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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Nevados de Chillan - explosion of 06.01.2022 / 19:44 - Doc. Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - explosion of 06.01.2022 / 19:44 - Doc. Sernageomin

Since December 3, 2021, a significant increase in failure seismicity (VT earthquakes) has been observed in Nevados de Chillan. It continues to this day with several VT earthquakes reported to date.

Volcanic activity continues in a phase of low fluid seismic energy, but with sporadic explosive events, with a greater presence of particulate matter.

A vulcanian explosion was recorded on January 6, 2022 at 7:44 p.m. The ash plume grew to a height of 2,200 meters.

Alert remains in Amarillo / increase in activity level

 

Source: Sernageomin

Eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'Apai - Pumice deposits on  Tongatapu - photo Il Mondo dei Terremoti 06.01.2022

Eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'Apai - Pumice deposits on Tongatapu - photo Il Mondo dei Terremoti 06.01.2022

The ongoing volcanic eruption on the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'Apai Islands has expelled a modest amount of pumice which, over the days, has been carried around the ocean by sea currents.

Most of the pumice stone emitted during the current eruption was transported west to an area completely free of islands. Small amounts, however, also advanced south. The pumice stone that we see in the image above is the one heading south, towards Tongatapu.

 

Source: Il Mondo dei Terremoti

Fukutoku- Okanoba - the submerged Niijima,  white waves marked the location - photo Asahi Shimbun 06.01.2022

Fukutoku- Okanoba - the submerged Niijima, white waves marked the location - photo Asahi Shimbun 06.01.2022

At the submarine volcano in the Ogasawara Islands, the Niijima # 福 徳 岡 ノ 場, which was created in August last year by the eruption of Fukutoku, has been submerged.

During an aerial observation by Asahi Shimbun on January 6, 2022, the location of Niijima was shallow and white waves marked the location; by the time the waves retreated, only a few deposits were visible.

 

Source: Asahi Shimbun

Piton de La Fournaise - Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 10:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 01/07/2022 9:00 a.m. local time (5:00 UTC time) on the FOR seismological station located at the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP)

Piton de La Fournaise - Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 10:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 01/07/2022 9:00 a.m. local time (5:00 UTC time) on the FOR seismological station located at the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP)

The eruption that began on December 22, 2021 at around 3:30 a.m. local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. Over the last 24 hours the amplitude of the eruptive tremor (indicator of an emission of lava on the surface) still shows fluctuations. The average amplitude of the tremor is still increasing and is (over the past 24 hours) around its initial amplitude observed at the start of the eruption.

The latest observations still show lava fountain activity within the cone that has built up since the start of the eruption. Videos from OVPF-IPGP-IRT webcams show activity with lava fountains that occasionally exceed the height of the cone.

Numerous sporadic lava flow resurgences are still visible on the roof of the lava tunnel that has developed downstream from the cone.

In the early afternoon of January 6, 2022, an increase in activity at the level of the eruptive cone was observed, causing the lava lake to overflow outside the cone. It is the source of a lava flow coming along the tunnel lava field located downstream of the cone. This morning the overflow was being absorbed and the flow was starting to freeze.

Piton de La Fournaise - Shots of the eruptive site from Piton de Bert on 01/06/2022 at 3:11 p.m. local time (11:11 UT) and on 01/07/2022 at 9:00 a.m. (5:00 UT) (© OVPF -IPGP-IRT).
Piton de La Fournaise - Shots of the eruptive site from Piton de Bert on 01/06/2022 at 3:11 p.m. local time (11:11 UT) and on 01/07/2022 at 9:00 a.m. (5:00 UT) (© OVPF -IPGP-IRT).

Piton de La Fournaise - Shots of the eruptive site from Piton de Bert on 01/06/2022 at 3:11 p.m. local time (11:11 UT) and on 01/07/2022 at 9:00 a.m. (5:00 UT) (© OVPF -IPGP-IRT).

Over the last 24 hours:

- A volcano-tectonic earthquake of low magnitudes (<0.5) was recorded under the summit.

- The surface deformations again show a slight deflation at the level of the summit zone, linked to the emptying of the magma reservoir located under the summit (at about 2-2.5 km deep) feeding the eruptive site.

- Lava flows could be estimated by satellite method with the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University). They were between 2 and 5 m³ / sec. These variations are explained by the method, which relies on the infrared radiation of the flow, the perception of which by satellites can be greatly influenced by the weather conditions above the flows as well as the surface conditions of the flows.

In the absence of overflight, no precise assessment of the position of the flow front could be made. But given the relief with gently sloping slopes in the area, the lava field continues to extend mainly laterally and by thickening at the level of the network of lava tunnels set up on the plateau downstream of the eruptive cone. Observed from the vicinity of the vent, the flow front does not appear to have progressed significantly.

Alert level: Alert 2-1 (eruption in the enclosure)

 

Source: OVPF

Find all the information relating to Piton de la Fournaise's activity on the various OVPF-IPGP media: - the website: ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf - the Twitter account: twitter. com / obsfournaise - the Facebook account: facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise

La Palma - nature comes back to life after the eruption of Cumbre Vieja - photo Ruben Lopez 06.01.2022

La Palma - nature comes back to life after the eruption of Cumbre Vieja - photo Ruben Lopez 06.01.2022

In La Palma, after the end of the eruption of Cumbre Vieja, nature takes back its rights. In Jedey, the plants come out of their lethargy and grow back. Ferns begin to emerge from the ashes.

PEVOLCA has reduced the exclusion zone which still exists in certain areas affected by the volcanic eruption, which began on September 19, 2021 in Cumbre Vieja, and which remain evacuated, considering that they meet safe conditions for the return of their inhabitants.

The recommendations not to access underground spaces alone (garages, storage rooms, cellars, etc.) without prior gas measurement are maintained. In addition, it is first necessary to ensure that there are no bulges, deformations or cracks in the walls or ceilings.

It is also advisable to turn off all sources of ignition (smoking, turn on lights, etc.) until the building is ventilated, and to open doors and windows to ventilate, waiting 15 minutes before get inside.
In case of dizziness, shortness of breath, nausea or a lack of strength, you must quickly leave the building and call the emergency number 112.

On the other hand, for ash cleaning work, it is necessary to protect the skin (shirt, pants, gloves, non-slip shoes, head protection), the respiratory tract (FFP2 mask or higher) and the eyes (anti-slip goggles). -spatter), and water lightly to avoid raising dust. Clean only flat roofs, for the rest call on specialized services.

 

The recovery and redevelopment of homes will not be easy for the Palmeros. Good luck to all.

 

Sources: Ruben Lopez, Pevolca, El Pais

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

The Goma Volcanological Observatory reports voluminous gas plumes emitted by the Nyiragongo during the period from January 3 to 5, 2022, as well as incandescence. Fountaining and collapses are observed at active vents on the crater floor. The lava lake is growing, with audible rumbles.

Seismology is mainly characterized by LP earthquakes north of the volcano, on the fracture connecting it to Nyamulagira at a depth of 0-10 km. The level of the tremor is decreasing.

