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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
LaRéunion - Piton de La Fournaise - east and northeast flanks of the Dolomieu, with a cloud "trapped" in the crater - photo archives © Bernard Duyck

LaRéunion - Piton de La Fournaise - east and northeast flanks of the Dolomieu, with a cloud "trapped" in the crater - photo archives © Bernard Duyck

The seismic crisis that began at 04:33 local time (00:33 UTC time) at Piton de la Fournaise continues.

Between 04:33 and 10:50 local time, 537 volcano-tectonic earthquakes and 81 long-period type earthquakes were recorded by the OVPF. This seismicity is localized under the summit zone and under the eastern flank (between 0.6 km above sea level and 1.2 km below sea level).

The seismicity and the source of the deformations show a migration of the magma in depth towards the north northeast flank of the volcano, in the Piton de Crac sector, a little further north than the intrusion of September 28-30, 2020.

In 2020, the seismic crisis, which accompanied this intrusion, lasted two days and did not lead to an eruption, the magma having stopped at depth.

An eruption is likely shortly within the next few minutes or hours.

Piton de La Fournaise - seismic crisis in progress this 18.10.2021 - doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - seismic crisis in progress this 18.10.2021 - doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - location of the earthquakes in progress on October 18, 2021 - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - location of the earthquakes in progress on October 18, 2021 - Doc. OVPF

Under these conditions, the prefect decided to trigger again the alert phase 1 "probable or eminent eruption" of the specific ORSEC volcano device as of today at 7 a.m.

Consequently, public access to the upper part of the Piton de la Fournaise enclosure, whether from the Pas de Bellecombe trail or from any other trail, remains prohibited. It is recalled that the landing of aircraft in the volcano area is regulated and subject to authorization from the Prefecture.

 

Sources: OVPF & Préfecture de La Réunion.

La Palma - Explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieje at 17.10.2021 -  photos InVolcan  de Canarias
La Palma - Explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieje at 17.10.2021 -  photos InVolcan  de Canarias

La Palma - Explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieje at 17.10.2021 - photos InVolcan de Canarias

In La Palma, the Cumbre Vieja flows, which have the best lava supply near the Laguna, continue to advance west and north-west.

The flow to the southwest of Montana de LaLaguna is 200 m. from the sea, and new precautions against explosions and gas fumes are taken for the nuclei of Tazacorte inhabitants.

The Southeast vent is clearly visible on the webcams; it is an old vent, reactivated in contact with water. The phreatomagmatic explosions have now diminished, but the production of ash persists.

La Palma - earthquakes at 18.10.2021 / 08:08 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - earthquakes at 18.10.2021 / 08:08 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - advance of the lava flows at 15.10.2021 / 18:56 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

La Palma - advance of the lava flows at 15.10.2021 / 18:56 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

La Palma -  explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieja / 17.102 021 -photo I love the world
La Palma -  explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieja / 17.102 021 -photo I love the world

La Palma - explosive and effusive activity of Cumbre Vieja / 17.102 021 -photo I love the world

At La Palma airport, flights were suspended due to the ash cloud

 

Sources: InVolcan de Canarias, IGME, IGNes, Copernicus, DSN, Ilovethe world

La Palma - the eruption of Cumbre Vieja drowns the countryside and nearby homes in ashes - photos Ilovethe world / Twitter
La Palma - the eruption of Cumbre Vieja drowns the countryside and nearby homes in ashes - photos Ilovethe world / Twitter

La Palma - the eruption of Cumbre Vieja drowns the countryside and nearby homes in ashes - photos Ilovethe world / Twitter

At Otake Crater on Suwanosejima, active eruptive activity continues.

Four explosions (preliminary figures) occurred, accompanied by an ash plume which rose to 2,700 m. altitude. Pyroclasts are scattered up to about 500m from the center of the crater.

Ashfall is confirmed at Toshima, about 4 km SW of the crater.

The volcanic tremors mainly occurred with the eruption.

On the inclinometer of the Nabetao station, slight variations to the west are detected.

 

Source: October 18, 4:00 p.m., Fukuoka District Weather Observatory, Kagoshima Local Weather Observatory

Suwanosejima - explosion of 18.10.2021 - 08:16 loc. - JMA webcam

Suwanosejima - explosion of 18.10.2021 - 08:16 loc. - JMA webcam

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

The PHIVOLCS published an abnormally high SO2 volcanic gas emission notice from the Taal volcano.
A total of 23,576 tonnes / day of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions from the main Taal crater was recorded on the morning of October 15, the second highest after Taal's peak SO2 emission of 25,456 tonnes / day on the 5th October 2021. SO2 flux this month averaged 9,872 tonnes / day while the average flux trend continues to increase since March 2021. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 9,154 tonnes / day on October 16, 2021.

Taal - gas and steam plume at Taal volcano Island on 15.10.2021 - Doc. Pengasa FB

Taal - gas and steam plume at Taal volcano Island on 15.10.2021 - Doc. Pengasa FB

News of Taal, Cumbre Vieja and Erta Ale.

The degassing of the main Taal crater, moreover, was noticeably large and generated steam-laden plumes reaching 3,000 meters above the volcanic island of Taal or TVI.

The thick VOG observed over the Taal Caldera area can be expected to drift northwesterly based on PAGASA's air particle track forecast.

Volcanic seismic activity in Taal resumed on October 11, 2021 after a period of calm that began on September 27, 2021. A total of 145 events consisting mainly of weak low frequency earthquakes and volcanic tremor associated with magma and magmatic gas flows have been recorded since seismic activity resumed until 4:00 pm today. Finally, a sudden inflation of TVI was detected by GPS monitoring in August 2021, compatible with a new pressurization of the underground hydrothermal system due to continuous magmatic degassing.
In view of the above, DOST-PHIVOLCS reminds the public that alert level 2 prevails over the Taal volcano and that the current SO2 parameters indicate high levels of magmatic degassing from the main crater that could lead to explosive activity.

