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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Merapi - strong degassing on 11/24/2020 / 12:18 p.m. - photo Magma Indonesia

Merapi - strong degassing on 11/24/2020 / 12:18 p.m. - photo Magma Indonesia

On Sunday morning (22/11) at 6:50 a.m. WIB, there was an avalanche of old lava cliffs on the north wall of the Merapi crater (dating from 1954), recorded on a seismogram with an amplitude of 75 mm and d 'a duration of 82 seconds. The materials fell into the crater and so far had no effect on the activities of the volcano.

 

During the observation period of November 22 at 24:00 WIB, 50 avalanches were observed, 81 emission earthquakes, 342 polyphase hybrid earthquakes, 41 shallow volcanic earthquakes and 1 distant tectonic earthquake.

This 23 November 2020, 33 avalanche earthquakes were recorded, including 4 heard at Babadan and Kaliurang stations, 83 emission earthquakes, 399 hybrid / multiphase earthquakes, 37 shallow volcanic earthquakes, and 3 distant tectonic earthquakes.

Merapi - seismicity at 23.11.2020 - to note an increase in the number of volcanic and hybrid earthquakes - Doc. Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

Merapi - seismicity at 23.11.2020 - to note an increase in the number of volcanic and hybrid earthquakes - Doc. Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

Merapi - InSAR image (passages from 11 and 19.11.2020) - one click to enlarge

Merapi - InSAR image (passages from 11 and 19.11.2020) - one click to enlarge

The general deformation of the volcano is visible on an InSAR image, taken during the 2 passages of November 11 and 19.

The level of activity has been since November 5, 2020 at 3 / siaga, accompanied by priority evacuations of sensitive people.

 

Sources: BPPTKG, PVMBG

 Merapi: status - evacuations - volcanic activity of 23.11.2020 - Pusdalops Sleman - one click to enlarge

Merapi: status - evacuations - volcanic activity of 23.11.2020 - Pusdalops Sleman - one click to enlarge

Explosions recorded on November 23 at the Sabancaya volcano, generated the emission of the ash dispersion alert, with plumes at times more than 3,000 m above the summit.

The evolution of the lava dome is not considered to be a direct danger for the populations of the Colca valley: its surface occupies 11,700 m² in mid-November; in November 2019, its surface was 54,700 m². Its formation is considered a normal aspect in the current eruptive process of the Sabancaya volcano.

 

Source: IGP & Ingemmet - OVI

 Sabancaya - activity of 23.11.2020 / 07h49 - Doc. Ingemmet - OVI

Sabancaya - activity of 23.11.2020 / 07h49 - Doc. Ingemmet - OVI

Sabancaya - parameters as of 11/22/2020 and seismicity of 11/23/2020 - Doc.Ingemmet - one click to enlargeSabancaya - parameters as of 11/22/2020 and seismicity of 11/23/2020 - Doc.Ingemmet - one click to enlarge

Sabancaya - parameters as of 11/22/2020 and seismicity of 11/23/2020 - Doc.Ingemmet - one click to enlarge

Sabancaya - evolution of the dome between 07.11.20219 and 16.11.2020 - Doc.IGPeru

Sabancaya - evolution of the dome between 07.11.20219 and 16.11.2020 - Doc.IGPeru

In Dukono, in the northern Moluccas, broadcasts will continue on November 22 and 23; the gray-white plume reaches a height of 200-800 meters above the summit crater.

The seismicity of November 23 is marked by a continuous tremor, with an amplitude of 0.5-8 mm (dominant 2 mm).

The activity level remains at 2 / waspada, with recommendation for people around G. Dukono and visitors / tourists not to practice any activity, climb and approach the Malupang Warirang crater within a radius of 2 km.