Mirova reports thermal anomalies between 86 and 1071 MW on January 5.

The Nyiragongo alert level remains at Yellow / vigilance.

 

Sources: OVG Bulletin & Mirova

Nyiragongo - thermal anomalies at 01.05.2022 / 11:35 p.m. - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_VRP

Nyiragongo - thermal anomalies at 01.05.2022 / 11:35 p.m. - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_VRP

"The Erta Ale lava lake has finally regained visible activity after almost more than 5 years of inactivity, according to Seifegebreil Shifferaw.

Its depth is estimated at nearly 35 m from the edge, while the inner diameter of the crater housing the lava lake is around 200 m wide.

As a testimony to this promising enlargement observed, we expect its current activity to grow and flourish, as it did 125 years ago.

On December 31, in addition to this new activity of the lava lake, we also witnessed 2 large collapses, promising the return of a much larger, active and permanent lava lake, supported by magmatic convection and pressure from the gas-rich magma of the interior. "

 

Source : Seifegebreil Shifferaw January 4, 2022

Erta Ale- progression of the Ethiopian group - photo Seifegebreil Shifferaw 03.01.2022

Erta Ale- progression of the Ethiopian group - photo Seifegebreil Shifferaw 03.01.2022

IMO issued a map of Fagradalsfjall, showing the location of the new magma chamber (red line) based on models in relation to the magmatic intrusion that took place in February-March 2021 (black line). Orange circles represent earthquakes that have been measured since December 21, and green are earthquakes that have been measured from February 24 to December 21 (below).

Fagradalsfjall - location of the new magma chamber (red line) based on models with respect to the magmatic intrusion that took place in February-March 2021 (black line) - Doc.IMO 05.01.2022

Fagradalsfjall - location of the new magma chamber (red line) based on models with respect to the magmatic intrusion that took place in February-March 2021 (black line) - Doc.IMO 05.01.2022

New satellite measurements reviewed by scientists at the Icelandic Met Office now indicate about a 50% chance that there will be another eruption at Fagradalsfjall, Vísir reports.

These measurements indicate that the magma chamber beneath Fagradalsfjall is approximately 1,500 meters deep and has risen approximately 100 meters over the past five days. Eight days ago, the chamber was thought to be about two kilometers deep, indicating that it is increasing at a significant rate, told Kristín Jónsdóttir , seismic risk coordinator at the Icelandic Met Office, 

New satellite measurements reviewed by scientists at the Icelandic Met Office now indicate about a 50% chance that there will be another eruption at Fagradalsfjall, Vísir reports.

These measurements indicate that the magma chamber beneath Fagradalsfjall is approximately 1,500 meters deep and has risen approximately 100 meters over the past five days. Eight days ago, the chamber was thought to be about two kilometers deep, indicating that it is increasing at a significant rate, told Kristín Jónsdóttir, seismic risk coordinator at the Icelandic Met Office, in an interview.

 

Sources: IMO & The Reykjavik Grapevine

Semeru - Pyroclastic flow of collapse and plume on 01.05.2022 / 08:35 WIB - webcam PVMBG Magma Indonesia

Semeru - Pyroclastic flow of collapse and plume on 01.05.2022 / 08:35 WIB - webcam PVMBG Magma Indonesia

At Semeru, in activity level 3 / siaga, a white and gray plume is observable on January 5, 2022 at the main crater, with a moderate to high intensity, rising about 600 meters from the summit.

Seismicity is characterized by:

4 eruption earthquakes, with an amplitude of 15 to 26 mm and an earthquake duration of 70 to 170 seconds.
1 pyroclastic avalanche flow earthquake, with an amplitude of 26 mm and a duration of 969 seconds.
11 avalanche earthquakes with an amplitude of 2 to 12 mm and a duration of 30 to 75 seconds.
10 blast / emission earthquakes with an amplitude of 3 to 9 mm and the duration of the earthquake from 25 to 95 seconds.
9 Harmonic tremor periods, with an amplitude of 2 to 12 mm and an earthquake duration of 165 to 447 seconds.
1 distant tectonic earthquake with an amplitude of 26 mm, S-P 134 seconds and a duration of 559 seconds.
1 Flood Vibration earthquake with an amplitude of 10 mm and a duration of 1380 seconds.

Recommendations: Do not exercise any activity in the south-eastern sector along the Besuk Kobokan, up to 13 km from the summit (center of the eruption). Outside this distance, the community does not carry out activities within a distance of 500 meters from the embankment (border of the river) along Besuk Kobokan, as it has the potential to be affected by the expansion of hot clouds and lava flows up to a distance of 17 km from the summit.

Do not move within a radius of 5 km from the crater / peak of Mount Semeru because there is a risk of rock projections (incandescent).

Be aware of the potential for Pyroclatic Avalanche Flows (APGs), lava avalanches and lahars along the rivers / valleys that originate at the top of the Mount Semeru volcano, especially along Besuk Kobokan, Besuk Bang, Besuk Kembar and Besuk Sat as well as potential lahars in small rivers which are tributaries of Besuk Kobokan.

 

Source: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Piton de La Fournaise - the eruptive cone 04.01.2022 / 02h20 UT - webcam Piton de Bert 2 / OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - the eruptive cone 04.01.2022 / 02h20 UT - webcam Piton de Bert 2 / OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - observation of the lava flow - © OVPF-IPGP

Piton de La Fournaise - observation of the lava flow - © OVPF-IPGP

A team from the Volcanological Observatory was able to visit the eruptive site of Piton de la Fournaise on January 4. Observations still show lava fountain activity within the cone that has grown since the start of the eruption. ). The videos from the OVPF-IPGP-IRT webcams last night, as well as the observations made today near the vent, show activity with lava fountains which occasionally exceed the height of the cone. Overall, activity inside the eruptive cone appears to have decreased compared to yesterday. Numerous resurgences of lava flows are still visible at the roof of the lava tunnel that has developed downstream from the cone.

In the first hundred meters downstream of the eruptive cone, the thickness of the flow was estimated at about fifteen meters.

Piton de La Fournaise - eruptive cone and resurgences on lava flows - webcam Bert 04.01.2022 / 01h15 TU / OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - eruptive cone and resurgences on lava flows - webcam Bert 04.01.2022 / 01h15 TU / OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise -: Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 10:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 01/04/2022 3:07 p.m. (local time, 11:07 a.m. UT time on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise -: Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 10:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 01/04/2022 3:07 p.m. (local time, 11:07 a.m. UT time on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP).

Over the last 24 hours the amplitude of the eruptive tremor (indicator of an emission of lava on the surface) still shows fluctuations while remaining generally stable. The average amplitude of the tremor is (over the last few days) about 55% of its initial amplitude.

Over the last 24 hours:

- Three volcano-tectonic earthquakes of low magnitudes (<1.0) were recorded under the summit.

- Surface deformations no longer show significant signals.

- The CO2 concentrations in the soil in the Gîte du volcan sector have become stable again for two days. This parameter will be monitored over the next few days because it may be linked to the arrival of new magma, coming from deeper areas, at the level of the shallow reservoir.