 

Sources: DOST-PHIVOLCS and PNA.gov.ph

La Palma - seismicity at 16.10.2021 / 07:40 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - seismicity at 16.10.2021 / 07:40 - Doc. IGNes

Since the last survey, 90 earthquakes have been located in the area affected by the volcanic reactivation of Cumbre Vieja, 10 of these earthquakes were felt by the population. An earthquake occurred at 06:07 UTC on October 16, with a magnitude of 4.5 (mbLg) at a depth of 37 km.

At 4:41 am, the largest earthquake occurred since the start of the eruption (4.6 mbLg), at a depth of 37 km, which was felt by the population with intensity III-IV.
A total of 11 earthquakes were located at depths of about 30 km, the rest of the hypocenters of the period are located at a shallower depth, about 12 km.

The volcanic tremor signal maintains a high average amplitude, with intensifying pulses, since the last communication.

 LaPalma / Cumbre Vieja - Anomalies thermiques en hausse au 16.10.2021 / 23h15 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_VRP

LaPalma / Cumbre Vieja - Anomalies thermiques en hausse au 16.10.2021 / 23h15 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_VRP

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the two eruptive columns, seen from the Mirador Astronómico Llano de Jable on 16.10.2021 - photo Jorge Eduardo Romero Moyano geologist

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the two eruptive columns, seen from the Mirador Astronómico Llano de Jable on 16.10.2021 - photo Jorge Eduardo Romero Moyano geologist

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja -brown ash coat at the ENE of the active vents - photo Jorge Eduardo Romero Moyano, geologist, 16.10.2021

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja -brown ash coat at the ENE of the active vents - photo Jorge Eduardo Romero Moyano, geologist, 16.10.2021

Les coulées de lave ont affecté une surface de 742 ha. et détruit 1.058 bâtiments.

The height of the cloud is measured at 08:00 UTC and is estimated at 4,500 m.

The eruptive mouth that opened this Friday is not a new earthly opening, but rather an old one that would have been reactivated.

The two columns of gas and ash stand out well, the one that opened yesterday seems quite active, with a lot of water vapor and gas.

After the opening of the new emission center to the SE, an increase in lava flow is observed at the NW end of the eruptive fissure. Slowed flows can be reactivated.

 

Sources: IGNes, IGME, Involcan, DSN

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja -the thermal image of the lava delta ... still very hot on 16.10.2021 - Doc. CSIC

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja -the thermal image of the lava delta ... still very hot on 16.10.2021 - Doc. CSIC

Thermal anomalies, weak between VRP2 and 17 MW, were spotted by Mirova in October at Erta Ale in Ethiopia.

On the Sentinel-2 images, the activity seems more important at the northern pit crater

 

Sources: Mirova and Sentinel-2

Erta Ale - Thremic anomalies at 16.10.2021 / 22:45 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Erta Ale - Thremic anomalies at 16.10.2021 / 22:45 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Erta Ale - Sentinel-2 bands images 12,11,8A from 10.15.2021 / 07:39 am - via Mounts Project
Erta Ale - Sentinel-2 bands images 12,11,8A from 10.15.2021 / 07:39 am - via Mounts Project

Erta Ale - Sentinel-2 bands images 12,11,8A from 10.15.2021 / 07:39 am - via Mounts Project

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity, #Sismologia

Effusive and explosive activity continues in La Palma / Cumbre Vieja, at high levels. During the night and this morning, frequent lava rises occurred at the level of the crater.
Large amounts of lava can be seen flowing in waves from the pierced crater, covering the lower northwest flanks of the cone with leaf-shaped flows.
These lava floods are likely caused by partial collapses at or around the lower vent in particular.

According to Pevolca & InVolcan, a new eruptive vent has opened southeast of the main vent. It ejects gases and pyroclasts.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - gas and pyroclast emissions from the new vent - photo CSIC 15.10.2021

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - gas and pyroclast emissions from the new vent - photo CSIC 15.10.2021

The two streams that are south of La Laguna mountain are monitored, as they could converge and reach the sea.

The last Copernicus map dated October 14 at 19:02 UTC mentions 733 ha covered by lava flows, and 1,817 buildings destroyed.

La Palma - Cumbre Vieja - images Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.4 (top) and bands 12.11.8A (bottom) from 15.10.2021- one click to enlarge
La Palma - Cumbre Vieja - images Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.4 (top) and bands 12.11.8A (bottom) from 15.10.2021- one click to enlarge

La Palma - Cumbre Vieja - images Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.4 (top) and bands 12.11.8A (bottom) from 15.10.2021- one click to enlarge

La Palma Cumbre Viela - the lava flows at 14.10.2021 / 19:02 UTC - Doc.Copernicue EMSR

La Palma Cumbre Viela - the lava flows at 14.10.2021 / 19:02 UTC - Doc.Copernicue EMSR

The CSIC posted a video in which Vincente Soler, titular volcanologist, exhibits a sample taken by a colleague in an area near the eruptive center which, in the absence of laboratory verification, is inclined to classify as pre-oceanic sediment. island (more than 2 million years old), with strong similarities with the "restingolitas" emitted during the eruption of the submarine Tagoro volcano, in El Hierro.

 

Sources: IGNes, CSIC, InVolcan, Pevolca, IGM, Copernicus.

La Palma Cumbre Vieja - 14.10.2021- sample similar to "restingolitas" presented by Vicente Soler, volcanologist at CSIC. - Image CSIC

La Palma Cumbre Vieja - 14.10.2021- sample similar to "restingolitas" presented by Vicente Soler, volcanologist at CSIC. - Image CSIC

Lava effusion continued this week at the Great Sitkin in the Aleutian Arc, and lava now fills more than half of the summit crater. Satellite imagery from October 11 showed that two lava lobes, flowing over low points on the crater rim, extend down a slope 330 m to the south and 350 m to the west. Lava also reached the rim of the crater on its northern periphery. In a few areas, lava advanced over snow and ice, but no abnormal melting, vapor formation or water accumulation was observed. This indicates that melt rates are likely low and that there is no indication of impending hydrological hazards.