 

Source: PVMBG & VAAC Darwin

 Dukono - ash plume from 11/22/2020 / 8:12 a.m. WIT - webcam PVMBG - Magma

Dukono - ash plume from 11/22/2020 / 8:12 a.m. WIT - webcam PVMBG - Magma

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
The Santiaguito domes complex - 2020.11.20 - photo Edgar Cabrera, COMRED El Palmar

The Santiaguito domes complex - 2020.11.20 - photo Edgar Cabrera, COMRED El Palmar

In Santiaguito, after yesterday's activity, degassing is observed, at certain time prolonged, of white and gray color, which disperses towards the west and reaches heights of 600 meters above the dome of Caliente. For short periods, it is possible to hear sounds similar to those of an airplane turbine, due to prolonged degassing of the Caliente dome.

Seismic recording makes it possible to observe weak and moderate explosions. These generate plumes of gas and ash, and altitudes of up to 3400 meters above sea level.

Boulder and ash avalanches are also recorded mainly towards the southwest flank.

 

Source: INSIVUMEH

Fuego - summit glow and blocks falls in the Seca and Ceniza barrancas - Landsat-8 Image 20.11.2020 / Insivumeh

Fuego - summit glow and blocks falls in the Seca and Ceniza barrancas - Landsat-8 Image 20.11.2020 / Insivumeh

In Guatemala, the Fuego exhibits 4-8 weak and moderate explosions per hour, expelling plumes of gas and gray ash at an altitude of 4,500 to 4,700 meters (14,763 to 15,419 feet) which disperse mainly to the south -Where is. Some explosions are strong and cause shock waves that vibrate the roofs and windows of houses near the volcanic perimeter.

The explosions are accompanied by weak and moderate avalanches, which disperse towards the ravines of Seca, Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Las Lajas. Avalanches with strong characteristics persist on the ravines of Seca and Ceniza, some of which reach the vegetation limit. Fine ash falls were recorded in the Panimaché 1 area.

At night and early in the morning, reflections of incandescent pulses were observed on the crater.

Only satellite images show us this activity, the region being under a high pressure system associated with storm Iona.

 

Sources: Insivumeh & Landsat-8

Klyuchevskoy from the Kliuchi volcanological staion - 11/22/2020 / 7:14 a.m. - IVS FEB RAS webcam, KVERT

Klyuchevskoy from the Kliuchi volcanological staion - 11/22/2020 / 7:14 a.m. - IVS FEB RAS webcam, KVERT

Klyuchevskoy - thermal anomalies at 11.22.2020 / 01.40 a.m. - Doc. Mirova Modis

Klyuchevskoy - thermal anomalies at 11.22.2020 / 01.40 a.m. - Doc. Mirova Modis

At Klyuchevskoy, in aviation code orange, moderate explosive-effusive activity continues.

Strombolian explosions, gas, steam and ash emissions are observed in the form of a plume extending 25 km to the south-east of the volcano. A thermal anomaly is detected by the satellites, with this November 22 at 01:40 a VRP of max. 732 MW

A lava flow is still descending in Apakhonchich falls.

 

Sources: KVERT & Mirova

Sinabung - 11.21.2020 - photos Nachelle Homestay
Sinabung - 11.21.2020 - photos Nachelle Homestay

Sinabung - 11.21.2020 - photos Nachelle Homestay

In Sinabung, seismicity is characterized on November 21 by:

- an eruption earthquake with an amplitude of 56 mm and an earthquake duration of 149 seconds.

- 29 collapse / avalanche earthquakes, with an amplitude of 2 to 100 mm and a duration of 20 to 86 seconds.

- 3 Tornillo-type earthquakes

- 17 low frequency earthquakes

- 1 distant tectonic earthquake.

The activity level remains at 3 / Siaga.

 

Source: PVMBG & VAAC Darwin

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Santiaguito - pyroclastic flow on 11.20.2020 / 07:33 a.m. - Insivumeh OVSAN

Santiaguito - pyroclastic flow on 11.20.2020 / 07:33 a.m. - Insivumeh OVSAN

Explosive episodes occurred this morning November 20 at the Santiaguito dome complex; they were accompanied by a plume of ash at 3,600 meters asl. and descent of small pyroclastic flows from the top of the Caliente dome to its base, in a westerly direction.

