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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Karymsky - 300 km² under the ashes - Copernicus / Sentinel-2 image from 19.04.2022 - one click to enlarge

Karymsky - 300 km² under the ashes - Copernicus / Sentinel-2 image from 19.04.2022 - one click to enlarge

Recent eruptive episodes of Karymsky have resulted in a trail of volcanic ash covering just over 300 km², visible in a contrast-enhanced image captured by Sentinel-2 on April 19, 2022.

For the record, KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images on April 9 and 11-12; the volcano was quiet or obscured by clouds on other days from April 8 to 15. The explosions produced ash plumes that reached 6 km above sea level and derived SSW, based on satellite data acquired at 08:10 a.m. April 20 local time. Explosions continued and within an hour produced larger ash plumes that rose 9.8 to 10 km above sea level and drifted nearly 30 km to the NE. (see: http://www.earth-of-fire.com/2022/04/activity-of-karymsky-sabancaya-turrialba-poas-and-cumbre-vieja.html)

KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to red (the highest level on a four-color scale).

 

Sources: KVERT & Global Volcanism Program weekly report

Reventador - explosion on 04.20.2022 / 10:09 a.m. and 10:10 a.m. - IGEPN webcams

Reventador - explosion on 04.20.2022 / 10:09 a.m. and 10:10 a.m. - IGEPN webcams

On the afternoon of 19 and April 20, the IGEPN reported steam, gas and ash emissions up to 1,000 m. asl. to the Reventador, with dispersion between the north and the northeast.

Among the explosions, that of 10:10 a.m. was well illustrated on the images from the webcams.

Nocturnal incandescence was observed at the level of the crater

Seismicity is characterized by 25 explosion earthquakes, 62 LP earthquakes and 4 episodes of harmonic tremor.

 

Source: IGEPN

Reventador - gas and ash emission activity on 04.20.2022 / 10:55 a.m. - webcam Copete / IGEPN - one click to enlarge

Reventador - gas and ash emission activity on 04.20.2022 / 10:55 a.m. - webcam Copete / IGEPN - one click to enlarge

The Anak Krakatau volcano erupted on Thursday, April 21, 2022 at 06:23 WIB with an ash plume observed ± 800 m above the summit (± 957 m above sea level)

This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 50 mm and a duration of 75 seconds.

Activity level remains at 2/waspada

The public or tourists are not allowed to approach the crater within 2 km of the crater.

This is the 10th eruptive episode of Anak Krakatau in April 2022.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia

Anak Krakatau - thermal anomaly and gas and ash plume on 04.19.2022 - Sentinel-2 image via Copernicus - click to enlarge

Anak Krakatau - thermal anomaly and gas and ash plume on 04.19.2022 - Sentinel-2 image via Copernicus - click to enlarge

Anak Krakatau - eruptive episode of 04.21.2022 / 06:27 WIB - Doc. PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

Anak Krakatau - eruptive episode of 04.21.2022 / 06:27 WIB - Doc. PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

A strong volcanic tremor and flow of heat and gas in the crater lake continues at Ruapehu, New Zealand. The lake temperature stabilized at 37C. This sustained agitation indicates that the interaction of magma with the volcano's geothermal system is driving the activity.

 

Source: GeoNet

Ruapehu - crater lake parameters as of 04.19.2022 / 10:20 p.m. - Doc. GeoNet - one click to enlarge

Ruapehu - crater lake parameters as of 04.19.2022 / 10:20 p.m. - Doc. GeoNet - one click to enlarge

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Karymsky - ash plume and gas at 10 km - Photo taken from Olga Bay territory of Kronotsky bay by A. Eliseeva / Kronotsky Reserve. In the foreground, the Maly Semyachik volcano - via KVERT - one click to enlarge

Karymsky - ash plume and gas at 10 km - Photo taken from Olga Bay territory of Kronotsky bay by A. Eliseeva / Kronotsky Reserve. In the foreground, the Maly Semyachik volcano - via KVERT - one click to enlarge

Karymsky - volcanic ash advisory at 04.20.2022 / 0000Z - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Karymsky - volcanic ash advisory at 04.20.2022 / 0000Z - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Moderate explosive activity of the Karymsky volcano continues. Satellite data from KVERT showed that on April 19 at 9:30 p.m., explosions sent ash up to 6 km above sea level, with the ash plume extending south-southwest from the volcano. The aviation code is orange.

The volcano's explosive activity continues, with explosions sending ash up to 10 km above sea level, with the ash plume extending northeast from the volcano. On April 19 at 10 p.m., the aviation code turns red.

A thermal anomaly of VRP 6,617 MW around 11:30 p.m. was reported by Mirova.

KVERT satellite data showed that moderate ash emission up to 5 km a.s.l. from the Karymsky volcano continues. The ash cloud with a size of 505x130 km at an altitude of up to 8.7 km above sea level continues to stretch and move northeast (about 302 km from the volcano), and towards the south (about 260 km from the volcano) and the southeast (about 220 km from the volcano) of the volcano. The aviation code was lowered to orange on April 20 at 03:44.

Moderate explosive activity of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 12 km a.s.l. could occur at any time. Ongoing activity could affect international and low-flying aircraft.

 

Sources: KVERT, VAAC Tokyo, Mirova.

Sabancaya - bulletin from 11.04 to 17.04.2022 - Doc. IGPeru

Sabancaya - bulletin from 11.04 to 17.04.2022 - Doc. IGPeru

During the week of April 11 to 17, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels, with an average of 46 daily volcanic explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 3,400 meters above the summit.

The I.G.P. detected over this period 226 earthquakes associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids, and a few VT earthquakes, linked to rock fracturing.

Eight thermal anomalies were identified, with a max. of 58 MW, associated with the presence of a lava body on the surface of the crater. No significant structural deformation.

The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, associated with a non-accessible zone of 12 km. radius around the crater

 

Source: I.G.Peru uploaded on 19.04.2022

Turrialba - active degassing on 19.04.2022 / 06:18 - Ovsicori webcam - one click to enlarge

Turrialba - active degassing on 19.04.2022 / 06:18 - Ovsicori webcam - one click to enlarge

No eruption is recorded at Turrialba.

Seismicity remains dominated by frequent low-frequency, low-amplitude LP-type volcanic earthquakes.