- Lava flows could be estimated by satellite method with the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University). They were between 2 and 9 m3 / sec. These variations are explained by the method, which relies on the infrared radiation of the flow, the perception of which by satellites can be greatly influenced by the weather conditions above the flows as well as the surface conditions of the flows.

No precise assessment of the position of the casting front could be made. But given the relief with gently sloping slopes in the area, the lava field continues to extend mainly laterally and by thickening at the level of the network of lava tunnels set up on the plateau downstream of the eruptive cone.

 

Source: OVPF - press release 04.01.2022 / 4 p.m.

Fumaroles in the Fagradalsfjall lava field, where the lava plunges into Nátthaga; they constitute a normal post-eruptive phenomenon taking into account the atmospheric conditions - webcam mbls 04.01.2022

Fumaroles in the Fagradalsfjall lava field, where the lava plunges into Nátthaga; they constitute a normal post-eruptive phenomenon taking into account the atmospheric conditions - webcam mbls 04.01.2022

According to GPS measurements in the area of ​​the earthquake on the Reykjanes Peninsula, almost no changes were measured last week. This means that the magma hasn't moved much during this time.

Hulda Rós Helgadóttir, nature conservation specialist at the Icelandic Meteorological Bureau, says the magma intrusion is now about half as high as it was last spring when the eruption started in Fagradalsfjall. The top of the magmatic intrusion is at a depth of about half a kilometer. There it could solidify, but there is also a chance that it will shatter, and magma will rise to the surface.

Seismic activity has declined significantly in recent days, following strong activity in the first few days after it started on December 21. As the seismic activity had decreased during the days preceding the eruption of Fagradalsfjall, we cannot certify that the chances of leading to an eruption this time have diminished.

 

Source: Óróapúls - Volcanism in Iceland; via IMO & mbls.

Semeru - pyroclastic flow of collapse and ash plume of 05.01.2022 / 08:35 WIB - webcam PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

Semeru - pyroclastic flow of collapse and ash plume of 05.01.2022 / 08:35 WIB - webcam PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

In Semeru, in activity level 3 / siaga, an eruptive episode occurred this Wednesday January 5, 2022 at 08:35 WIB, accompanied by a plume of ash brown ashes observed at ± 1500 m above the summit (± 5176 m above sea level), and a small pyroclastic flow of collapse. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 26 mm and a duration of 969 seconds.

 

Source: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Piton de La Fournaise - 03.01.2022 / 01:40 UT - webcam Piton de Bert 2 / OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - 03.01.2022 / 01:40 UT - webcam Piton de Bert 2 / OVPF

The eruption that began on 12.22.2021 at around 3:30 a.m. local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues. Over the last 24 hours the amplitude of the eruptive tremor (indicator of an emission of lava on the surface) still shows fluctuations.

The average amplitude of the tremor is (over the last few hours) about 50% of its initial amplitude.

The latest observations still show lava fountain activity within the cone that has built up since the start of the eruption. The videos from the webcams of the OVPF-IPGP-IRT last night, as well as the observations made today from the Piton de Bert, show activity with lava fountains which occasionally exceed the height of the cone. Numerous resurgences of lava flows are still visible at the roof of the lava tunnel that has developed downstream from the cone. These resurgences are sporadic and can last from a few minutes to a few hours.

Piton de La Fournaise -: Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 10:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 01/03/2022 3:58 p.m. (local time, 11:58 a.m. UT time on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP)

Piton de La Fournaise -: Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 10:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 01/03/2022 3:58 p.m. (local time, 11:58 a.m. UT time on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP)

Over the last 24 hours:

- No volcano-tectonic earthquake was recorded.

- Surface deformations no longer show significant signals. - The CO2 concentrations in the soil in the Gîte du volcan sector have been increasing for several days. This parameter will be monitored over the next few days because it may be linked to the arrival of new magma, coming from deeper areas, at the level of the surface reservoir.

- Lava flows could be estimated by satellite method with the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University). They were between 2 and 10 m3 / sec. These variations are explained by the method, which relies on the infrared radiation of the flow, the perception of which by satellites can be largely influenced by the weather conditions above the flows as well as the surface conditions of the flows.

No assessment of the position of the flow front could be made.

 

Source : OVPF

Sangay - 01/03/2022 / 1:26 p.m. - IGEPN webcam

Sangay - 01/03/2022 / 1:26 p.m. - IGEPN webcam

On the morning of January 3, 2022, the Sangay volcano was cleared, a continuous emission of gas and ash could be observed at 1000 meters above the crater in a south-easterly direction.

The VAAC issued 5 reports of ash emission from 1,170 meters above the summit in a south, southwest, southeast direction.

The FIRMS system recorded 86 thermal alerts and the MIROVA system recorded 2 high thermal alerts, of VRP 124 and 205 MW on January 3, and on January 4 at 3.20 a very high anomaly of VRP 1063MW.

The seismicity between January 2 and 3 at 11 a.m. is characterized by 192 explosion earthquakes, 55 LP earthquakes and 19 emission tremor epiosids. IGEPN considers surface and internal activity to be high, with an increasing trend.

The alert level is amarilla.

 

Source: IGEPN

Sangay - thermal anomalies at 01.01.2022 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.8A - via Mounts Project

Sangay - thermal anomalies at 01.01.2022 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.8A - via Mounts Project

Sangay - thermal anomalies at 04.01.2022 / 03h20 - Doc. Mirova _MODIS_Latest10NTI

Sangay - thermal anomalies at 04.01.2022 / 03h20 - Doc. Mirova _MODIS_Latest10NTI

IGEPN informs that through the Volcanic Observers Network (ROVE) and IGEPN cameras recorded today, Monday January 3, 2022, a process of resuspension of ash on the northwest flank of the Tungurahua volcano. This process is recorded from around 12:00 TL and is due to the strong winds in the area and the dry climate.

There is no change in the internal activity of the Tungurahua volcano.
The Geophysical Institute of the National Polytechnic School is monitoring the activity of the volcano and will report on any changes that may be recorded.

 

Source: IGEPN

Tungurahua - resuspension of ashes - photo IGEPN 03.01.2022

Tungurahua - resuspension of ashes - photo IGEPN 03.01.2022

The Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reports that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels between December 27, 2021 and January 2, 2022, with an average of 32 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2,800 m. above the summit of the volcano and their consecutive dispersion.

The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of 746 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids within the Sabancaya volcano. During this period, Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes associated with rock fractures were located mainly in the North-West of Sabancaya and presented magnitudes of M 2.9.

 The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure using GNSS techniques (processed with fast orbits) does not present any significant anomalies. However, in general, an inflation process was observed in the northern sector (around the Hualca Hualca volcano). Visual surveillance identified columns of gas and ash up to 2.8 km altitude above the summit of the volcano, which were scattered towards the western, southwest and northwest sectors of the Sabancaya.

Satellite recordings have identified the presence of 8 thermal anomalies (maximum value of 28 MW) associated with the presence of a lava body on the surface of the volcano's crater.