Ash falls are reported in the perimeter of the volcano and populations to the southwest and east.

As reported by the Insivumeh on November 17 (link), this type of event is due to the unstable accumulation of lumpy lava and fine pyroclasts on the dome of the Caliente Dome, causing it to detach and channel into a avalanches and pyroclastic flows.

The prohibition of access to the complex of domes of Santiaguito in an area of ​​5 km. Air traffic could be affected within 20 km. according to the wind direction.

 

Source: Insivumeh Ovsan

Pacaya - Sentinel-2 bands image 12,11,5 from 20.11.2020 - Doc. Insivumeh

Pacaya - Sentinel-2 bands image 12,11,5 from 20.11.2020 - Doc. Insivumeh

In Pacaya, due to night and early morning weather conditions, visibility towards the Mackenney Cone and its crater is limited.

The seismic stations of PCG and PCG5 record tremors associated with the rise of magma and constant degassing in a south-southwest direction.

Lava flow in a west-southwest direction, about 1,030 meters long.

 

Sources: Insivumeh & Sentinel-2

Merapi activity between November 13 and 19, according to BPPTKG report

Merapi activity between November 13 and 19, according to BPPTKG report

Merapi activity between November 13 and 19, according to BPPTKG report

On November 14, 2020 at 6:15 a.m. WIB, avalanches were observed upstream of Kali Lamat with a maximum slide distance of 2 km.There is a change in the morphology of the dome, namely the collapse of part of the dome Lava 2018.

The results of the drone data analysis revealed changes in the morphology of the crater wall due to the collapse of the ancient lava

The volume of the lava dome on November 16, 2020 is 200,000 m³.

The seismic intensity is higher than last week.

Merapi deformation followed by EDM showed a shortening rate of 9 cm / day from reflectors RB1 and RB2.

Conclusion:

There is an increase in volcanic activity on Mount Merapi, so the activity status is set in activity level 3 / siaga.

Current potential dangers come in the form of lava avalanches, eruption of volcanic material in the event of an explosive eruption and pyroclastic flows of up to 5 km.

 

Source: BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity and deformation at 20.11.2020 - Doc.BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity and deformation at 20.11.2020 - Doc.BPPTKG

 Merapi this morning - 21.11.2020 / 05h47 - Doc. BPBD Sleman

Merapi this morning - 21.11.2020 / 05h47 - Doc. BPBD Sleman

The typical activity of the Reventador has been characterized in recent months by the generation of gas and ash plumes of varying height on the one hand, and on the other hand by a lava flow on the northeast flank. IGEPN shares a thermal image illustrating this activity.

Reventador - typical activity : gas & ash emission + falling blocks and lava flow - thermal photo / IGEPN

Reventador - typical activity : gas & ash emission + falling blocks and lava flow - thermal photo / IGEPN

From November 19 to 20 at 11 a.m., the seismicity was characterized by :

- 67 earthquakes Long period

- 80 earthquakes

- 17 episodes of emission tremor

- 4 episodes of harmonic tremor

Several gas and ash emissions were observed which reached 800 and 1,200 meters above the level of the crater, the direction of these emissions was towards the southwest. The Washington VAAC recorded 5 ash emission alerts seen in satellites circling heights 700 meters above crater level in a westerly and southwest direction.

FIRMS recorded 4 thermal alerts in Reventador in the last 24 hours

In the afternoon of yesterday and today, for several moments the volcano was clear allowing to observe the described emissions and at night between the clouds, an incandescence was observed in the crater, accompanied by the rolling of blocks on the sides of the volcano. The lava flow is still active (~ 450m) to the northeast and without noticeable changes.