The concentration of SO2 gas detected in the vicinity of the western crater remains within normal variation values, around 0.5 and 3.4 parts per million, and the ratios of CO2 / SO2 and H2S / SO2 remain stable, around 25 and between 0.13-0.3, respectively.

The volcanic edifice experiences a slight extension according to the relative movements detected by the GPS network. Today April 17, 2022 at 10:48 am A volcano-tectonic earthquake of magnitude 2.2 occurred with an epicenter about 0.5 km north of the west crater of the Turrialba volcano. The earthquake was reported and felt by some Turrialba Volcano National Park officials who were near the summit. No change in the behavior of the volcano is observed as a result of this earthquake.

 

Active degassing still marks the crater on April 19.

 

Source: Ovsicori

Turrialba - west crater - photo Ian Godfrey 04.04.2022 / via Ovsicori - one click to enlarge

Turrialba - west crater - photo Ian Godfrey 04.04.2022 / via Ovsicori - one click to enlarge

At Poas, from the afternoon of April 11 to the present day, seismographs record a weak signal of low amplitude tremors with frequencies between 1 and 3.5 Hz. The concentrations of SO2 show fluctuations in the levels of normal detection, but usually very low values.
The H2S/SO2 ratio also records very low values ​​around 0.1. The volcanic edifice experiences a slight extension depending on the relative movement detected by the GPS network. Subaerial vents in the eastern crater and submarine vents in the hyperacid lake continue to outgas low temperature water vapor. Active convection cells are still observed in the hyperacidic lake and it retains its milky gray color since the occurrence of the April 6 hydrothermal explosion.

On April 17, the GRIMM 180 laser dust analyzer and the ThermoScientific 43i SO2 gas analyzer at the OVSICORI-UNA volcanic gas and aerosol monitoring station at EMVA-Coronado, recorded an unusual trend of a slight increase in the concentration of fine aerosols and SO2 in the ambient air of Coronado with a low speed wind coming from the northwest, that is to say from the direction of the Poás volcano, which is the potential source of these aerosols. From 9.35 a.m. Until the publication of this report, ie for 4 continuous hours, PM10 concentrations of between 8.5 and 17.6 ug/m³ were recorded. The typical daily average is around 6.7 ug/m³ of PM10. Some people have reported respiratory system discomfort such as sneezing, coughing, and difficulty breathing.

 

Source: Ovsicori-UNA

Poas – 19.04.2022 - Active convection cells are still observed in the hyperacidic lake and it retains its milky gray color since the occurrence of the hydrothermal explosion on April 6.- Ovsicori webcam - one click to enlarge

Poas – 19.04.2022 - Active convection cells are still observed in the hyperacidic lake and it retains its milky gray color since the occurrence of the hydrothermal explosion on April 6.- Ovsicori webcam - one click to enlarge

Post-eruption activity Cumbre Vieja, La Palma
During the last 7 days, since the last communication (April 12 at 9:00 UTC), 11 earthquakes have been located on the island of La Palma. The magnitudes are between 0.5 and 2.0 mbLg. None of the earthquakes of this period were felt by the population. The location of hypocenters continues below the central area of ​​Cumbre Vieja, in the same areas as in previous weeks, at depths between 0 and 20 km. No earthquake was located at greater depth.

The network of permanent GNSS stations on the island does not show significant deformations that could be associated with volcanic activity.

IGN is continuing its presence on the island where the CAVE (Eruption Care and Surveillance Center) has been set up, which maintains, densifies and improves the surveillance network.

 

Source: IGN

La Palma - Cumbre Vieja - earthquakes of the last 7 days on 19.04.2022 - Doc. IGN

La Palma - Cumbre Vieja - earthquakes of the last 7 days on 19.04.2022 - Doc. IGN

Cumbre Vieja - taking geochemical parameters - photo IGN 18.04.2022

Cumbre Vieja - taking geochemical parameters - photo IGN 18.04.2022

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Manam - thermal anomalies - Sentinel-2 bands 2,11,8A image from 2022.04.14 - Via Mounts project

Manam - thermal anomalies - Sentinel-2 bands 2,11,8A image from 2022.04.14 - Via Mounts project

Manam - 18.04.2022 - image Sentinel-5P SO2 - via Mounts project

Manam - 18.04.2022 - image Sentinel-5P SO2 - via Mounts project

The VAAC Darwin issued on 18.04.2022 at 11:03Z a warning of continuous ash emission from the Manam volcano, in Papua New Guinea at a flight altitude 160 (13000-14000 meters) extending towards the NE.

The aviation color code is red.

Mirova mentions a strong thermal anomaly of VRP 719 MW on 04.17.2022 / 1:15 p.m.

This is the second high-level eruptive episode for this volcano in 6 weeks. The GVP mentions an eruptive phase in progress since June 29, 2014, of VEI 4.

 

Sources: VAAC Darwin, Mirova  and Global Volcanism Program

Manam - Volcanic ash advisory 18.04.2022 / 11h03Z - Doc. VAAC Darwin IDY65305

Manam - Volcanic ash advisory 18.04.2022 / 11h03Z - Doc. VAAC Darwin IDY65305

Manam - thermal anomalies on 17.04.2022 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_Latest10NTI

Manam - thermal anomalies on 17.04.2022 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_Latest10NTI

Merapi activity during the week of April 8-14, 2022 (posted on 18,04,2022) / BPPTKG

This week, 112 lava avalanches were observed in a dominant southwest direction towards the Bebeng River with a maximum slip distance of 2,000 m.
Aerial photos from drone surveys show two avalanche sources in the southwest dome, both pointing towards Kali Bebeng. Meanwhile, the source of the avalanches in the crater's central lava dome is in the old avalanche of March 9-10, 2022.

The volume of the southwest lava dome is 1,672,000 m³ and the central dome is 2,582,000 m³.
The intensity of seismicity this week is still quite high. Mount Merapi's deformation, which was monitored using EDM this week, showed a distance shortening rate of 0.2 cm/day.