The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, with an inaccessible area of ​​12 km radius.

 

Source: I.G. Peru

Sabancaya - photo archives

Sabancaya - photo archives

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2022.01.03  12h25 - Semeru- panache éruptif du 03.01.2022 / 12h44 WIB - Doc. PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

2022.01.03 12h25 - Semeru- panache éruptif du 03.01.2022 / 12h44 WIB - Doc. PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

An eruptive episode was reported to Semeru on Monday January 03, 2022 at 12:25 WIB, accompanied by a plume of gas and gray ash observed at ± 200 m above the summit (± 3876 m above sea level). This eruption was recorded on a seismograph, with a maximum amplitude of 25 mm and a duration of 1260 seconds.

The level of activity is at 3 / siaga, with recommendations not to exercise any activity in the southeast sector along the Besuk Kobokan, up to 13 km from the summit (center of the eruption). Beyond this distance, the community does not conduct activities within 500 meters of the embankment (border of the river) along Besuk Kobokan due to the potential for expansion of hot clouds and lava flows. lava up to a distance of 17 km from the summit.
 

In addition, do not move within a radius of 5 km from the crater / peak of Mount Semeru because there is a risk of receiving incandescent projections.

 

Source: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia

On the afternoon of December 27, 2021, the summit eruption of Kīlauea was paused and showed only intermittent and weak crustal foundering in the formerly active west side of the lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u. - photo K. Lynn / HVO

On the afternoon of December 27, 2021, the summit eruption of Kīlauea was paused and showed only intermittent and weak crustal foundering in the formerly active west side of the lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u. - photo K. Lynn / HVO

The "stop and more" of Kilauea:

Lava returned to the western vent of Halema'uma'u crater at 2:45 p.m. on 31.12.2021 The eruption atop Kīlauea volcano continued for the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater.

The lava lake surface is active again, with several large overflows on the older lake crust in the evening. A strong glow was visible in the evening sky from the volcano to Lower Puna.

Summit tiltmeters have recorded a flat tilt over the past 24 hours. The volcanic quake associated with the eruption, as recorded by nearby seismometers, remained stable. Seismic activity in the summit region remains below the bottom level.

 Kilauea western edge of the caldera - radial tilt at Uwekahuna station (UWE) at 01.02.2022 - Doc. HVO

Kilauea western edge of the caldera - radial tilt at Uwekahuna station (UWE) at 01.02.2022 - Doc. HVO

This January 3, 2022, the Kīlauea volcano entered a pause. Lava is still erupting, but at a greatly reduced rate, from a single vent near the western wall of Halema'uma'u Crater, in the volcano summit area and in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 'i.
The decrease in lava outflow from the West Halema'uma'u Vent into the active lava lake is indicated by the formation of a cooler crust over most of the lake except at the vent and Decreasing lava velocities measured on the thermal camera. The active lake began to crumble around 2 a.m. at the same time as the tremor was diminishing. No overflow from the active lake has been observed in the past 24 hours, but there has been a significant breakout along the northern margin of the largest crusted lava lake that was still active this morning.
Summit tiltmeters have been tracking rapid deflation since 1 a.m. this morning. The tremor associated with the eruption, as recorded by nearby seismometers, subsided rapidly around 2 a.m. and continues at low levels.

Current volcano alert level: Watch
Current Aviation Color Code: Orange

 

Source: HVO-USGS

Hunga Tonga- Hunga Ha'apai - 12.30.2021 - photo Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga.- one click to enlarge

Hunga Tonga- Hunga Ha'apai - 12.30.2021 - photo Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga.- one click to enlarge

According to the report by Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga, on January 1, 2022 / 8:00 a.m., the eruption continues intermittently on Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha'apai Island.

The volcanic plumes / clouds observed on the satellite images captured between 12:00 p.m. on 01/01/2022 yesterday and 6:30 a.m. on 01/02/2022 this morning are as follows:
Intermittent volcanic steam / gas eruptions continued at 2:40 p.m. yesterday, forming plumes drifting east from HTHH across the 'Otu Mu'omu'a islands of the Ha'apai group at an estimated elevation of 12 km asl.

Steam / gas plumes at 7:00 p.m. yesterday until 6:00 a.m. drifted east-southeast through the waters of northern Tongatapu.

The last steam / volcanic gas plume detected at 6:00 am this morning is drifting east to southeast through the waters of Tongatapu.

No volcanic ash / dust has been detected since 12:00 yesterday.

The discoloration of the sea shows a significant release of volcanic fluids (steam, condensates loaded with chemical elements) into the sea and contaminating sea water.

 

Source: Tonga Geological Services, Government of Tonga.

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - degassing on 02.01.2022 - photo InVolcan

La Palma / Cumbre Vieja - degassing on 02.01.2022 - photo InVolcan

In La Palma, the activity of Cumbre Vieja is limited to degassing and deposits of native sulfur and other salts on its sides ... the phenomenon is normal.

The oversight by the teams of volcanologists is not slackening; they continue to study gas fumes, and measure the elevated temperature of various vents and cracks by thermography.

The DSN authorizes the return of a thousand evacuees to their homes in various areas of el Paso, los Llanos de aridane, Tazacorte and Fuencaliente from 9 a.m. on January 3, 2022, if the security conditions are met.

 

Sources: InVolcan, DSN

 Cumbre Vieja  - Gaz sampling in one of the craters 28.12.2021 - Photo InVolcan

Cumbre Vieja - Gaz sampling in one of the craters 28.12.2021 - Photo InVolcan

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Piton de La Fournaise - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 from 01.01.2022 - One click to enlarge

Piton de La Fournaise - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 from 01.01.2022 - One click to enlarge

The eruption that began on 12/22/2021 at around 3:30 a.m. local time at Piton de La Fournaise continues.

Over the last 24 hours the amplitude of the eruptive tremor (indicator of an emission of lava on the surface) still shows fluctuations. The average amplitude of the tremor is around 80% of its initial amplitude on Saturday January 1, to decrease slightly on January 2 to 60% of its starting amplitude.

Piton de La Fournaise - Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 10:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 01/02/2022 9:00 a.m. (local time, 5:00 UTC time on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 10:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 01/02/2022 9:00 a.m. (local time, 5:00 UTC time on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Eruptive cone and lava flows  01.01.2022 / 01h56TU - webcam Piton de Bert 2 / OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - Eruptive cone and lava flows 01.01.2022 / 01h56TU - webcam Piton de Bert 2 / OVPF

Thanks to clearings in the morning of January 1, 2022, observations were made. These latest observations still show lava fountain activity within the cone that has built up since the start of the eruption.

Videos from the OVPF-IPGP-IRT webcams last night show activity with lava fountains occasionally exceeding the height of the cone. Numerous resurgences of lava flows are sporadically visible on the roof of the lava tunnel that has developed downstream from the cone

Piton de La Fournaise - the eruptive cone and its fountaining activity on 01.02.2022 / 02h00 UT- Webcam Bert 2 / OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - the eruptive cone and its fountaining activity on 01.02.2022 / 02h00 UT- Webcam Bert 2 / OVPF

Over the last 24 hours:

Two low magnitude (<1) volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded below the summit.