Alert level: orange

Source: IGEPN

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
  Klyuchevskoy - Strombolian and Vulcanian activity 18.11.2020 - photo Yu. Demyanchuk IVS FEB RAS KVERT

 Klyuchevskoy - Strombolian and Vulcanian activity 18.11.2020 - photo Yu. Demyanchuk IVS FEB RAS KVERT

 Klyuchevskoy - hot spot and important plume - image Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,11,4 from 18.11.2020 - one click to enlarge

Klyuchevskoy - hot spot and important plume - image Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,11,4 from 18.11.2020 - one click to enlarge

Flare-up at Klyuchevskoy on November 18 and 19:

KVERT reports a large ash cloud 65 km by 70 km above the Klyuchevskoy volcanic group, drifting towards the SSE, in its November 18 report.

In the photo of November 18, we notice Strombolian and Vulcanian activity, accompanied by an important ash plume, and on the left at the base of the plume, a glow corresponding to the outpouring in Apakhonchich falls on the southeast flank.

Mirova reports very high thermal anomalies for these 18 and 19 November: 18.11.2020 with max. VRP 1424 MW, and on 19.11.2020 with max VRP 1265 MW.

The explosive-effusive activity continues this November 20. The aviation code remains orange

 

Sources: KVERT, Mirova & VAAC Tokyo.

 Klyuchevskoy - Doc. 11/18/2020 / 12:41 a.m. Sentinel 2 & Modis thremal volcanic activity - MIROVA -  - one click to enlarge

Klyuchevskoy - Doc. 11/18/2020 / 12:41 a.m. Sentinel 2 & Modis thremal volcanic activity - MIROVA - - one click to enlarge

 Klyuchevskoy - 20.11.2020 / 07:14 - webcam IVS FEB RAS KVERT

Klyuchevskoy - 20.11.2020 / 07:14 - webcam IVS FEB RAS KVERT

During the period from November 9 to 15, 2020, the INGV OE informs at Etna of an intracrateric Strombolian activity with discontinuous ash emissions at the New Southeast Crater (NSEC), of the Strombolian intracrateric activity at the Northeast crater (NEC) and at the Bocca Nuova crater (BN); degassing is observed at the VOR; the deformation does not show significant changes ...

 Etna - 15.11.2020 - emission at the BN (left) - at the SEC mouth of the saddle (in the center) and at the SEC mouth east (on the right) - photo INGV OE

Etna - 15.11.2020 - emission at the BN (left) - at the SEC mouth of the saddle (in the center) and at the SEC mouth east (on the right) - photo INGV OE

Etna - therm activity. volcanic Sentinel-2 & MIROVA at 11.15.2020 / 09.50 a.m. - Doc.Mirova Copernicus - one click to enlarge

Etna - therm activity. volcanic Sentinel-2 & MIROVA at 11.15.2020 / 09.50 a.m. - Doc.Mirova Copernicus - one click to enlarge

more details:

The NE crater during the inspection on November 12 showed less intense Strombolian activity than that observed the previous week. In particular, on the bottom of the crater, one vent exhibited almost continuous Strombolian activity, a second vent was affected by discontinuous activity, while a third vent, consisting of a hornitos, was characterized by degassing.

Overall, Strombolian explosions manifested themselves at times as more forceful events, producing launches of coarse material that reached heights of several tens of meters above the crater rim and the products occasionally fell to the exterior, settling on the flanks.

Overall, modest emissions of highly diluted ash were observed from the Bocca Nuova crater during the week.

The Voragine crater was affected by modest degassing of the main cinder cone associated with occasional weak and very dilute ash emissions.

The new south-eastern crater was characterized by intracrateric Strombolian activity of varying frequency and intensity from the mouth of the saddle, accompanied by ejections of coarse pyroclastic material well beyond the edge of the crater, sometimes accompanied by sporadic emissions of ash quickly dispersed by high altitude winds.

 

Sources: INGV OE

Karangetang - 20.11.2020 / 06:41 - PVMBG

Karangetang - 20.11.2020 / 06:41 - PVMBG

In Karangetang (North Sulawesi), degassing was observed on November 19, between 50 and 150 meters above the active craters. When the top is obscured by fog, the noise of degassing remains audible, the gas pressure being high.