The lava lobes which have passed the edge of the summit crater flow into small valleys developed on the volcanic edifice. The terrain is steep in these areas, and boulders of lava and lava rubble could break away from the terminus of the flow lobes without warning and form small rock avalanches in these valleys. Such avalanches can release ash and gas and could travel several hundred meters beyond lava flows; they would be dangerous for anyone in these areas.

Satellite imagery shows a likely-formed boulder deposit extending 450 m beyond the western flow lobe terminus.

The level of seismicity has been slightly elevated over the past week and there have been persistent small earthquakes likely associated with the ongoing lava flow. No explosive activity or ash emission was detected in seismic, infrasound, satellite or web camera data.

There is no indication of how long the lava flow lasted during the current eruption, and it is possible that explosive activity could occur with little or no warning.

Current volcano alert level: Watch
Current Aviation Color Code: Orange.

 

Source: AVO

Great Sitkin - WorldView-3 SWIR image from 02.10.2021 / 22:56 UTC - Doc.AVO MM.Loewen (The red-orange areas are high temperature lava, while the blue is snow. The light blue is the vegetation and browns to blacks are the rock.) - one click to enlarge

Great Sitkin - WorldView-3 SWIR image from 02.10.2021 / 22:56 UTC - Doc.AVO MM.Loewen (The red-orange areas are high temperature lava, while the blue is snow. The light blue is the vegetation and browns to blacks are the rock.) - one click to enlarge

In Merapi, on Java, during the week of October 8 to 14, 2021, the BPPTKG reports avalanches of incandescent blocks were observed 41 times towards the southwest with a maximum sliding distance of 2,000 m.

The height of the southwest lava dome has decreased by ± 2 m, and the height of the central lava dome has been increased by approximately ± 4 m. The volume of the southwest lava dome is 1,609,000 m³ and the central dome is 2,927,000 m³.

This week's seismicity is higher than that of last week. The Merapi deformation which was monitored using EDM and GPS this week showed no significant changes.

Merapi - activity from 09.10.2021 / 05.37 loc. - Doc. PVMBG Magma Indonesia

Merapi - activity from 09.10.2021 / 05.37 loc. - Doc. PVMBG Magma Indonesia

Merapi - morphological changes of the past week - Doc. BPPTKG 10/14/2021

Merapi - morphological changes of the past week - Doc. BPPTKG 10/14/2021

Merapi - seismicity between 8 and 14.10.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity between 8 and 14.10.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga.

The current potential danger consists of lava avalanches and hot clouds in the southeast-southwest sector for a maximum of 3 km to the Woro River, and 5 km to the Gendol, Kuning, Boyong rivers. , Bedog, Krasak, Bebeng and Putih. During this time, the ejection of volcanic material in the event of an explosive eruption can reach a radius of 3 km from the summit.

 

Sources: BPPTKG, PVMBG and Magma Indonesia.

Bali - Tectonic earthquake of M 4.8 and localization near the Agung - Doc. BMKG - one click to enlarge
Bali - Tectonic earthquake of M 4.8 and localization near the Agung - Doc. BMKG - one click to enlarge

Bali - Tectonic earthquake of M 4.8 and localization near the Agung - Doc. BMKG - one click to enlarge

An earthquake of M4.8 was recorded between Agung and Batur, on Bali, this 16.10.2021 at 03:18 WIB; destruction is reported in Rendang / Karangasem.

Three aftershocks followed.

To be monitored carefully: landslides are likely to occur and new cracks may open following these earthquakes.

 

Source: BMKG

Bali / NW of Agung - Damage after the M4.8 earthquake on October 16, 2021 - BMKG photos

Bali / NW of Agung - Damage after the M4.8 earthquake on October 16, 2021 - BMKG photos

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

The management of Pevolca ordered on the morning of Thursday the evacuation of several areas after the advance of the lava flow from Cumbre Vieja, which extends further north-west and because of its proximity to the limit area of ​​the perimeter already evacuated. The area included in the LP-215 (road from La Laguna to Tazacorte) has been evacuated, from the boundary with the municipality of Tazacorte indicated on the road, to the junction with the LP-213 (road to Puerto Naos)

 

An earthquake of 4.5 mbLg was recorded, located in Villa de Mazo.

Two large flows coexist: the first-generated flow, poorly powered, has three branches to the south of the Montana de Todoque; the second, further north, has two appendages and juts out into the industrial polygon.

An overflow of the lava flow at the level of the main cone on October 14 at 2:15 pm local ... a real "tsunami" of lava. Impressive speed and overflow of the lava channel, according to InVolcan. - https://twitter.com/i/status/1448760790413193224

At 9:30 p.m., the SPAR supermarket is on fire and the football field is covered for a third by lava ... worrying because it shows that the lava is approaching more and more the center of La Laguna.

As the ash from the eruption gets finer and thinner, the sky will remain dark for a long time!

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - activity from 14.10.2021 / 23:50 - photos LaPalma I en directo
La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - activity from 14.10.2021 / 23:50 - photos LaPalma I en directo

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - activity from 14.10.2021 / 23:50 - photos LaPalma I en directo

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 14.10.2021 - The variation in soil deformation (elevation and southward displacement) is confirmed in stations near the volcano, according to IGN

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 14.10.2021 - The variation in soil deformation (elevation and southward displacement) is confirmed in stations near the volcano, according to IGN

La Palma - Cumbre Vieja - a succession of lava overflows is observed this 14.10.2021 - IGME-CSIC video

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - maps of flows, evacuations, toched areas, etc as of 14.10.2021 - Doc. ERCC / European Commission - one click to enlarge

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - maps of flows, evacuations, toched areas, etc as of 14.10.2021 - Doc. ERCC / European Commission - one click to enlarge

Copernicus data has been updated, indicating that 6,300 people have been evacuated. In terms of material damage: 1,634 buildings were destroyed by lava. In addition, the surface area affected by runoff is already 674 hectares. At its widest point, the lava reaches 1,700 meters.