Merapi - photo BPPTKG 04.2022

Merapi - photo BPPTKG 04.2022

Merapi - summit area - Doc. BPPTKG 08-14.04.2022

Merapi - summit area - Doc. BPPTKG 08-14.04.2022

Merapi - seismicity and deformation of 8-14 - Doc. BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity and deformation of 8-14 - Doc. BPPTKG

The activity is defined at the siaga level.
The current potential danger consists of lava avalanches and hot clouds in the south-southwest sector covering the Boyong river for a maximum of 5 km, the Bedog, Krasak, Bebeng river for a maximum of 7 km. The southeast sector covers the Woro River for a maximum of 3 km and the Gendol River for a maximum of 5 km. the ejection of volcanic material in the event of an explosive eruption can reach a radius of 3 km from the summit.

 

Source: BPPTKG

Sangay - Steam and ash emission on 04.18.2022 / 07:25 TL - IGEPN webcam

Sangay - Steam and ash emission on 04.18.2022 / 07:25 TL - IGEPN webcam

Since 07:40 TL on 18.04.2022, the SAGA seismic station has recorded a tremor signal, associated with the current eruptive activity of the Sangay volcano.

The signal amplitude is low compared to the most active pulses recorded during the current eruptive period. However, it can be seen through the cameras that there is a small emission column with a high ash load associated with this signal. Therefore, there is a low probability of ash fall in the surrounding areas, towards the northwest of the volcano (eg, Alao, Cebadas).

The IGEPN continues to monitor the event and will report if relevant changes are detected.

 

Source: IGEPN

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Anak Krakatau - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A from 17.04.2022 / 03:05 - via Mounts project

Anak Krakatau - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A from 17.04.2022 / 03:05 - via Mounts project

The eruptive episodes follow one another at Anak Krakatau on April 17 and 18, 2022:

Mount Anak Krakatau erupted on Sunday, April 17, 2022 at 9:15 p.m. WIB, with an ash plume observed ±800m above the summit (±957m above sea level). It is observed that the ash column is gray to black with a thick intensity towards the southwest. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 55 mm and a duration of 40 seconds.

Anak Krakatau - Sertung webcam on 17.04.2022 / respectively at 1:59 p.m., 9:17 p.m. and 11:53 p.m. WIB - Doc. PVMBG, Magma Indonesia - one click to enlargeAnak Krakatau - Sertung webcam on 17.04.2022 / respectively at 1:59 p.m., 9:17 p.m. and 11:53 p.m. WIB - Doc. PVMBG, Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge
Anak Krakatau - Sertung webcam on 17.04.2022 / respectively at 1:59 p.m., 9:17 p.m. and 11:53 p.m. WIB - Doc. PVMBG, Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

Anak Krakatau - Sertung webcam on 17.04.2022 / respectively at 1:59 p.m., 9:17 p.m. and 11:53 p.m. WIB - Doc. PVMBG, Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

On Monday, April 18, the PVMBG reports, at the time of publishing, four episodes:
The first at 07:14 WIB with the height of the ash column observed at ± 700 m above the summit (± 857 m above sea level). It is observed that the ash column is black with a thick intensity towards the southwest. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 60 mm and a duration of 97 seconds.

The second at 11:04 a.m. WIB with the height of the ash column observed at ± 700 m above the summit (± 857 m above sea level). It is observed that the ash column is gray in color with a thick intensity towards the southwest. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 45 mm and a duration of 105 seconds.

The third at 12:46 p.m. WIB with the height of the ash column observed at ± 700 m above the summit (± 857 m above sea level). It is observed that the ash column is gray in color with a thick intensity towards the southwest. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 47 mm and a duration of 53 seconds.

The fourth at 1:30 p.m. WIB with the height of the ash column observed at ± 2000 m above the summit (± 2157 m above sea level). It is observed that the ash column is gray to black with a thick intensity towards the southwest. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 68 mm and a duration of 56 seconds.

 

The activity level remains at 2/waspada, with the recommendation not to enter the 2 km zone around the crater. The aviation code changed from orange to yellow on April 17.

 

Source Magma Indonesia, PVMBG

Anak Krakatau - Sertung webcam on 18.04.2022 / respectively at 07:15, 11:05 and 13:32 WIB - Doc. PVMBG, Magma Indonesia - one click to enlargeAnak Krakatau - Sertung webcam on 18.04.2022 / respectively at 07:15, 11:05 and 13:32 WIB - Doc. PVMBG, Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge
Anak Krakatau - Sertung webcam on 18.04.2022 / respectively at 07:15, 11:05 and 13:32 WIB - Doc. PVMBG, Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

Anak Krakatau - Sertung webcam on 18.04.2022 / respectively at 07:15, 11:05 and 13:32 WIB - Doc. PVMBG, Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

The results of the assessment of the volcanic activity of Gunung Ruang, North Sulawesi Province, for the period from April 1 to April 16, 2022 at 08:00 WITA are as follows:

During the period from April 1 to April 16, 2022, the seismometer recorded at least 121 deep volcanic earthquakes (VA) with an amplitude of 4-55 mm, S-P 0.5-2.2 seconds and an earthquake duration earthquakes of 5-24 seconds, as well as 110 deep earthquakes Tectonic earthquakes with an amplitude of 3-47 mm, S-P of 13-36 seconds and earthquake duration of 35-425 seconds. Since April 7, 2022, an increase in the number of deep volcanic earthquakes (VA) has been observed. However, on April 16, 2022, from 00:00 WITA to 04:47 WITA, there was a very significant change in seismicity, namely the recording of 50 deep volcanic earthquakes, 2 local tectonic earthquakes and 4 earthquakes by Terasa.

Based on the development of seismic activity from January 2022 to April 16 at 06:00 WITA, seismicity fluctuated but in general showed an increase, especially deep volcanic earthquakes since April 7, 2022. This earthquake deep volcanic (VA) occurred due to magma intrusion from the interior and indicates increased volcanic activity in Mount Ruang at this time.

Ruang / Sulawesi N - seismicity on 15.04.2022 - Doc. Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

Ruang / Sulawesi N - seismicity on 15.04.2022 - Doc. Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

This increase in volcanic activity has the potential to be followed by an eruption, although the occurrence cannot be established with certainty.

 

According to the historical records of its eruptions, the main potential threat of G. Ruang comes from explosive eruptions accompanied by ejections of pyroclastic materials in all directions and pyroclastic flows (hot clouds) mainly towards the east, southeast, south and southwest.