The seismicity of November 19 is characterized by :

- 103 blast / emission earthquakes

- 1 shallow volcanic earthquake

- 4 episodes of harmonic tremor

- 3 episodes of continuous tremor, dominant at 1 mm

- 4 distant tectonic earthquakes.

This November 20, we observe at the main crater a plume of gas / steam about 350 meters high, and at Dua crater a plume between 50 and 300 meters high.

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga. The public and visitors / tourists should not approach, climb or engage in activities within the hazard forecasting area, i.e. 2.5 km radius from the summit of Kawah Dua (Kawah Utara) and Kawah Utama (south) as well as the sectoral expansion area of ​​Dua crater to the northwest- The north is 4 km. And from the main crater up to 3 km to the west.

 

Source: PVMBG

Hawaii - Mauna Loa - photo Bruce Omori / Extrême exposure 11.2020

Hawaii - Mauna Loa - photo Bruce Omori / Extrême exposure 11.2020

At Mauna Loa, on Big Island, the deformation and seismicity ratios have not changed significantly over the past week, but remain above baseline levels over the long term.

The Hawaii Observatory recorded 119 low-magnitude earthquakes for the entire volcano, most at a depth of less than 8 km below ground level; 31 were located under the summit and upper flanks.

A slow inflation of the summit is recorded by the GPS measurements, and corresponds to a recharge of the superficial magma chamber.

The gas concentrations and the temperature of the fumaroles at the summit and at the Sulfur cone, in the south-western rift zone, remain stable.

Mauna Loa is not erupting; the volcanic alert level is Advisory and the aviation code Yellow.

 

Source: latest HVO bulletin

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Rincon de La Vieja - The edges of the crater at different height can channel possible lahars in a favored direction - photo Raul Mora / RSN archives

Rincon de La Vieja - The edges of the crater at different height can channel possible lahars in a favored direction - photo Raul Mora / RSN archives

Two eruptive episodes occurred at Rincon de La Vieja on November 18. The first at 10:24 local time was accompanied by a plume of 1,000 meters above the active crater.

For the second at 2:50 p.m. local, identified by infrasonic signal, we could not know the height of the plume, due to poor visibility conditions.

According to the Ovsicori, between January and October, the volcano presented more than 1,300 eruptive episodes. Its activity has increased since May and the eruptions are recurrent last week.

The main risks are pyroclastic flows and lahars in case of heavy rains, caused by a remobilization of ash accumulated at the top.

 

Source: Ovsicori

Merapi - changes to the crater wall between November 3 and 18, 2020 - Doc. Volcano YT

Merapi - changes to the crater wall between November 3 and 18, 2020 - Doc. Volcano YT

Merapi - Seismicity and deformation as of November 18, 2020 - Doc. BPPTKG

Merapi - Seismicity and deformation as of November 18, 2020 - Doc. BPPTKG

In Merapi, on Java, testimonies from residents report a landslide / avalanche of materials in the early hours of November 17. It seems that this event is due to the collapse of part of the crater wall, made friable by the day-night temperature differences.

This November 18, the seismicity is characterized by:

- 68 collapse / avalanche earthquakes, including several audible from the buttresses.

- 39 blast / emission earthquakes

- 242 hybrid / multiphase earthquakes

- 1 low frequency earthquake

- 31 shallow volcanic earthquakes.

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga.

 

Sources: BPPTKG & local observers.

Anak Krakatau - image Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,11,4 / 18.11.2020 - in click to enlarge

Anak Krakatau - image Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,11,4 / 18.11.2020 - in click to enlarge

The activity of Anak Krakatau is stable for the moment; the unobstructed view taken by Sentinel-2 on November 18 testifies to this.

The PVMBG informs, for this same day, 1 blast / emission earthquake, 1 low frequency earthquake and continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 1 mm.

The activity level remains at 2 / waspada.

Source: PVMBG

Villarica - activity calendar for November 17, 2020 and last eruptive episode - Doc.POVI
Villarica - activity calendar for November 17, 2020 and last eruptive episode - Doc.POVI

Villarica - activity calendar for November 17, 2020 and last eruptive episode - Doc.POVI

The POVI has completed the calendar of explosions at Villarica since August.