 

Sources: IGNes, InVolcan, GEVolcan, Copernicus, La Palma en directo, DSN.

Kilauea / Halema'uma'u - the active western spatter cone - Photo Paradise helicopters 11.10.2021

Kilauea / Halema'uma'u - the active western spatter cone - Photo Paradise helicopters 11.10.2021

As of this morning of October 14, 2021, in Kilauea, lava continues to emerge from a single vent in the western wall of Halema'uma'u crater.

The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of around 785 meters above sea level measured by field crews on October 13, with a total increase of around 42 meters since lava emerged on the September 29.

The total erupting volume since the start of the eruption was estimated to be around 15.9 million cubic meters on October 8. The west vent had intermittent fountain heights of 5m with occasional bursts up to 10m observed by field crews on October 13. The fountain built a splash cone / Spatter cone about 10 meters wide opening east towards the lake. Lava flows into the lake through the opening of the splash cone.

 

Source: HVO

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

At 07:50:00 local time on October 13, 2021, a moderate energy phreatic eruption was recorded at the Rincon de la Vieja volcano, with a white plume, rich in water vapor and gas, which amounted to 500 meters above the height of the crater and at 2416 masl (meters above sea level).
Duration of activity: 1 minute.

At the time of the eruption, the winds were blowing from the southwest.

Seismic activity is similar, compared to yesterday.

Despite the eruption, no significant seismic activity is recorded on the volcano. Geodetic observations show stability in the last days.
 

 

Sources: Ovsicori and VSF

Rincon de la Vieja - phreatic eruption of 13.10.2021 / 07:51 - photo Don Jorge Camacho via VSF

Rincon de la Vieja - phreatic eruption of 13.10.2021 / 07:51 - photo Don Jorge Camacho via VSF

Following high emissions of CO2 from the ground, the authorities advise to avoid depressions and basements, places where this gas tends to stagnate, on the island of Vulcano.

A number of families were evacuated from the island of Vulcano. The decision was made after some families noticed and observed a significant and abnormal release of smoke from the basement of the inhabited area. Residents were particularly struck by the discovery of a series of dead animals in the same area. With the arrival of the riflemen, INGV scientists detected and recorded a significant CO2 emission which had reached very high levels. This forced local authorities to evacuate a number of homes present in the gaseous emission zone. For the moment the rest of the island will not be evacuated, the current danger comes from the emission of toxic gases and not from an imminent eruption.

 

Source: Il Mondo dei Terremoti

Vulcano - the inhabited area at the foot of the crater of La Fossa - photo Boris Behncke archives 1996

Vulcano - the inhabited area at the foot of the crater of La Fossa - photo Boris Behncke archives 1996

The island of Fukutoku-Okanoba, formed after the eruption of August 13, 2021, has been suffering from a marine erosion forest.

An overflight on October 12 by the Japan Coast Guards allows to see the current state of West Niijima and the areas of discolored water, which testify to an activity in progress.

Pumice stones are found several hundred kilometers from the eruptive site, in the Ogasawara Islands.

 

Sources: Japan Coast Guards and pumice photos / Twitter / Sabolcs Harangi

Fukutoku -Niijima west - the discolored waters - photo Japan Coast Guards 12.10.2021 / 13h13

Fukutoku -Niijima west - the discolored waters - photo Japan Coast Guards 12.10.2021 / 13h13

Fukutoku -Niijima west - strong erosion - photo Japan Coast Guards 12.10.2021 / 13h13

Fukutoku -Niijima west - strong erosion - photo Japan Coast Guards 12.10.2021 / 13h13

In La Palma, two earthquakes, respectively of M 4.5 and 4.1 occurred on October 14; the deformation of the eruptive zone increased by 6-7 cm (indicating new magma on the path with more pressure), the tremor increased, before keeping level, the SO2 emissions rose (17,400 tons / day yesterday ) and all bodes well that the volcano will continue to open new mouths, after a collapse last night and a fusion of the mouths which generated a new flow which descends from the north.

 

The volume of tephra is estimated to be between 8 and 9 million m³ since the start of the eruption.

In a photo taken recently, the ash and pyroclasts are now much finer, indicating a more energetic process in the eruptive column of the volcano, now VEI2, but which takes the path to an eruption of VEI3.
In addition, several colors are observable, linked to the variation in the chemical and mineralogical composition of pyroclasts and fallen ash.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Castings on 13.10.2021 / 13:50 - Copernicus EMRS

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Castings on 13.10.2021 / 13:50 - Copernicus EMRS

La Palma - ashes and tephra issued by Cumbre Vieja on 13.10.2021 - InVolcan

La Palma - ashes and tephra issued by Cumbre Vieja on 13.10.2021 - InVolcan

According to the Aviation24.be portal, the Ryanair Boeing 737-800 should have returned to Tenerife South airport for reasons initially linked to the ash cloud.
It remains to be confirmed whether the return of the plane was due to a cause related to volcanic activity on La Palma, or if it was due to external causes.

 

 

Sources: IGNes, InVolcan, Volcanes y Ciencia Hoy, GEVolcan

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

At Etna, the week of October 4 to 10, 2021 was marked by degassing at the summit craters.

Seismic fracturing activity remains low, as does the magnitude of the volcanic tremor, and infrasonic activity.

No significant variation in soil deformation.

SO2 flux at an average level
The flux of CO2 emitted by soils is at medium-high values.

In addition, on October 4, 2021, an inspection was carried out in the summit area and the data compared to crater observations that were made with drones equipped with visible and thermal cameras during the year.
The comparison between the two DEMs shows a deepening of the hemlines to the southwest and east of the SEC identified by the red ellipse in Figure 3.3 B. In addition, the details of the crater rim of the SEC are characterized by some thermal anomalies in correspondence with the fumaroles.