 

Based on visual observation, instrumental data and potential eruption hazard until April 16, 2022, from April 16, 2022 at 1:00 p.m. WITA, the activity level of G. Ruang is raised to Level II (alert).

Compared to G. Ruang's level of activity at Level II (Alert), we recommend
to communities and visitors/tourists do not carry out activities/enter zone G. Space within a radius of 1.5 km from the crater/peak and 2.5 km sectoral in the east, south sectors -east, south and southwest.
The public should always prepare masks covering their nose and mouth, in order to anticipate the potential danger of volcanic ash in the event of an eruption.
The community around G. Ruang should be calm and not provoked by rumors about the eruption of G. Ruang. The public should always follow local government guidelines.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, BNPB, BPBD

Etna - Bocca Nuova activity April 2022 by Tobias Luschner on Vimeo https://vimeo.com/700257299

The activity at the summit craters of Etna during the first half of April did not show significant changes compared to what had been observed previously, and consisted of a variable and mainly carried degassing regime. by the Bocca Nuova crater.

 

Source: Tobias Luschner video

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Revenrador - Emission of gas and ash 16.04.2022 / 05:53 TL - Copeté /IGEPN webcam - one click to enlarge

Revenrador - Emission of gas and ash 16.04.2022 / 05:53 TL - Copeté /IGEPN webcam - one click to enlarge

The Reventador's activity level remains high on the surface and moderate internally.

Seismicity is characterized by 20 explosion earthquakes, 25 LP earthquakes, 13 episodes of emission tremor and 2 of harmonic tremor.

At the end of the afternoon of April 15, the volcano cleared and several emissions of steam, gas and ash could be observed with a maximum height of 800 meters above the level of the crater, heading towards the North-west.

VAAC Washington issued an advisory for 3 ash emissions 988 meters above the summit looking northwest.

This April 16 in the morning, the volcano cleared and ash emissions could be observed in the northeast, later it became cloudy.

 

Source: IGEPN

Sheveluch - volcanic ash advisory at 17.04.2022 / 01h25Z - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Sheveluch - volcanic ash advisory at 17.04.2022 / 01h25Z - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

The growth of the Sheveluch lava dome continues on April 16 and 17, with strong fumarolic activity, and incandescence of the lava dome, and hot avalanches accompany this process.

On April 16, satellite data from KVERT showed explosions sending ash up to 5 km above sea level, with the ash cloud extending east-southeast of the volcano for 45 km.


KVERT satellite data from April 17 showed series of small explosions sending ash up to 4 km a.s.l., with the ash plume extending southeast from the volcano for 15 km.

The extrusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 10-15 km (32,800-49,200 ft) a.s.l. could occur at any time. Ongoing activity could affect international and low-flying aircraft.

 

Source: KVERT, KSCNET

Gunung Ruang / Sulawesi - Photo Magma Indonesia 14.04.2022 - one click to enlarge

Gunung Ruang / Sulawesi - Photo Magma Indonesia 14.04.2022 - one click to enlarge

Gunung Ruang in the Siau Islands, Sulawesi, was downgraded from level I (normal) to level II (alert), due to an increase in seismic activity. (Editor's note: clearly differentiate it from Gunung Raung, on the island of Java)

The seismicity of April 16 is characterized by:

- 97 deep volcanic earthquakes, with an amplitude of 5-55 mm, S-P 0.6-1.5 seconds and an earthquake duration of 5-25 seconds.
- 4 local tectonic earthquakes, with an amplitude of 45-47 mm, S-P 5-9 seconds and an earthquake duration of 30-45 seconds.
- 8 earthquakes were felt.
- 3 distant tectonic earthquakes, with an amplitude of 10-45 mm, S-P 12-14 seconds and an earthquake duration of 35-50 seconds.

Activity is at 2/waspada since April 16, 2022, with recommendation for communities around G. Ruang and visitors/tourists, who should limit their activities (not for long) and not stay overnight in the active area from the crater, and stay away from the gas vents around the crater to avoid potential toxic gas hazards.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia

Piton de La Fournaise, summit cone - photo from the Piton de Bert trail / archives © Bernard Duyck

Piton de La Fournaise, summit cone - photo from the Piton de Bert trail / archives © Bernard Duyck

At Piton de La Fournaise, the OVPF has reported numerous rock falls in recent days, linked to bad weather which has weakened the structures. Between fifty events (in recent days) and 105 events (this 16.04) concerning the summit cone have been recorded.

The GPS of the summit zone and in the far field record inflation, witnessing the pressurization of a surface source and a deep source.
SO2 emissions remain below the detection limit
CO2 emissions from the ground are increasing in the distal sector and in the sector of the volcano deposit.

Seismicity remained reasonable.

In the eruption preparation phase, the supply of the magma reservoir continues.

 

Sources: OVPF preliminary activity bulletin as of 04.17.2022 & Réunion1ère

Piton de La Fournaise - Illustration of the deformation over 1 year / as of 15.04.2022. Here are shown baselines (variation of distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (top), at the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (bottom ) (see location on the associated maps). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - Illustration of the deformation over 1 year / as of 15.04.2022. Here are shown baselines (variation of distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (top), at the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (bottom ) (see location on the associated maps). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

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Anak Krakatau - 15.04.2022 / 03:30 WIB - webcam Sertung - PVMBG

Anak Krakatau - 15.04.2022 / 03:30 WIB - webcam Sertung - PVMBG

Anak Krakatau - 15.04.2022 / 10:35 WIB - webcam Sertung - PVMBG

Anak Krakatau - 15.04.2022 / 10:35 WIB - webcam Sertung - PVMBG

Two eruptive episodes are reported by the PVMBG on April 15, 2022 at Anak Krakatau.

The first occurred at 03:27 WIB with the height of the ash column observed at ± 1000 m above the summit (± 1157 m above sea level). It is observed that the ash column is white to black with a thick intensity towards the southwest. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 50 mm and a duration of 305 seconds.

The second took place at 10:34 a.m. WIB with the height of the ash column observed at ± 700 m above the peak (± 857 m above sea level). It is observed that the ash column is white to gray with a thick intensity towards the southwest. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 40 mm and a duration of 153 seconds.

Activity level is at 2/waspada

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia

Sheveluch - growing dome - photo archive 15.09.2021 / Andrew Matseevsky

Sheveluch - growing dome - photo archive 15.09.2021 / Andrew Matseevsky

The lava dome growth continues at Sheveluch.

