaise :

The increase in CO2 levels in air emissions from the summit of the volcano until the end of September indicates a deep recharge to magma during this period. This deep recharge was then followed by a transfer of this magma to the superficial magmatic reservoir, whose pressurization was detected from October 11 with the resumption of seismic activity and inflation of the building.

The OVPF recorded, during the month of October, at the Piton de la Fournaise massif in total:

- 1265 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (0 to 2 km deep) beneath the summit craters;

- 10 deep earthquakes (> 2 km deep);

- 234 collapses (in the Crater Dolomieu, at the level of the Enclos Fouqué ramparts and on the casting set up between October 25 and 27)

Piton de La Fournaise - 26.10.2019 - OVPF photo

Piton de La Fournaise - 26.10.2019 - OVPF photo

The volcano-tectonic activity under the Piton de la Fournaise summit in October 2019 was mainly marked by two seismic crises.

The first seismic crisis took place on 21 October and lasted about 40 minutes (207 earthquakes recorded on 21 October); this crisis was accompanied by deformation signifying a departure of magma from the superficial magmatic reservoir which then aborted under the summit zone.

The second seismic crisis took place on 25 October and preceded the eruption of 25-27 October 2019 (827 earthquakes recorded on 25 October). During this seismic crisis the earthquakes were located under the southeastern edge of the summit, under the east flank of the volcano and at the level of the area where the eruptive fissures opened after about 10:25 of seismic crisis.

This pressurization led to the eruption of 25-27 October2019, located on the south-south-east side of the building (inside the Enclos Fouqué), and characterized by the opening of two eruptive fissures at 1060m and 990 m above sea level.

Piton de La Fournaise - location of cracks and flows of the 5 ° eruption 2019 - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - location of cracks and flows of the 5 ° eruption 2019 - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - illustration of the deformation over 2 months. (06.09.2019 - 06.11.2019) Baselines are shown here (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (at the top), at the base of the terminal cone (at the middle) and in the far field (below). A rise is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano, inversely a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions.

Piton de La Fournaise - illustration of the deformation over 2 months. (06.09.2019 - 06.11.2019) Baselines are shown here (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (at the top), at the base of the terminal cone (at the middle) and in the far field (below). A rise is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano, inversely a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions.

The injection of the dike leading to the eruption was accompanied by rapid deformations, of the order of ten cm max. on the permanent network of GPS stations.

In three days of eruption, approximately 1.8 million m³ of lava flows were emitted.

Following the end of the eruption of 25-27 October, the inflation (swelling) of the building resumed immediately.

 

Source: OVPF

The full report by following this link: http://www.ipgp.fr/sites/default/files/ovpf_20191104_bullmensu.pdf

Find all the information related to the Piton de la Fournaise activity on the different media of the OVPF-IPGP:

-  website (http://www.ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf)

- Twitter account (https://twitter.com/obsfournaise?lang=en)

-the Facebook account (https://www.facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise/)

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

On November 5, with the support of the National Guard, a reconnaissance flight was conducted in the crater of the Popocatepetl volcano.

During this overview, specialists from CENAPRED, CNPC, and researchers from the UNAM Institute of Geophysics were able to observe the formation of the No. 85 dome, 210 m in diameter and 80 m in diameter. thickness, with an irregular surface. The inner crater has a diameter of 350 m and an approximate depth of 90 m.

Popocatépetl - overflight of volcano and dome # 85 - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad
Popocatépetl - overflight of volcano and dome # 85 - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad
Popocatépetl - overflight of volcano and dome # 85 - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad

Popocatépetl - overflight of volcano and dome # 85 - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad

During the last 24 hours, 96 exhalations were identified, accompanied by gas and light amounts of ash, as well as six explosions, two moderate at 11:07 and 22:19 which generated a column of 1.5 km and ejected incandescent materials; and four minors at 17:24, 21:49, 22:27 and 00:09 today. In addition, a volcano-tectonic earthquake with a preliminary magnitude of 1.9 and 148 minutes of tremor was recorded.

At 11:00 am on October 5th, there was a slight steady emission of water vapor and volcanic gases. Any emission containing ash will be scattered west-southwest.

The volcanic alert is maintained at YELLOW PHASE 2.

Popocatépetl - explosion of 05.11.2019 / 22:52 (post Cenapred report) - WencamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - explosion of 05.11.2019 / 22:52 (post Cenapred report) - WencamsdeMexico

NB: An overview of the Iztaccihuatlcan was made on November 5th, without observing any activity.

Sources : Cenapred, Unam, NCPC

Iztaccíhuatl volcano - no activity noticed during the flight on 05.11.2019 by Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad

Iztaccíhuatl volcano - no activity noticed during the flight on 05.11.2019 by Cenapred / CNPC / UNAM / Seguridad

On Kyushu, Aso and Sakurajima still have ash emissions.

The ash of the Aso is expected to disperse to the northeast.

A Sakurajima ash plume is reported on October 5 at 4,000 meters altitude, dispersed to the southeast (VAAC Tokyo), moving northeast (JMA Version).

The JMA recorded a total of 31 eruptions and 18 explosions at the Minamidake crater for the period from 1 to 5 November 2019.

Asosan - Volcanic Ash Advisory of 06.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Asosan - Volcanic Ash Advisory of 06.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Sakurajima - Volcanic Ash Advisory of 06.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Sakurajima - Volcanic Ash Advisory of 06.11.2019 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

In Kuchinoerabujima, in the Ryukyu archipelago,volcanic earthquakes (20 on 05.11), and sulfur dioxide fluxes are increasing. A volcanic plume is reported at 1,050 meters above sea level.

 

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency and VAAC Tokyo

Situation map of the thermal zones and the El Ángel fault system - Chiles volcanoes / Cerro Negros - Doc. IGEPN

Situation map of the thermal zones and the El Ángel fault system - Chiles volcanoes / Cerro Negros - Doc. IGEPN

Thermal springs and fumarolic zones associated with the Chiles-Cerro Negros Volcanic Complex have been periodically monitored by the IGEPN since 2014.

Due to the remarkable temperature increase of an area south of the volcanic complex, staff members of the Institute of Geophysics conducted gas measurements, with MultiGAS and temperature, pH and conductivity measurements, in the fumarole fields and thermal springs of El Hondón, Aguas Hediondas and Lagunas Verdes, located south of the volcano Chiles, in late October.

Hot springs area of ​​El Hondón, south of Chiles volcano - Doc. IGEPN - October 22, 2019.

Hot springs area of ​​El Hondón, south of Chiles volcano - Doc. IGEPN - October 22, 2019.

The observatory concludes:

• Fumeral zones do not show SO2 concentrations, this gas could possibly be retained in the hydrothermal system.

• The proportion and concentration of CO2 and H2S in Aguas Hediondas and Lagunas Verdes are very high. This must be taken into account by staff in future work campaigns.

• A decrease in CO2 / H2S ratios has been observed, which could indicate a disturbance of the hydrothermal system, with a possible increase in the amount of sulfur.

• The conductivity and temperature of Aguas Hediondas hot springs continue to increase, while the pH continues to decline, increasing its acidity.

• The El Hondón field has the highest temperature (85 ° C) found in thermal springs in the region and throughout Ecuador. The proportion of water in the gas is 96.8% with 3.2% CO2.

 

Source: IGEPN

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