 

Source: INGV OE

Etna - (A and B) 3D models of the south-eastern crater of Etna dating from September 16, 2021 and October 4, 2021, respectively. - (C and D) RGB and thermal images of the edge of the SEC crater taken on October 4, 2021. - Doc . INGV OE - one click to enlarge

Etna - (A and B) 3D models of the south-eastern crater of Etna dating from September 16, 2021 and October 4, 2021, respectively. - (C and D) RGB and thermal images of the edge of the SEC crater taken on October 4, 2021. - Doc . INGV OE - one click to enlarge

In recent days, the seismicity has increased slightly under the Piton de la Fournaise.

It follows more than 4 months of inflation of the volcano, synonymous with magma recharge of the superficial magmatic reservoir.

This seismicity remains low and superficial for the moment, and is most certainly linked to a disturbance of the superficial hydrothermal system by the rise of deep heat.

52 earthquakes were recorded last month and the trend has been increasing since September 20, especially in recent days:

- Number of volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VT) of 11-10-2021: 12
Zone affected by VT: Summit cone

Larger magnitude volcano-tectonic earthquake of 11-10-2021: Duration: 6.08 s - Magnitude of duration: 0.70

- Number of volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VT) of 12-10-2021: 10
Zone affected by VT: Summit cone

Larger magnitude volcano-tectonic earthquake of 12-10-2021: Duration: 6.36 s - Magnitude of duration: 0.74

In addition, more CO2 is observed in the soil.

 

Source: OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - the dolomieu crater in the Enclos Fouqué - photo IRT

Piton de La Fournaise - the dolomieu crater in the Enclos Fouqué - photo IRT

Piton de La Fournaise - Illustration of the deformation over 2 months. The baselines (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (top), the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (bottom) are shown here. ) (see location on the associated maps). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - Illustration of the deformation over 2 months. The baselines (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (top), the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (bottom) are shown here. ) (see location on the associated maps). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

The DSN communicated the situation on October 13/8 a.m. in La Palma / Cumbre Vieja eruption:

Three flows exist today; the most northerly flow forced the preventive evacuation of 700-800 people yesterday.

The weather conditions favoring air quality, the confinement of 3,500 people was lifted. The Canary Islands airports are operational.

The height of the eruptive plume reaches 3,500 meters, and drifts west, then south and east.

The lava extension is 656 ha. (+86.4 ha in 43h) the number of destroyed houses reached 1,458 (+135).

Seismicity continues at a depth of between 4 and 35 km, and earthquakes of M 3.6 maximum.

The volcanic tremor signal increased, possibly indicating a higher gas content of the magma at the eruptive center.

 

Sources: IGNes, InVolcan, DSN, Copernicus, Gobierno de Canarias

La Palma -  seismicity at 13.10.2021 / 08:16 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - seismicity at 13.10.2021 / 08:16 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - new area to be evacuated following the advance of the north flow - Doc. Gobierno de Canarias

La Palma - new area to be evacuated following the advance of the north flow - Doc. Gobierno de Canarias

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the lava flows on 12.10.2021 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the lava flows on 12.10.2021 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the lava flows seen from the north on 11.10.2021 / 19h - photo Ilovetheworld.es

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the lava flows seen from the north on 11.10.2021 / 19h - photo Ilovetheworld.es

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La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - fountaining activity on 11.10.2021 - Doc. LMU_Volc

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - fountaining activity on 11.10.2021 - Doc. LMU_Volc

In La Palma, the new lava flow, which emerged after the collapse of the northern flank of the Cumbre Vieja volcano in the early hours of Saturday, affected the houses that remained in Todoque and entered the industrial area of ​​Los Llanos de Aridane . The lava affects an area of ​​591 ha., 63 ha more than Sunday.

On the evening of October 11, 6 advance zones in the northern flows and a few others in the southern arm were observed.

A volcanic ash advisory was issued by VAAC Toulouse; ash clouds move east, then northeast, threatening air traffic at La Palma airport. The aviation color code is red.

A containment notice was issued by the Pevolca, following the fire at the Callejón de la Gata cement plant, and the release of gas.

About 16 o'clock. , the flow north of todoque was located 300 meters from the coast, and could form another fajana in the area of ​​Playa del Perdido.

Sulfur dioxide emissions remain at a high value of around 7,600 tonnes per day; diffuse carbon dioxide emissions are 1880 tonnes / day.

 

Source: IGNes, IGME, DSN, RTVC, Volcanoes de Canarias, Copernicus

La Palma - volcanic ash advisory for 11-12.10.2021 - Doc. VAAC Toulouse

La Palma - volcanic ash advisory for 11-12.10.2021 - Doc. VAAC Toulouse

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the industrial estate of Los Llanos de Aridane - photo RTVC 11.10.2021

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the industrial estate of Los Llanos de Aridane - photo RTVC 11.10.2021

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the lava flows at 11.10.2021 / 12h  - DoC. RMSR Rapid mapping team / Carlos Van

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - the lava flows at 11.10.2021 / 12h - DoC. RMSR Rapid mapping team / Carlos Van

The explosive eruption of Sabancaya continued at moderate levels, with an average of 27 explosions per day between October 4 and 10.
The plumes of gas and ash reached an estimated altitude of 2,000 m., Drifting according to the winds over all sectors.
Seismicity is characterized by approx. 754 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than M 3.5, accompanying internal magmatic movements.
Lahars (mudslides) could also occur if heavy rains remobilize the fresh ash deposits.

The alert remains in Naranja, accompanied by a forbidden zone of
12 km radius around the crater.

 

Source: IGP

Sabancaya - activity between October 4 and 10, 2021 - photo I.G. Peru

Sabancaya - activity between October 4 and 10, 2021 - photo I.G. Peru

Sabancaya - anomalies thermiques au 11.11.2021 / 15h07 - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A et Modis thermal volcanic activity - Mirova

Sabancaya - anomalies thermiques au 11.11.2021 / 15h07 - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A et Modis thermal volcanic activity - Mirova

The Kīlauea volcano is erupting. Since the morning of October 11, 2021, lava continues to emerge from a single vent in the western wall of Halema'uma'u crater. All lava activity remains confined to the Halema'uma'u crater.