A strong fumarolic activity, and incandescence of the lava dome, and hot avalanches accompany this process. Satellite data from KVERT showed explosions sent ash up to 6.5 km above sea level, an ash cloud moving southeast from the volcano.

The extrusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 10-15 km a.s.l. could occur at any time. Ongoing activity could affect international and low-flying aircraft.

The aviation color code remains orange

 

Source: KVERT

Villarica - small lava pit in the chimney of the volcano - overview of 14.04.2022 / P.O.V.I.

Villarica - small lava pit in the chimney of the volcano - overview of 14.04.2022 / P.O.V.I.

After a period of increasing activity noted by the instruments, an overflight of the summit of Villarica was carried out on April 14, 2022, attesting to the presence of a small lava pit inside the chimney of the volcano.

Activity remained at levels considered low, suggesting stability of the volcanic system. The technical alert level remains green, with a danger zone within 100 meters of radius around the crater.

 

Source: P.O.V.I. & Sernageomin

La Orotava - carpet of sand representing St Francis of Assisi - archives https://guianatura.net

La Orotava - carpet of sand representing St Francis of Assisi - archives https://guianatura.net

For a hundred years it has been a tradition to lay a carpet in the town square of Orotava in Tenerife.

The natural material was used for the realization of the ephemeral carpet. We had to adapt to unexpected events to have a work that lasts and is appreciated. Volcanic sand is usually collected in several places in the municipality (from sea level to the top), mainly in the Teide National Park, in places determined by the management plan of the national park. Mineral remains that have been removed by national park operators (for road cleaning, for example) are also reused. The rocks offer 7 natural colors that allow you to remove 21 different shades.

 

This year, eight tons of ash from the eruption of the Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma will be used in the traditional making of carpets in honor of Corpus Christi in La Orotava, declared Assets of Cultural Interest (BIC) and the one of the major meetings of the patronal festivals of this City, which will take place next June.

This was confirmed yesterday to the DIARIO DE AVISOS by the mayor of La Orotava, Francisco Linares, who pointed out that with this initiative of the Association of Carpet Manufacturers of La Orotava, the municipality intends "to give public recognition to the palmeros for their exceptional behavior during the natural emergency that left more than 7,000 families homeless, and remember that Isla Bonita still needs everyone's help.

The mayor explained that the ash will mainly be used in the Teide sand carpet of the Plaza del Ayuntamiento, known as the large tapestry or monumental tapestry, whose production is currently led by the carpet manufacturer Domingo González Expósito.

Linares pointed out that the ashes of La Palma will be the great novelty of this edition of the ephemeral artistic tradition of the village and will provide "a special and unique black color, very different from that usually extracted from the lands of the Cañadas del Teide".

 

Source: Diario de Avisos

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Publié dans : #volcanic activity
The composite cone of Mount Edgecumbe - Photo AVO 2004 / D.Marriott

The composite cone of Mount Edgecumbe - Photo AVO 2004 / D.Marriott

A swarm of earthquakes was detected near Mount Edgecumbe Volcano, beginning around 2 a.m. AKDT on Monday, April 11, 2022. There were hundreds of small earthquakes in the swarm, although the vast majority are too small to locate.

The National Earthquake Information Center reported that one of the largest earthquakes in the swarm occurred at 11:04 a.m. AKDT on April 11, with a magnitude of 2.8 at 10 km. depth. The Alaska Earthquake Center reported that another earthquake occurred at 3:44 p.m. AKDT on April 11, with a magnitude of 2.1 and a depth of 4 km. Since this morning, the swarm continues, although the rate of earthquakes has decreased over the past 24 hours.
The cause of this earthquake swarm is currently unknown. This swarm may be associated with volcanic processes, regional tectonic activity, or a combination of sources. AVO does not have local seismic instruments in the area, and the nearest station is at Sitka, 24 km (15 miles) east of the volcano.

The current volcano alert level and aviation color code remain "Unassigned".

To be continued ...

Edgecumbe volcano - photo AVO / D.Marriott 2004

Edgecumbe volcano - photo AVO / D.Marriott 2004

The Edgecumbe volcanic field in southern Kruzof Island lies on the North American Plate 10-15 km inside the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather Transform Fault. The Edgecumbe volcanic field is dominated by the symmetrical stratovolcano of Mount Edgecumbe and the domes and crater of the adjacent crater. Ridge. Mount Edgecumbe was named by Captain James Cook in 1778. The basal shield comprises approximately 35 km3 and consists of basalt, basaltic andesite and lava flows and andesite breccias. The Mount Edgecumbe composite cone is composed primarily of andesite and has a volume of approximately 3.5 km3. Crater Ridge's low-silica rhyolite domes also contain about 3.5 km3 of magma.

 

Source: AVO

Puracé - photo Federman Escobar Chávez, 2005 / GVP-11786

Puracé - photo Federman Escobar Chávez, 2005 / GVP-11786

After the opening of two fractures at Puracé on March 29, 2022, and observations of gas and ash, its alert level was raised to 2 / yellow on March 30. (see http://www.earth-of-fire.com/2022/03/news-from-purace-taal-nishinoshima-and-ruapehu.html)

Seismicity continued to be elevated until April 4. The earthquakes were of low magnitude, and located about 800 m SE of Puracé and under Curiquinga, at depths of 2 km on average. The number of events signifying increased movement of fluids. The geodetic network GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and DInSAR (Differential Interferometry by Synthetic Aperture Radar) showed inflation at the millimeter scale. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide increased, based on satellite and ground sampling data, and a fumarole on the N flank of Purace intensified and produced a strong smell of sulfur.

Significant unrest continued from 5 to 11 April. The seismic network recorded a total of 2,077 earthquakes, consisting of 248 VT events, 1,759 LP events, 37 low-energy TR events and 31 hybrid events. Millimetre-scale inflation persisted, and sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,800 tons per day.