The surface deformations no longer show significant signals.

The CO2 concentrations in the soil in the Gîte du volcan sector have been increasing for several days. This parameter will be monitored over the next few days because it may be linked to the arrival of new magma, coming from deeper areas, at the level of the surface reservoir.

Lava flows could be estimated by satellite method with the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University). They were between 2 and 7 m3 / sec. These variations are explained by the method, which relies on the infrared radiation of the flow, the perception of which by satellites can be greatly influenced by the weather conditions above the flows as well as the surface conditions of the flows. No assessment of the position of the flow front could be made. But given the relief with gently sloping slopes in the area, the lava field continues to extend mainly laterally and by thickening at the level of the network of lava tunnels set up on the plateau downstream of the eruptive cone.

Alert level: Alert 2-1 (eruption in the enclosure)

 

Source: OVPF - IPGP– 01/01/2022 - 4:00 p.m. local time - 12:00 p.m. UTC

Find all the information relating to Piton de la Fournaise's activity on the various OVPF-IPGP media: - the website: ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf - the Twitter account: twitter. com / obsfournaise - the Facebook account: facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise

Nyiragongo - threats to Goma - 12.21.2021 - Photo Ch. Balagizi / OVG

Nyiragongo - threats to Goma - 12.21.2021 - Photo Ch. Balagizi / OVG

The latest report from the Goma Volcanological Observatory (OVG) from 2021 disturbs the atmosphere of the end-of-year festivities

Volcanic activity is currently intense on the southern flank (Side) of Nyiragongo, which overlooks the city of Goma.

Observations from various field missions carried out during this period (December 23-29) show that activity is concentrated between Kibati, Shaheru and Mudjoga, OVG said.

"We observe white and bluish fumaroles and intense heat. In other places of the area, we observe collapses and a smell of sulfur dioxide is felt," said the OVG in a press release dating from this December 29.

The level of the volcanic tremor is also very high at the Nyiragongo summit, Kibati, Rusayo and Bulengo stations, OVG reports.

"The threat posed by Mount Nyiragongo has increased since the eruption. New fractures have opened in the ground which could be gates for new lava flows reaching Goma," said Charles Balagizi of the GVO. "

The scientific office therefore sensitizes the inhabitants of Goma and the periphery to vigilance. '' We advise the population of Goma and the surrounding area to observe the strict rules of hygiene in front of hands and vegetables, covering food and dishes and not to use rain and lake water not treated as drinking water and to report to us any abnormal phenomenon observed in connection with the volcano. "

 

Source: OVG & Charles Balagizi

Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha'apai - Eruption of 12/30/2021 - video Taaniela Kula

The eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha 'Apai continues.

A drone overflight on December 30 illustrates the activity of Surtsey: ash plumes & cupressoid gas, and surges base which concerns all the emerged parts of the volcano.

VAAC Wellington reports on January 2, 2022 intermittent eruptions and ash emissions; the aviation code is orange.

 

Sources: Video Taaniela Kula on Youtube & VAAC Wellington

Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha'apai - Volcanic ash advisory 02.01.2022 - aviation code orange - VAAC Wellington

Hunga-Tonga-Hunga-Ha'apai - Volcanic ash advisory 02.01.2022 - aviation code orange - VAAC Wellington

The first victims of the Minoan eruption of Santorini in the Bronze Age and the tsunami that followed were found on the coast of Turkey.

According to Vasıf Şahoğlu's team, this would be the first victim directly associated with the cataclysm. "The majority of the work carried out so far on the eruption of Thera has focused on the dating of the event or its geological formation, the phases of the eruption and the distribution of the volcanic ash", underlined the archaeologist. {...} "With this discovery, we see, for the first time, the direct effects of this disaster on humans" The remains of the young man and the dog appeared during an excavation campaign carried out since 2009 on a archaeological site located on the west coast of Turkey.

By studying the deposits, they came to the conclusion that this man and this dog would not have been victims of the ejecta, but from one of the tsunamis caused by the eruption, the young man would show signs of severe trauma. . According to their hypothesis, four giant waves would have struck the Çesme-Bağlararası site in a few days or even weeks.

 

Source : press articles.

Discovery of a skeleton on the Turkish coast, victim of the Santorini tsunami - photo Vasıf Şahoğlu / WorldTech

Discovery of a skeleton on the Turkish coast, victim of the Santorini tsunami - photo Vasıf Şahoğlu / WorldTech

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Piton de La Fournaise - 12/29/2021 / 12:40 UT - webcam Piton de Bert 2- OVPF - one click to enlarge

Piton de La Fournaise - 12/29/2021 / 12:40 UT - webcam Piton de Bert 2- OVPF - one click to enlarge

The bad weather conditions on the Piton de La Fournaise made it difficult to observe the eruption. Thus, no information relating to on-site activity can be given this morning.

Over the last 24 hours the amplitude of the eruptive tremor (indicator of an emission of lava on the surface) still shows fluctuations. The average amplitude of the tremor is this morning at about 50% of its initial amplitude.

However, the latest observation, made yesterday at 4:40 p.m. local time, shows
- a low activity of lava fountains, with fountains only rarely exceeding the height of the cone;
- lava flow activity mainly in a tunnel downstream of the cone;
- the small mouth located at the foot of the cone on the downstream side (and coming from the opening in the lava tunnel) still showed degassing but much weaker than the day before.

Over the last 24 hours: A single volcano-tectonic earthquake under the summit has been recorded. Surface deformations no longer show significant deformation.

 

Source: OVPF

Retrouvez l’ensemble des informations relatives à l’activité du Piton de la Fournaise sur les différents médias de l’OVPF-IPGP : - le site internet : ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf - le compte Twitter : twitter.com/obsfournaise - le compte Facebook : facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournais

Piton de La Fournaise - Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 2:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 12/30/2021 9:30 a.m. (local time, 5:30 a.m. UT time) on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 2:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 12/30/2021 9:30 a.m. (local time, 5:30 a.m. UT time) on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP).

The eruption of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano continues intermittently, the Tonga geological surveys announced this morning. Sentinel-1 / Copernicus radar images showing the island has grown in size.

https://twitter.com/i/status/1474270578777415688

Video images now show an eruptive plume in cypress, of the Surtseyen type, with base surges.

Hunga Tonga - Hunga Ha'apai - cypressoid plume - video screenshot 28.12.2021 Ioana Kalo Sugar via sérine France

Hunga Tonga - Hunga Ha'apai - cypressoid plume - video screenshot 28.12.2021 Ioana Kalo Sugar via sérine France

On the night of December 28, 2021, powerful lightning was observed from the column of clouds emitted by the volcano.
On December 29, between 12:30 a.m. and 5:30 a.m., volcanic ash mixed with clouds of mainly vapor and gas from the eruption were detected from 1 to 7 km above sea level. A dispersion advisory of ash at an altitude of 7,600 m was emitted by WAAC Wellington.