The total eruption volume since the start of the eruption was estimated to be around 15.9 million cubic meters on October 8. The West Vent lava fountain has a sustained height of around 4 meters, rising to around 15 meters on previous days. The fountain built a spatter cone, with an opening about 10 meters wide facing east towards the lake.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates remain high, with a measured emission rate of around 5,300 tonnes per day on October 8, 2021, similar to measurements over the past few days. Seismicity remains high but stable. The tilt of the summit has turned to a slightly inflationary trend since the morning of October 10

Current volcano alert level: Watch
Current aviation color code: Orange

 

Source: HVO-USGS

Lava fountain activity continues from the western vent of Halema'uma'u in the summit caldera of Kīlauea, seen at dusk on October 10, 2021, from the western edge of the crater. Only the western half of the lake surface is active; the eastern half is covered with a cooled and solidified crust. USGS image by B. Carr.

Lava fountain activity continues from the western vent of Halema'uma'u in the summit caldera of Kīlauea, seen at dusk on October 10, 2021, from the western edge of the crater. Only the western half of the lake surface is active; the eastern half is covered with a cooled and solidified crust. USGS image by B. Carr.

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In recent days, the recording of seismic signals (volcanic tremor pulses and long-lasting earthquakes) associated with small ash emissions has continued at Nevado del Ruiz.

Some of these emissions and the incandescence were visible thanks to the web cameras installed in the area of ​​the volcano.

A possible ash fall is not excluded in the towns of Letras, Herbeo, Casabianca, Villahermosa, Líbano and Murillo and other towns that are in the direction of the wind regime, which is currently mainly to the northeast.

A plume of water vapor and gas is observed this 10 October 2021 in the morning, thanks to the webcams of the SGC - Manizales. The gas column reached a maximum height of 1,050 m with a northeast direction of dispersion.

The level of activity of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano continues at 3 / yellow / changes in the behavior of volcanic activity.

 

Source: SGC - Manizales

Nevado del Ruiz - 10.10.2021 - ash emissions and night glow on SGC webcams.

Nevado del Ruiz - 10.10.2021 - ash emissions and night glow on SGC webcams.

Lava continues to arrive in the crater of Nyiragongo.

The thermal anomalies of October 08 - 10 taken by Sentinel-2 and Mirova indicate that the strong activity continues.

 

Sources : Sentinel-2 and Mirova

Nyiragongo - Sentinel-2 bands image 12,11,8A from 08.10.2021 / 08:08 via Mounts pProject

Nyiragongo - Sentinel-2 bands image 12,11,8A from 08.10.2021 / 08:08 via Mounts pProject

Nyiragongo- thermal anomalies at 10.10.2021 / 11:30 p.m. - Doc. _MODIS_Latest10NTI

Nyiragongo- thermal anomalies at 10.10.2021 / 11:30 p.m. - Doc. _MODIS_Latest10NTI

In Kilauea, it seemed obvious that the newly formed Halema'uma'u lava lake would continue to rise and eventually cover all of the remaining topography from the previous eruption.

However, as the eruption progressed, the height of the large island above the surface of the lava lake began to increase. Islands that geologists have seen being submerged in new lava have also started to reappear.
It is not known why these islands - or rafts - which were only a few days ago submerged by the lava lake have reappeared. All of these islands appear to be stationary, except for the fact that they float vertically upward, so it's likely that all or large chunks of the older lava lake bottom are moving upward together.

Similar behavior of the lava lake was observed by Thomas A. Jaggar, founder of the HVO, about a century ago.

Since the morning of October 10, 2021, lava continues to emerge from a single vent in the western wall of Halema'uma'u crater. All lava activity is confined to the Halema'uma'u crater. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain high.

 

Source: HVO-USGS

Kilauea / Halema'uma'u - Bird's eye view of the eruption of the lava lake Halema'uma'u, September 29 and October 4, 2021 from the F1 thermal camera located on the western edge of the crater at the top of Kīlauea. - vertical trip of the lava islands - Doc. USGS - HVO

Kilauea / Halema'uma'u - Bird's eye view of the eruption of the lava lake Halema'uma'u, September 29 and October 4, 2021 from the F1 thermal camera located on the western edge of the crater at the top of Kīlauea. - vertical trip of the lava islands - Doc. USGS - HVO

Kilauea / Halema'uma'u crater - one active vent as of 08.10.2021 - USGS photo

Kilauea / Halema'uma'u crater - one active vent as of 08.10.2021 - USGS photo

The eruptive activity of Cumbre Vieja continues on La Palma.
Since October 8 at 2 p.m. UTC, 214 earthquakes have been located in the area affected by the volcanic reactivation of Cumbre Vieja, 19 of these earthquakes have been felt by the population, the maximum intensity being in the epicentral zone IV (EMS98), during an earthquake that occurred at 20:54 UTC on the 9th, with a magnitude of 3.6 (mbLg) at a depth of 11 km.
The highest magnitude earthquake occurred at 11:55 p.m. on the 8th, with a value of 4.2 mbLg at a depth of 38 km.

 

The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor remains stable within a range of average values ​​compared to the observations measured during this eruption. No intensification pulse has been recorded since the last report.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - earthquakes at 11.10.2021 / 6:06 am - Doc. IGNes

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - earthquakes at 11.10.2021 / 6:06 am - Doc. IGNes

The constant effusive activity has increased the northern lava flows, which continue their descent towards the region of Todoque in two arms. The south arm united with the previous flow, while the north arm affects the industrial polygon of Los Lanos de Aridane.

The surfaces affected by the lava reach more than 527 ha., of which 132 ha. cultivable areas; 1,281 buildings are affected according to Copernicus.