 

Sources: SGC, via Global Volcanism Program

Stromboli - 12.04.2022 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A (via Mounts project) - and 3D view facing the sciara del Fuoco (via Copernicus) - one click to enlarge
Stromboli - 12.04.2022 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A (via Mounts project) - and 3D view facing the sciara del Fuoco (via Copernicus) - one click to enlarge

Stromboli - 12.04.2022 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A (via Mounts project) - and 3D view facing the sciara del Fuoco (via Copernicus) - one click to enlarge

During the week of 04.04.2022 to 10.04.2022, normal Strombolian-type explosive activity was observed, mainly produced by five eruptive vents located in the North crater area and two eruptive vents located in the Center-South crater area. All the mouths are placed inside the depression that occupies the crater terrace of Stromboli.


The total hourly frequency of explosions fluctuated between medium values ​​(15 events/h) and medium-high values ​​(19 events/h). The intensity of the explosions was mainly medium and low in both the North Crater area and the Center-South Crater area.
The seismological parameters monitored do not show any significant variations.
During the past week, no seismic signal associated with landslides has been recorded.
The island's soil deformation monitoring networks did not show any significant variation.
The flux of SO2 at an average level
CO2 fluxes in the crater area remain at medium to high values.
High values ​​of the isotopic ratio of He dissolved in the heat sinks.

The thermal activity observed by satellite was at a low level.

 

Source: INGV OE

Average hourly frequency per day and per week per crater area and in total of Stromboli explosive activity (thin and bold line, respectively). Data viewing conditions are shown at the top of the graph and activity levels at the right; the green bar indicates the typical average level of explosive activity at Stromboli - Doc. INGV OE

Average hourly frequency per day and per week per crater area and in total of Stromboli explosive activity (thin and bold line, respectively). Data viewing conditions are shown at the top of the graph and activity levels at the right; the green bar indicates the typical average level of explosive activity at Stromboli - Doc. INGV OE

In light of monitoring data from La Fossa de Vulcano, temperature data recorded on the crater rim show stable values ​​at high levels.
The flow of CO2 in the crater area attests to high values ​​of 12281 g m-2 d-1. 
The CO2 flux at the base of the La Fossa cone and in the Vulcano Porto area (C. Sicilia and P4max sites) continues to show a slight downward trend, but remains at values
medium-high; in the Faraglione site there are values ​​close to the background.
The SO2 flux in the crater area is at a medium-high level and moderately increasing
Geochemistry of fumarolic gases: The last sampling confirmed the downward trend of magmatic species in fumarolic gases.
Geochemistry of thermal aquifers: The temperature measured in the Camping Sicilia well is at high and stable values. The electrical conductivity shows low values.
The level values ​​measured in the Bambara well show a small fluctuation. Conductivity values ​​remain constant at medium-high levels.
Local seismicity is characterized by a low event occurrence rate.
Moderate fracturing seismicity associated with earthquakes with Ml >= 1.0.
The networks of permanent and clinometric GNSS stations did not register any significant changes.

 

Source: INGV OE

Vulcano - 13.04.2022 / 14:39 - webcam INGV OE Vlv0293

Vulcano - 13.04.2022 / 14:39 - webcam INGV OE Vlv0293

Vulcano - photo INGV OE  04.04.2022

Vulcano - photo INGV OE 04.04.2022

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Publié dans : #volcanic activity, #Sismologia
Sinabung - 13.04.2022 / 11:42 WIB - PVMBG / Magma Indonesia webcam - one click to enlarge

Sinabung - 13.04.2022 / 11:42 WIB - PVMBG / Magma Indonesia webcam - one click to enlarge

Sinabung activity continues, still at level 3 / siaga.
A plume of gas, sometimes embellished with ash, overcomes the volcano from 50 to 400 meters.
The seismicity of the week of April 6 to 12 is characterized by:
- 4 collapse earthquakes
- 32 blast/emission earthquakes
- 30 hybrid earthquakes
- 2 volcanic earthquakes
- 7 local & 38 distant tectonic earthquakes
- 4 earthquakes linked to lahars.

Sinabung - seismicity of the last 4 months - Doc. PVMBG / Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

Sinabung - seismicity of the last 4 months - Doc. PVMBG / Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

Communities and visitors/tourists should not carry out activities in the villages that have been relocated, as well as within a radial radius of 3 km from the summit of Mount Sinabung, as well as a sectoral radius of 5 km for the south- east sector, and 4 km for the east-north and west sector.
In the event of ash rain, people are advised to wear masks when leaving the house to reduce the health impact of volcanic ash. Securing drinking water installations and cleaning the roofs of houses from heavy volcanic ash so that they do not collapse.
People who live and live near the rivers that originate at Mount Sinabung should remain alert to the dangers of lahars.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia

Semeru - 13.04.2022 / 06:07 WIB - PVMBG / Magma Indonesia webcam

Semeru - 13.04.2022 / 06:07 WIB - PVMBG / Magma Indonesia webcam

In Semeru, for the week of April 6 to 12, the PVMBG reports:
- 605 eruption earthquakes
- 2 collapse earthquakes
- 29 emission and blast earthquakes
- 3 harmonic episodes
- 2 volcanic earthquakes
- 21 lesser tectonic earthquakes
- 3 earthquakes linked to lahars

Semeru - weekly activity summary from April 6 to 12, 2022 - Doc. PVMBG

Semeru - weekly activity summary from April 6 to 12, 2022 - Doc. PVMBG

Eruptive activity continues with a level 3 / siaga. It is advised not to carry out any activity in the southeastern sector along Besuk Kobokan, up to 13 km from the summit (the center of the eruption). Beyond this distance, the community does not conduct activities within 500 meters of the bank (river edge) along Besuk Kobokan due to the potential for expansion of hot clouds and lava flows. lava up to a distance of 17 km from the summit.
Not to move within a radius of 5 km from the crater/summit of Mount Semeru, as the area is likely to undergo incandescent projections.
And to remain aware of the potential for hot cloud avalanches (APGs), lava avalanches and lahars along the rivers/valleys that originate at the summit of Mount Semeru, especially along Besuk Kobokan, Besuk Bang, Besuk Kembar and Besuk Sat as well as potential lahars in the rivers a small river which is a tributary of Besuk Kobokan.