Volcanic ash was also detected within 30 km of the vent in all directions

The volcanic plume, composed of clouds of vapor and gas, continues to form and generally drifts north from the active zone, at an altitude of 1 to 7 km above sea level.

Flights from New Zealand have been canceled.

 

Sources: Matongitonga, VAAC Wellington, video Iona Kalo Sugar

Hunga Tonga - Hunga Ha'apai - plume of steam and discoloration of the waters testify of the current activity - Sentinel-2 bands 4,3,1 di 28.12.2021 - one click to enlarge

Hunga Tonga - Hunga Ha'apai - plume of steam and discoloration of the waters testify of the current activity - Sentinel-2 bands 4,3,1 di 28.12.2021 - one click to enlarge

The earthquake swarm that occurred near the Davidof volcano, in the Aleutians, from the beginning of December calmed down.

Aviation Color Code and Alert Level are reduced to UNASSIGNED / UNASSIGNED. The AVO only assigns a color code and alert level values ​​to volcanoes that are sufficiently instrumented to allow us to understand the background state of the activity. The nearest seismometers to Davidof are found about 15 km east of the volcano on Little Sitkin Island, and are insufficient for us to assign specific alert levels.

 

Source: AVO

Davidof and Khvostof Islands - Photo courtesy of Roger Clifford. 2012.11- AVO

Davidof and Khvostof Islands - Photo courtesy of Roger Clifford. 2012.11- AVO

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Merapi - coulée pyroclatiques d'avalanche le 28.12.2021 / 07h14 WIB - notez le dôme SO juste à droite du départ de la coulée - webcam Tunggularum - un clic pour agrandir

Merapi - coulée pyroclatiques d'avalanche le 28.12.2021 / 07h14 WIB - notez le dôme SO juste à droite du départ de la coulée - webcam Tunggularum - un clic pour agrandir

Two avalanche pyroclastic flows were observed at Merapi on December 28, 2021, respectively at 03:30 WIB, with a trace on the seismogram with an amplitude of 28 mm / during 111 sec., And at 07:12 WIB, with an amplitude of 18 mm / for 78 sec. They covered distances of approximately 1,800 and 1,200 meters.

The southwest lava dome presents a rapid increase in height of several meters, and a high risk of collapse, confirmed by visual observations of Andi Volcanist, Volcanodiscovery guide.

In the latest BPPTKG report, dated December 23, 2021, the volume of the southwest dome was 1,654,000 m³.

 

The seismicity of December 28 is characterized by:

- 2 earthquakes marking the pyroclastic avalanche flows, with an amplitude of 18-29 mm and an earthquake duration of 99-111 seconds.
- 99 collapse earthquakes, with an amplitude of 3 to 19 mm and a duration of 16.1 to 166.9 seconds.
- 10 blast / emission earthquakes, with an amplitude of 2 to 8 mm and the duration of the earthquake from 9 to 34.8 seconds.
- 2 hybrid / multiphase earthquakes
- 2 distant tectonic earthquakes.

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga

 

Sources: BPPTKG, PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, Andi Volcanist

Santiaguito - photo from the UPV archives of CONRED / 12.17.2021

Santiaguito - photo from the UPV archives of CONRED / 12.17.2021

In Guatemala, the Santiaguito volcano maintains high seismic activity and constant white and gray outgassing from the level of the dome up to 250 meters above it, as well as weak and some moderate explosions that disperse in the direction of the wind at a distance of 10 to 15 kilometers.

Ash falls are reported in the villages of San Marcos, Loma Linda Palajunoj and others in this region.

The seismic stations of STG3 and STG8, record moderate and strong avalanches. The incandescence persists at the Caliente dome and instability at the level of the lava flow.

The Santiaguito is in a high period of lava extrusion, this causes constant avalanches of boulders around the volcanic building, which can generate strong avalanches and even pyroclastic flows, so you should not stay near or in the beds of the river near the slopes of the volcano.

Fuego - explosion on 12/28/2021 / 5:40 a.m. - Crelosa video

The seismic stations reflect activity and OVFGO / Fuego observers report that during the night and early in the morning incandescent pulses that rise from 100 to 200 meters were observed.

Weak and moderate explosions are further reported, in a range of 5 to 12 per hour, expelling gray ash plumes which rise to an average height of 4700 m, generating fine ash falls within a range of 10 to 15 kilometers specifically in the areas of Panimaché 1, Panimaché 2, Morelia, Santa Sofía, El Porvenir, among others. At the same time generating low and moderate rumblings with shock waves.

Constant boulder avalanches were heard in the direction of the Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Santa Teresa barrancas, some of the material reached the edge of the vegetation.

 

Sources: Insivumeh & Conred

Piton de La Fournaise - the eruptive site at 12/28/2021 / 07:17 am - IRT / OVPF-IPGP webcam - click to enlarge

Piton de La Fournaise - the eruptive site at 12/28/2021 / 07:17 am - IRT / OVPF-IPGP webcam - click to enlarge

The eruption of Piton de La Fournaise, which began on 12/22/2021 at around 3:30 a.m. local time, continues.

Over the last 24 hours, the amplitude of the eruptive tremor (indicator of an emission of lava on the surface) has shown fluctuations, and is this morning at around 50% of its initial amplitude.

The bad weather conditions on the eruptive site present since yesterday at the end of the afternoon, no longer allow visual feedback with the eruption.

 

Over the last 24 hours:

- Two volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit have been recorded.

- Surface deformations no longer show significant deformation.

- No estimate of lava flow could be established by satellite method with the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University), following the cloud cover present since yesterday afternoon. - The position of the flow front could not be observed for the same reason.

Alert level: Alert 2-1 (eruption in the enclosure)

 

Source: OVPF

Find all the information relating to Piton de la Fournaise's activity on the various OVPF-IPGP media :

 - the website: ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf

- the Twitter account: twitter. com / obsfournaise

- the Facebook account: facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise

Tonga / HTHH - Photo archives RNZ 12.21.2021 - one click to enlarge

Tonga / HTHH - Photo archives RNZ 12.21.2021 - one click to enlarge

The eruption continues at the Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai volcano, intermittently, and ash has been detected in all directions up to 30 km.
Tonga's geological survey chief Taaniela Kula said the ash cloud rose to a height of 12 km and the direction of the ash varied with the wind conditions. - Tuesday to the east, Wednesday to the north.
Overall, the amount of ash, steam and gas released from the volcano has decreased compared to last week, Kula said.
No earthquakes had been detected on their seismometers.

Currently, the danger level for falling ash is orange. Although no one has yet reported ashes falling on houses, T. Kula advised the public to take steps to protect their rainwater catchment and storage systems should ash fall.

 

Source: RNZ & Tonga Meteorological and Coastal Radio Services.

Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 12/29/2021 / 8:05 am - Doc.IMO
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 12/29/2021 / 8:05 am - Doc.IMO
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 12/29/2021 / 8:05 am - Doc.IMO

Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 12/29/2021 / 8:05 am - Doc.IMO

Fagradalsfjall - trémor on 12/29/2021 - Doc.Hraun. vedur.is

Fagradalsfjall - trémor on 12/29/2021 - Doc.Hraun. vedur.is

In the Reykjanes Peninsula, since midnight on December 28, around 600 earthquakes have been detected in the region by Fagradalsfjall, much less than yesterday at the same time.

Yesterday, December 27, a magnitude 3.0 earthquake was measured about 2 km west of Kleifarvatn and at 8:25 a.m. a magnitude 3.6 earthquake was measured nearby. These earthquakes are interpreted as earthquakes and their cause is due to the increase in pressure due to the accumulation of magma at Fagradalsfjall.

About 1,500 visitors have made their way to the volcano and lava field on the Reykjanes Peninsula over the past three days, despite warnings that a new eruption could start there with very little warning.
Some people walked on the lava field itself, which police say is totally prohibited.


Sources: IMO update 28.12 / 11.00 a.m., RUV

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Piton de La Fournaise - the active cone as of 12/28/2021 / 01:25 GMT - Piton de Bert webcam / OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - the active cone as of 12/28/2021 / 01:25 GMT - Piton de Bert webcam / OVPF

The eruption that began at Piton de La Fournaise on 12/22/2021 at around 3:30 a.m. local time continues. Over the last 24 hours the amplitude of the eruptive tremor (indicator of an emission of lava on the surface) shows less rapid fluctuations than the previous days. The amplitude of the tremor is this morning at about 35% of its initial amplitude. The relative stabilization of the tremor, perhaps linked to the consolidation of the cone, which has now reached a size making it more stable.

Piton de La Fournaise - Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 21.12.2021 / 2:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 28.12.2021 / 9:38 a.m. (local time, 5:38 a.m. UT) on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 21.12.2021 / 2:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 28.12.2021 / 9:38 a.m. (local time, 5:38 a.m. UT) on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP).

The lava tunnel activity set up at the foot of the cone since December 23, thanks to the closure of the cone, continues, with occasional resurgences of flows. Lava fountain activity within the cone is low, and lava fountains exceed the height of the cone (<15m) only intermittently.

Piton de La Fournaise - Morning activity of the volcano on 12/28/2021, with a view of the flows downstream of the cone - Doc. OVPF / copyright PGHM)

Piton de La Fournaise - Morning activity of the volcano on 12/28/2021, with a view of the flows downstream of the cone - Doc. OVPF / copyright PGHM)

Over the last 24 hours:

- Two volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit were recorded. - Surface deformations no longer show significant deformation.

- The lava flow estimates, established by satellite method with the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University), are between 2 and 8 m3 / sec. These variations are explained by the method, which is based on the infrared radiation of the flow, the perception of which by satellites can be largely influenced by the weather conditions above the flows.

- The front of the flow, in graton, currently on a relatively flat area, does not seem to have progressed significantly since yesterday.

 

Source: OVPF

Find all the information relating to Piton de la Fournaise's activity on the various OVPF-IPGP media: - the website: ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf - the Twitter account: twitter. com / obsfournaise - the Facebook account: facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise

Sabancaya - Doc. I.G. Peru 20 to 26.12.2021

Sabancaya - Doc. I.G. Peru 20 to 26.12.2021

I.G.Peru informs us that the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels during the week of December 20 to 26, 2021. It notes an average of 27 explosions per day, which generated plumes of gas and ash reaching a height of 2,500 meters above the summit.

During this period, 512 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids were detected and analyzed. VT earthquakes, related to the fracturing of rocks, occurred in the northwest, north and east region of the volcano, of magnitudes between 1.9 and 2.9.

No significant abnormalities of deformation. ; two thermal anomalies were identified, with a max. of 4 MW, associated with the presence of a lava body on the surface of the crater.

The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, with an inaccessible area of ​​12 km in radius.

 

Source: I.G.P.

Suwanosejima - activity on 12/27/2021, 6:46 p.m. / 6:56 p.m. - JMA webcam

Suwanosejima - activity on 12/27/2021, 6:46 p.m. / 6:56 p.m. - JMA webcam

JMA reports that between December 24 and 27, 2021, the number of explosions at Ontake Crater in Suwanosejima increased, with a provisional figure of 361 episodes. The projections reached up to 1,500 meters above the crater rim, and large bombs were thrown up to 800 meters from the center of the crater.

Deformations have marked the western flank since November 22, and also concern the western flank since December 18.

The alert level is 3 / entry restrictions on the volcano

 

Sources: JMA and VAAC Tokyo.

Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 12/28/2021 / 8:10 a.m.- doc. IMO
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 12/28/2021 / 8:10 a.m.- doc. IMO
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 12/28/2021 / 8:10 a.m.- doc. IMO

Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes as of 12/28/2021 / 8:10 a.m.- doc. IMO

Since the seismic swarm began on the Reykjanes Peninsula on December 21, more than 18,000 earthquakes have been detected, including a magnitude of 4.0 or greater. The past 24 hours have slightly reduced seismic activity, and the largest earthquakes have occurred outside the area where magma would accumulate.

An earthquake rocked the southwest corner of Iceland at 8:25 a.m. this morning. According to figures from the Icelandic Meteorological Office website, it measured 3.6 km, 3.7 km north of Krýsuvík and a depth of 4.3 km.

Three earthquakes around magnitude 3 occurred on the Reykjanes peninsula in the same minute in the early afternoon. (RUV 12/27/2021 / 2:23 p.m.)
The former had its epicenter 7.8 kilometers southwest of Raufarshólshellir, which is further east and closer to Þorlákshöfn than usual.
Five seconds later, a magnitude 3.4 earthquake struck 1.5 kilometers southeast of Fagradalsfjall.
The third, an M3, rocked Krýsuvík a second later. This earthquake occurred at a depth of barely 100 meters.

Earthquakes in the Reykjanes Peninsula - 12.27.2021 - explanation by Kristín Jónsdóttir (dress code for the occasion!) - photo Oroapuls / Anna S. Gardarsdottir

Earthquakes in the Reykjanes Peninsula - 12.27.2021 - explanation by Kristín Jónsdóttir (dress code for the occasion!) - photo Oroapuls / Anna S. Gardarsdottir

Kristín Jónsdóttir, group leader for nature monitoring at the Icelandic Meteorological Bureau, says it is not known exactly how close the magma is to the surface, but based on the latest models the greatest expansion is at a depth of two kilometers and it may be expected to approach the surface in the near future. They had started seeing signs of magma at a depth of two kilometers three weeks before the March eruption.

Kristín believes a new eruption in the area is likely and will likely occur very near Fagradalsfjall, where an eruption has continued for six months this year.

 

Sources: IMO, Ruv, Oroapuls

Ambae - ash plume in Lake Manaro Voui - photo 26.12.2021 Johnston aga - Vanuatu Rainfall and Agro-Meteorology Outlook

Ambae - ash plume in Lake Manaro Voui - photo 26.12.2021 Johnston aga - Vanuatu Rainfall and Agro-Meteorology Outlook

Volcanic activity on Ambae Island, Vanuatu has now grown from minor unrest to major unrest. The volcanic alert level has gone from level 1 to level 2.