On the image of Sentinel-2 of October 10, we see a flow arm to the north and a flow with some incandescences to the south of the Montana de Todoque.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 10.10.2021 - flows N & S of Montana Todoque - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A / Copernicus
La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 10.10.2021 - flows N & S of Montana Todoque - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A / Copernicus

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 10.10.2021 - flows N & S of Montana Todoque - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A / Copernicus

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 10.10.2021 - flows N & S of Montana de Todoque - Copernicus map

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 10.10.2021 - flows N & S of Montana de Todoque - Copernicus map

La Palma - thermal anomalies at 10.10.2021 / 03:35 - Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

La Palma - thermal anomalies at 10.10.2021 / 03:35 - Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 09.10.2021 - huge boulders float in the lava flow - IGME-CSIC video - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=faKHOmCdrX8

The height of the eruptive column, measured at 6.30 UTC, is 3,500 m., Slightly lower.

At 19:42 an emission of ash in the upper part of the mouth, Strombolian for the intermediate and Hawaiian for the lower part, are observed by Volcanes de Canarias. The explosions remain moderate.

Tropomi detected a strong SO2 signal at a distance of 12.1 km from Cumbre Vieja, with 200.04 DU of SO2 at an altitude of ~ 1km. Estimated mass within a radius of 300 km: 78.9 kts.

The island's network of permanent GNSS stations shows stability in the deformations of stations close to eruptive centers.

Defense Minister Margarita Robles has announced that the Armada will join the ash clean-up teams on Monday.

 

Source: IGNes, IGME, DSN, RTVC, Canarias volcanoes, Copernicus.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 10.10.2021 - photo Volcanes de Canarias

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - 10.10.2021 - photo Volcanes de Canarias

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - strong SO2 signal at a distance of 12.1 km from Cumbre Vieja, with 200.04 DU of SO2 at an altitude of ~ 1km. - Image Sentinel-5P Tropomi / DKR / BIRA / ESA

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - strong SO2 signal at a distance of 12.1 km from Cumbre Vieja, with 200.04 DU of SO2 at an altitude of ~ 1km. - Image Sentinel-5P Tropomi / DKR / BIRA / ESA

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La Palma cumbre Vieja - lava flow after partial collapse of the cone - photo Raúl Pérez / IGME 10.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

La Palma cumbre Vieja - lava flow after partial collapse of the cone - photo Raúl Pérez / IGME 10.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

The north face of the eruptive cone of the volcano of La Palma - still without an official name - collapsed in the early morning of Saturday 0ocober 09th, releasing a flow of lava that carries very large blocks.

The new lava flow from the La Palma volcano moves unstoppably through the Camino de La Vinagrera and generates destruction in its path, making it difficult for scientists to travel in the area, said the Volcanological Institute of the Canary Islands (Involcan ) this Saturday !

The lava flow advanced through the industrial area of ​​Callejón de la Gata in Los Llanos de Aridane. It raises concerns for the Pevolca. It is a large mass of lava that has already devastated a small number of houses.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Plume of ash and gas on 09,10,2021 - photo from the video by Victor Melo / Volcanes de Canarias

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Plume of ash and gas on 09,10,2021 - photo from the video by Victor Melo / Volcanes de Canarias

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - progress of casting on 08.10.2021 - Doc. Copernicus EMS

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - progress of casting on 08.10.2021 - Doc. Copernicus EMS

LaPalma - thermal anomalies at 10.10.2021 / 03:35 - Doc.Mirova_MODIS - one click to enlargeLaPalma - thermal anomalies at 10.10.2021 / 03:35 - Doc.Mirova_MODIS - one click to enlarge

LaPalma - thermal anomalies at 10.10.2021 / 03:35 - Doc.Mirova_MODIS - one click to enlarge

Víctor Melo, from the Volcanes de Canarias association, which is there, reports explosions and lava fountains less vigorous than yesterday, but more ash emissions. The dense ash plume rises for several kilometers and slowly drifts to the southeast.

The volcano remains on three active vents.

The lava now covers 497 ha., The maximum width of its front remains at 1,250 meters, and the delta part in the ocean measures 32 acres. The number of buildings affected was estimated at 1,186.

 

Sources: IGNes, Involcan, IGME, Volcanes de Canarias (video extract), Copernicus EMS

LaPalma / Cumbre Vieja - ash plume and gas seen from the N.P. of the Taburiente caldera, on 09.10.2021 - IGME photo

LaPalma / Cumbre Vieja - ash plume and gas seen from the N.P. of the Taburiente caldera, on 09.10.2021 - IGME photo

The monitoring stations installed near the Nevados de Chillan Volcanic Complex recorded on Saturday, October 9 at 07:06 local time, an earthquake associated with the dynamics of fluids inside the volcanic system (LP earthquake).

A plume of gas and ash rose 240 meters above the point of emission on October 9 at 10:06 UTC, lying in a northwesterly direction.

The alert remains in Amarilla, the activity remaining similar to the previous days.

 

Source: Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - 09.10.2021 / 10:06 UTC - photo Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - 09.10.2021 / 10:06 UTC - photo Sernageomin

A magnitude 3 earthquake was measured about 7 kilometers northwest of Öskjuvatn at 8:23 a.m. this morning. The earthquake occurred at a depth of about 2.6 kilometers.

This is the biggest earthquake that has occurred in the Askja region in some time. The earthquake occurred at a depth similar to that of the magma intrusions, and IMO monitoring is strict, although these earthquakes are not exceptional.