 

Source: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia

Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitudes of earthquakes on 13.04.2022 / 06:20 - Doc. IMO
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitudes of earthquakes on 13.04.2022 / 06:20 - Doc. IMO
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitudes of earthquakes on 13.04.2022 / 06:20 - Doc. IMO

Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitudes of earthquakes on 13.04.2022 / 06:20 - Doc. IMO

A seismic swarm began on April 12 at around 9:20 p.m. in the Reykjanes Peninsula, with a magnitude 3.9 earthquake, followed by several smaller earthquakes, measuring near magnitude 3. Earthquake activity has been almost continuous since the large quake. earthen.
ENSu has heard that the largest earthquake was observed in Reykjavík, so it can be assumed that it was well felt in many parts of the Reykjanes peninsula.
The crisis follows the pattern of activity that has characterized the peninsula over the past two years, as activity jumped between areas.

 

Source: IMO

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The SGC reports an emission of ash from the Nevado del Ruiz volcano.
At 5:13 p.m. on April 11, 2022, a seismic fluid signal was recorded with an associated ash emission. The column of steam, gas and ash reached a height of 3258 m, vertical direction with a slight dispersion towards the north. This was visible from most cameras installed in the volcano area and from the city of Manizales. At the time of publication of this note, there is a report of ash fall in the area of ​​the volcano, according to what was notified by the staff of the National Natural Park of Los Nevados.

Nevado del Ruiz- ash plume and gas 11.04.2022 - SGC webcams - oneclick to enlarge

Nevado del Ruiz- ash plume and gas 11.04.2022 - SGC webcams - oneclick to enlarge

It is emphasized that the phenomenon observed this afternoon is a recurring phenomenon in the activity of the volcano, which on many occasions is not possible to observe due to the climatic conditions which commonly prevail in the region.

The recording of new seismic signals of this type that may be associated with gas and ash emissions, which will be dispersed according to the prevailing wind regime at the time of the emission or an acceleration of the volcanic process that this entails, is not excluded. changes in the activity level of the volcano.

The activity level of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano remains at 3 / yellow: Changes in the behavior of volcanic activity. The Colombian Geological Service remains attentive to any development in the activity and invites you to consult the official information that will be issued by the Colombian Geological Service and the municipal and departmental risk management councils.

 

Source: S.G.C.

Sabancaya - activity from 4 to 10.04.2022 - doc. I.G.Peru

Sabancaya - activity from 4 to 10.04.2022 - doc. I.G.Peru

Between April 4 and 10, 2022, Sabancaya maintained moderate eruptive activity, with an average of 52 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas 2,500 meters above the summit.

During the period, the I.G.P. detected 231 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids, as well as VT earthquakes, related to rock fragmentation. No significant anomalies were reported. Three thermal anomalies, max. 6 MW, have been identified, associated with the presence of a superficial lava body in the crater.

The volcanic alert remains at naranja, with a non-accessible zone of 12 km radius around the crater.

 

Source: I.G.Peru

Kilauea , cratère Halema'uma'u : One eruptive vent (orange) is active within Halema‘uma‘u, on the western side of the crater floor. An adjacent pond (purple) is feeding lava to a larger lake (red); though at times the lava level has dropped and circulation has diminished, the pond and lake have consistently hosted active lava in recent weeks. The eruption statistics provided here are current as of the last HVO overflight on March 30, 2022; the volume-averaged surface of the whole lava lake was approximately 2,769 ft (844 m) above sea level at that time. - Source : HVO-USGS

Kilauea , cratère Halema'uma'u : One eruptive vent (orange) is active within Halema‘uma‘u, on the western side of the crater floor. An adjacent pond (purple) is feeding lava to a larger lake (red); though at times the lava level has dropped and circulation has diminished, the pond and lake have consistently hosted active lava in recent weeks. The eruption statistics provided here are current as of the last HVO overflight on March 30, 2022; the volume-averaged surface of the whole lava lake was approximately 2,769 ft (844 m) above sea level at that time. - Source : HVO-USGS

The eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater is currently ongoing. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake and the lava flow on the crater floor from the west vent is still active at this time. The tilt is currently on a flat trend. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake tonight.

The current Volcanic Alert Level is Watch, and the current Aviation Color Code Orange.

 

Source: HVO

Halema'uma'u - thermal image from 11.04.2022 / 8:14 p.m. - webcam therm .HVO

Halema'uma'u - thermal image from 11.04.2022 / 8:14 p.m. - webcam therm .HVO

Kilauea - very high therm anomalies as of 04.11.2022 / 9:15 p.m. - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Kilauea - very high therm anomalies as of 04.11.2022 / 9:15 p.m. - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Over the past seven days, high volcanic unrest has continued at Mount Ruapehu, rising to heightened levels. This increased unrest is manifested primarily by volcanic tremors and increased gas production. Tremor levels remain elevated but have decreased from the peak reached on April 6-7, 2022. An airborne gas flight completed yesterday confirmed increased gas production across Crater Lake, particularly CO2 (dioxide of carbon), being the 2nd highest value ever recorded.

The temperature of Crater Lake (Te Wai ā-moe) is now 38°C. Our modeling suggests that approximately 280 MW of heat is required to maintain the temperature of this lake. The temperature and heat input remain within the typical range of a heating cycle. The crater lake remains a battleship gray color with upwellings in the northern vent area and a small overflow. Sulfur sheets are present on the surface of the lake.

Ruapehu - image archives GNS / Brad Scott 10.04.2019

Ruapehu - image archives GNS / Brad Scott 10.04.2019

The sustained nature of volcanic unrest now differs from that typically seen at the onset of a warming phase. Volcanic tremor signals and elevated gas production are now more indicative of processes driven by molten rock (magma) interacting with the geothermal system deep within the volcano.
The interpretation of this activity is consistent with elevated volcanic unrest at the Elevated Level and therefore the Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 2. The Aviation Color Code remains at Yellow.

The interpretation of this activity is consistent with elevated volcanic unrest at the Elevated Level and therefore the Volcanic Alert Level remains at Level 2. The Aviation Color Code remains at Yellow.

 

Source: GeoNet

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At Poas Volcano, no eruption reported.
Seismic activity is similar, compared to yesterday.
Low frequency and low amplitude volcanic earthquakes (LP type) are frequently recorded.

Volcanic gas concentrations remain near detection levels (MultiGAS SO2<0.9 ppm; ExpoGAS SO2 <0.4ppm. Interestingly, the CO2/SO2 ratio rose and fell sharply from April 5-6, 2022.