Since December 5, 2021, volcanic activity consists of the emission of steam and explosions of wet tephra ejected over the surface of the lake. New analyzes suggest that the activity of the Ambae volcano has increased considerably.

The danger zone (Danger zone A) is approximately 2 km in radius compared to the 2017-2018 active vents. An additional danger zone is found in areas of runoff during heavy rains, with remobilization of remaining ash from the eruptions of 2017 and 2018.

New observations have confirmed that the volcanic cone has built up inside Lake Voui and that the Ambae volcano continues to emit volcanic gas and ash.

 

Source: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu

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Clear deformation marks are visible on the latest InSAR satellite images of the Reykjanes Peninsula, covering the period 20-26. December. The deformation that is taking place now is very similar to the deformation that was observed in late February when magma formation was forming under the Fagradalsfjall area. These results are consistent with GPS measurements showing deformation in the same area.
 

Volcanic eruptions could start in the short term
The civil defense and the police chief of Suðurnes have decided to activate the SMS messages that will be sent to people entering a predefined area due to the earthquakes that have resumed at Fagradalsfjall in Reykjanes.
In the event of an eruption, the SMS will be transformed into a direct warning to people in the area in question.

Reykjanes Peninsula - interferogram between 20 and 26.12.2021 / surface deformation over the period - Image processing Michelle Parks. via IMO

Reykjanes Peninsula - interferogram between 20 and 26.12.2021 / surface deformation over the period - Image processing Michelle Parks. via IMO

Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of the earthquakes of the current swarm, as of 12/27/2021 / 9 a.m. - Doc. IMO
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of the earthquakes of the current swarm, as of 12/27/2021 / 9 a.m. - Doc. IMO
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of the earthquakes of the current swarm, as of 12/27/2021 / 9 a.m. - Doc. IMO

Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of the earthquakes of the current swarm, as of 12/27/2021 / 9 a.m. - Doc. IMO

Since the start of the swarm, more than 15,000 earthquakes have been detected.
The biggest earthquake is M4.9 occurred at 9:23 am yesterday 12/22.
Since the start of the swarm, 92 earthquakes have been M3.0 or more, of these 14 have been M4.0 or more

The mean depth of hypocenters is stable, with the majority of hypocenters located between 4 km and 6 km below the surface.
No volcanic tremor pulse has been detected today so far.
As stated earlier, it should be considered most likely that if an eruption occurs it will likely be in or very near the areas where the Geldingadalir eruption has occurred, but it cannot be excluded that the magma could cross the surface somewhere in the area between Nátthagi and Keilir.

 

Source: IMO, Civil Defense and the Suðurnes Police Chief

Piton de La Fournaise -image 12.26.2021 / 12:17 p.m. - IRT / OVPF-IPGP webcam - one click to enlarge

Piton de La Fournaise -image 12.26.2021 / 12:17 p.m. - IRT / OVPF-IPGP webcam - one click to enlarge

At Piton de La Fournaise, over the last 24 hours, the amplitude of the eruptive tremor (indicator of a surface lava emission) shows fluctuations.

These fluctuations can be linked either to:

- the cone under construction which undergoes construction and dismantling phases, thus influencing the speed of the lava flows at the level of the vent;

- or to punctual releases of pockets of gas trapped in the supply ducts which can be released suddenly leading to an increase in the tremor.

The amplitude of the tremor is (on average over the last half-day) about 30% of its initial amplitude.

Piton de La Fournaise - Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 2:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 12/27/2021 10:00 a.m. (local time, 10:00 a.m. UT time) on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Evolution of the RSAM (indicator of a surface lava emission) between 12/21/2021 2:00 p.m. local time (6:00 p.m. UT) and 12/27/2021 10:00 a.m. (local time, 10:00 a.m. UT time) on the FOR seismological station located at the level of the Château Fort crater (© OVPF / IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - lava at the foot of the cone on 12/26/2021 / 06h50TU - Piton de bert-1 / OVPF webcam - one click to enlarge

Piton de La Fournaise - lava at the foot of the cone on 12/26/2021 / 06h50TU - Piton de bert-1 / OVPF webcam - one click to enlarge

Piton de La Fournaise - modification at the foot of the cone on 12/27/2021 / 02:31 GMT - Piton de bert-1 / OVPF webcam - one click to enlarge

Piton de La Fournaise - modification at the foot of the cone on 12/27/2021 / 02:31 GMT - Piton de bert-1 / OVPF webcam - one click to enlarge

The lava tunnel activity set up at the foot of the cone since 12/23/2021, thanks to the closure of the cone, continues, with occasional resurgences of flows. Following the resurgences observed yesterday, a second mouth was visible at the foot of the cone this morning. The main flow does not emerge in a single channel until about a hundred meters downstream. Lava fountain activity within the cone is low, and lava fountains exceed the height of the cone (<15 m) only intermittently. observable at the foot of the eruptive cone.

Piton de La Fournaise - InSAR interferogram between 14 and 26.12.2021 - Doc. Mounts project - one click to enlarge

Piton de La Fournaise - InSAR interferogram between 14 and 26.12.2021 - Doc. Mounts project - one click to enlarge

Piton de La Fournaise - thermal anomalies at 12/26/2021 / 10:30 am - Doc. Mirova MODIS logVRP

Piton de La Fournaise - thermal anomalies at 12/26/2021 / 10:30 am - Doc. Mirova MODIS logVRP

Over the last 24 hours:

- A single volcano-tectonic earthquake under the summit was recorded.

- Surface deformations no longer show significant deformation.

- The lava flow estimates, established by satellite method with the HOTVOLC platform (OPGC - Clermont Auvergne University), are between 3 and 12 m³ / sec. These variations are explained by the method, which is based on the infrared radiation of the flow, the perception of which by satellites can be largely influenced by the weather conditions above the flows.

- The front of the flow, in graton, currently on a relatively flat area, moves only very slowly. The flow front advanced less than 100 meters between December 24 and 26.

 

Sources : OVPF, Mirova and Mounts project

Find all the information relating to Piton de la Fournaise's activity on the various OVPF-IPGP media: - the website: ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf   - the Twitter account: twitter. com / obsfournaise   - the Facebook account: facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise.

Rincon de La Vieja - eruption, overflow of acid lake and lahar on 12.25.2021 - photo Volcanes sin Fronteras

Rincon de La Vieja - eruption, overflow of acid lake and lahar on 12.25.2021 - photo Volcanes sin Fronteras

On December 25 at around 10:15 a.m., an eruption occurred in the active crater of the Rincón de la Vieja volcano, in Costa Rica.

This event generated the outflow of hot and acidic water from the lake and, along with the heavy rains, lahars formed. These affected the Pénjamo, Azul and Niño de Upala rivers.

Neighbors report dead fish and a milky color from the tributaries.

 

Sources: Ovsicori & Volcanes sin Fronteras

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