 

Source: IMO

Vatnajökull - Askja (north of the glacier) - earthquakes at 09.10.2021 / 15:40 - Doc. IMO
Vatnajökull - Askja (north of the glacier) - earthquakes at 09.10.2021 / 15:40 - Doc. IMO
Vatnajökull - Askja (north of the glacier) - earthquakes at 09.10.2021 / 15:40 - Doc. IMO

Vatnajökull - Askja (north of the glacier) - earthquakes at 09.10.2021 / 15:40 - Doc. IMO

Askja - a 4-5 km diameter lake, Öskjuvatn, filled the caldera in 1875 - 2021 photo Dave MacGarvie

Askja - a 4-5 km diameter lake, Öskjuvatn, filled the caldera in 1875 - 2021 photo Dave MacGarvie

Since the end of summer 2021, an increase in fumarolic activity and seismic activity has been observed at the La Fossa crater de Vulcano (Aeolian Islands). For this reason, the Italian Ministry of Civil Protection has raised the alert status for this volcano from green (volcano in a state of equilibrium) to yellow (volcano in a state of potential imbalance). During the first days of October 2021, Vulcano's gas emissions have been quite remarkable, due to a combination of increased gas production, atmospheric humidity and no wind. (see articles from previous days)

647 / 5000 Résultats de traduction Vulcano - fumarole activity from 09.10.2021, at 9:54 a.m. and 3:21 p.m. respectively - INGV VLV webcam
647 / 5000 Résultats de traduction Vulcano - fumarole activity from 09.10.2021, at 9:54 a.m. and 3:21 p.m. respectively - INGV VLV webcam

647 / 5000 Résultats de traduction Vulcano - fumarole activity from 09.10.2021, at 9:54 a.m. and 3:21 p.m. respectively - INGV VLV webcam

The video below was shot on October 3, 2021 by volcanologist Alessandro Gattuso (Palermo section of the INGV) during a "walk" through the fumaroles on the northern edge of the crater of La Fossa, as part of a '' a measurement and sampling mission. High pressure gas emissions were occurring at various locations, generating a loud whistling sound.

 

Sources : INGV OE & CME / Centro Monitoraggio Eolie

Vulcano - fumarole activity from 03.10.2021 - turn on the sound - video Alessandro Gattuso (volcanologist Palermo section of the INGV)

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Reventador - gas and ash emission on 07.10.2021 / 6:25 p.m. IGEPN webcam - one click to enlarge

Reventador - gas and ash emission on 07.10.2021 / 6:25 p.m. IGEPN webcam - one click to enlarge

At Reventador, surface volcanic activity remains high according to IGEPN, which notes 88 explosions in the last 24 hours.

From October 7 in the afternoon until October 8 in the morning, gas and ash emissions were observed with heights ranging from 500 to about 1,000 meters high in a westerly direction.
The Washington VAAC reported two broadcasts, one with a height of 988 meters in a westerly direction and a second with a height of 1338 meters in a northwest direction.
FIRMS recorded 11 thermal anomalies at Reventador in the past 24 hours.

At night the area was cloudy and at times it was possible to see the incandescence in the crater.

 

Source: IGEPN

Semisopochnoi - ash emission - photo archives AVO 08/14/2021

Semisopochnoi - ash emission - photo archives AVO 08/14/2021

The northern crater of Mount Cerberus on Semisopochnoi Island remained active with numerous explosions detected throughout the week.

Low level ash emissions have been observed in web camera views a few times this week during periods of limited cloud cover. Small ash clouds were seen on satellite images on October 1, 2 and 3, all of which were below 10,000 feet above sea level and dissipated within 100 km of the volcano. Minor sulfur dioxide emissions were observed in satellite data on October 2-3.

Small eruptions producing minor ash deposits near the active northern crater of Mount Cerberus and ash clouds within 10,000 feet above sea level have characterized recent activity and show no signs slowdown.

Semisopochnoi is monitored by local seismic and infrasound sensors, satellite data, web cameras, and remote infrasound and lightning networks.

The current volcanic alert level is Watch and the current aviation color code is Orange.

 

Source: AVO

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - eruptive plume at 08.10.2021 - photo IGNes

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - eruptive plume at 08.10.2021 - photo IGNes

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - seismicity at 08.10.2021 / 12:15 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - seismicity at 08.10.2021 / 12:15 - Doc. IGNes

Since October 6 at 10 am, 180 earthquakes have been located in the area affected by the volcanic reactivation of Cumbre Vieja; 56 of these earthquakes were felt by the population.

This October 9 at 00:55 local, an earthquake of M4.1 at a depth of 39 km was felt on almost the entire island. It probably reflects a new surge of magma.

The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor remains stable within a range of average values ​​compared to the observations measured during this eruption.

The height of the eruptive column measured at 7:30 UTC is 2,200 m and the scattering cloud is around 3,500 m to the east.

The network of permanent GNSS stations on the island shows a return to stability in the deformations of stations close to eruptive centers.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Cumbre Vieja lava delta at 06.10.2021 - Doc. InVolcan / Guardia Civil helicopter

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - Cumbre Vieja lava delta at 06.10.2021 - Doc. InVolcan / Guardia Civil helicopter

A scientific team made up of researchers from the Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN), the University of Manchester (United Kingdom) and the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) from Italy, led by Professor Mike Burton of the University of Manchester, succeeded in estimating the emission of hydrochloric acid (HCl) by the marine plume last Wednesday October 6, thanks to the use of a remote optical sensor of type OP-FTIR.

The recorded emission rate was 0.5 kilograms per second, or 43.2 tonnes per day.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - extension of the flows to 07.10.2021 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - extension of the flows to 07.10.2021 - Doc. Copernicus EMSR

LaPalma / Cumbre Vieja - thermal anomalies at 08.10.2021 / 03.45 - Doc. Mirova _MODIS_logVRP

LaPalma / Cumbre Vieja - thermal anomalies at 08.10.2021 / 03.45 - Doc. Mirova _MODIS_logVRP

According to data communicated by PEVOLCA, lava covers 471 hectares; the maximum width of the flows is about 1,250 meters. The new flow that has emerged in recent hours, and which has affected an area of ​​banana trees, is some 150 meters from the ocean, about to come into contact with water. A total of 120 agricultural hectares were affected (59.39 of bananas, 33.43 of vineyards and 7.36 of avocados). 

Saltworks saw the production of two years lost because of the fallout of ash.

 

Sources: IGNes, Pevolca, InVolcan, RTVC

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