Poas - 06.04.2022 / 06:38 - webcam Ovsicori

Poas - 06.04.2022 / 06:38 - webcam Ovsicori

Poas - evolution of the acid lake and the scar left by the explosion, respectively on 06.04 / 07:38, 08.04 / 11:56 & 13:56, and 10.04 / 14:17 - one click to enlarge the thumbnailsPoas - evolution of the acid lake and the scar left by the explosion, respectively on 06.04 / 07:38, 08.04 / 11:56 & 13:56, and 10.04 / 14:17 - one click to enlarge the thumbnails
Poas - evolution of the acid lake and the scar left by the explosion, respectively on 06.04 / 07:38, 08.04 / 11:56 & 13:56, and 10.04 / 14:17 - one click to enlarge the thumbnailsPoas - evolution of the acid lake and the scar left by the explosion, respectively on 06.04 / 07:38, 08.04 / 11:56 & 13:56, and 10.04 / 14:17 - one click to enlarge the thumbnails

Poas - evolution of the acid lake and the scar left by the explosion, respectively on 06.04 / 07:38, 08.04 / 11:56 & 13:56, and 10.04 / 14:17 - one click to enlarge the thumbnails

The volcanic edifice is experiencing a slight extension according to the GPS network On April 5, 2022, 1 day before the hydrothermal explosion that destroyed the NE subaerial orange Fumarole of the hyperacid lake (April 6, 2:30 a.m.), SENTINEL-5P/ TROPOMI detected a mass of SO2 gas of about 500 tons in total which seems to have been emitted jointly by the Poás volcano and the Turrialba volcano After the hydrothermal explosion in the Fumarola Naranja from April 6 to today, the subaerial fumaroles in the eastern sector of the crater and the subaquatic fumarole south of the hyperacid lake (Boca A or old dome) continue to degas vigorously A very active convection cell is observed in mouth A.

The hyperacidic lake changed color from whale green to milky gray after the April 6 explosion and remains gray to this day, suggesting homogenization of the lake by vigorous convective fumaroles.

In view of the April 6, 2022 hydrothermal explosion in Fumarola Naranja, persons approaching the vicinity of the PNVP Visitor Lookout are advised to take precautions and follow the recommendations of the PNVP administration protocol.

Turrilaba - 05.04.2022 / 05:40 - webcam Ovsicori

Turrilaba - 05.04.2022 / 05:40 - webcam Ovsicori

At Turrialba Volcano, no rash reported.
Seismic activity is similar, compared to yesterday.
Seismicity is maintained with frequent low-frequency volcanic earthquakes and frequent short-duration, low-amplitude, broad-band-frequency tremors.

Regarding the gases emitted by the volcano, the concentration of SO2 gas remains below 10 parts per million, while the other gases measured remain at low and stable concentrations. On April 7, 2022, the temperature of the most visible fumaroles of the western crater was measured remotely with an infrared thermal camera, recording at least 115 degrees Celsius (I. Godfrey Global Business BS Management). The volcanic edifice is experiencing a slight extension according to the GPS network.

 

Sources: Ovsicori-UNA

Turrialba - temperature of the fumaroles on 07.04.2022: 115°C - Doc. I. Godfrey Global Business BS Management / via Ovsicori

Turrialba - temperature of the fumaroles on 07.04.2022: 115°C - Doc. I. Godfrey Global Business BS Management / via Ovsicori

Shane Cronin, a volcanologist at the University of Auckland, in April traversed and sampled, with his team, the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haapai (HTHH) caldera after the mid-January 2022 eruptions

Little change on the coast, but the first 30 to 100 meters of cover deposits were stripped away by the explosion - leaving only lavas and clumps about 2000 years old.

Hunga Tonga- Hunga Haapai - eruption of 14.01.2022 / 5:14 p.m. - photo Taaniela Kula - TGS

Hunga Tonga- Hunga Haapai - eruption of 14.01.2022 / 5:14 p.m. - photo Taaniela Kula - TGS

Bathymetries of HTHH, with the 2009, 2014-2015 calderas (Doc. AGU's Eos), and geochemistry of the 2009, 2014-15 and older eruptions of HungaTongaHungaHaapai, by Dr. Marco Brenna (U. Otago). - one click to enlarge thumbnailsBathymetries of HTHH, with the 2009, 2014-2015 calderas (Doc. AGU's Eos), and geochemistry of the 2009, 2014-15 and older eruptions of HungaTongaHungaHaapai, by Dr. Marco Brenna (U. Otago). - one click to enlarge thumbnails
Bathymetries of HTHH, with the 2009, 2014-2015 calderas (Doc. AGU's Eos), and geochemistry of the 2009, 2014-15 and older eruptions of HungaTongaHungaHaapai, by Dr. Marco Brenna (U. Otago). - one click to enlarge thumbnails

Bathymetries of HTHH, with the 2009, 2014-2015 calderas (Doc. AGU's Eos), and geochemistry of the 2009, 2014-15 and older eruptions of HungaTongaHungaHaapai, by Dr. Marco Brenna (U. Otago). - one click to enlarge thumbnails

A nice section was discovered on the outer flanks of Hunga Ha'apai. The red top (thickening to the right) is a welded AD1150 pyroclastic flow deposit, capping unwelded gray deposits from the same eruption. Below are yellow AD200 deposits and older pyroclastic flow units on older lava flows.

Hunga Ha'apai, the outer flanks - photo Shane Cronin / 10.04.2022

Hunga Ha'apai, the outer flanks - photo Shane Cronin / 10.04.2022

The deposits from the January 2022 tsunami were inventoried on April 6: after analysis, 3 layers of slightly different grain size can be distinguished: the incoming wave (clean sand), a decline, then the outgoing wave (sand + debris and torn soil) - plus a thin black layer of ash near the summit, west of Tongatapu

 

Source : for details, see the Shane Cronin's Twitter page, volcanologist / Un. Auckland.

HTHH - section in tsunami and ash deposits - Doc. and explanation by Shane Cronin /11.04.2022 - one click to enlarge
HTHH - section in tsunami and ash deposits - Doc. and explanation by Shane Cronin /11.04.2022 - one click to enlarge

HTHH - section in tsunami and ash deposits - Doc. and explanation by Shane Cronin /11.04.2022 - one click to enlarge

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