The number is increasing; the last, dated November 17, was accompanied by a small plume of ash about thirty meters above the crater.

Note that during the reconnaissance overflight on November 15, we see that at the bottom of the crater, at about 70-80 m deep, of the 4 active orifices documented on November 10, 3 have become passive and the 4th maintains a pit of lava.

 

Source: POVI

Villarica - overview of 15.11.2020 - only one hot spot active - Doc. POVI

Villarica - overview of 15.11.2020 - only one hot spot active - Doc. POVI

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At Sinabung, the main crater emits gases at a moderate height of about 50-300 meters above the summit.

Thanks to the seismographic recordings of November 17, 2020, it was recorded:

- 24 collapse / avalanche earthquakes

- 6 low frequency earthquakes

- 1 local tectonic earthquake

- 2 distant tectonic earthquakes.

The dome continues to grow, making it more and more cantilevered. Its development (collapse or formation of a dome-flow) should be closely followed.

Sinabung - the growing dome on 11.17.2020 - photo Nachelle Homestay

Sinabung - the growing dome on 11.17.2020 - photo Nachelle Homestay

This November 18 at 12:59 WIB, a pyroclastic flow occurred, with a sliding distance of 1500 meters to the southeast (the wind to the southwest.)

An eruption occurred the same day at 1:44 p.m. WIB, accompanied by an ash plume 1,000 meters high

The activity level remains at III / siaga.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, Beidar Sinabung / Firdaus Surbakti and Sadrah Peranginangin and Nachelle Homestay.

Sinabung - the dome on 11/18/2020 / 8:52 a.m. WIB - photo Firdaus Surbakti / Beidar Sinabung

Sinabung - the dome on 11/18/2020 / 8:52 a.m. WIB - photo Firdaus Surbakti / Beidar Sinabung

Sinabung - the dome on 11/18/2020 / 9:03 a.m. WIB, from a different perspective - photo Firdaus Surbakti / Beidar Sinabung

Sinabung - the dome on 11/18/2020 / 9:03 a.m. WIB, from a different perspective - photo Firdaus Surbakti / Beidar Sinabung

Sinabung - plume and CDPyroclastic on 11/18/2020 / 01;04 WIB p.m. - PVMBG webcam

Sinabung - plume and CDPyroclastic on 11/18/2020 / 01;04 WIB p.m. - PVMBG webcam

 Sinabung - eruptive episode of 11/18/2020 / 01:44 p.m. WIB - photo Sadrah Peranginangin / Beidar Sinabung

Sinabung - eruptive episode of 11/18/2020 / 01:44 p.m. WIB - photo Sadrah Peranginangin / Beidar Sinabung

Between November 9 and 15, 2020, I.G. Peru recorded 2,264 volcanic earthquakes in connection with the circulation of magmatic fluids inside Sabancaya. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes are located mainly to the northeast of the volcano.

The eruptive activity continues, at a moderate level, with an average of 54 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 3,300 meters above the summit.

Monitoring by GNSS technique does not present any significant anomalies. Eleven thermal anomalies, of VRP between 3 and 63 MW were detected, associated with the presence of a lava body / dome in the crater of Sabancaya.

The level of the volcanic alert remains at Naranja, with a prohibited zone of 12 km in radius.

Sabancaya - summary of activity between 9 and 15.11.2020 - Doc. I.G. Peru

Sabancaya - summary of activity between 9 and 15.11.2020 - Doc. I.G. Peru

The Geological, Mining and Metallurgical Institute (Ingemmet) has confirmed in recent hours, thanks to multidisciplinary monitoring and satellite images (Sentinel), the location of the second lava dome, called "Iskay" (two in Quechua) northeast of the crater of the Sabancaya volcano, with an area of ​​about 12,000 square meters.

On November 17, Tropomi / Sentinel-5P detected a strong signal of sulfur dioxide near Sabancaya, with 13.65 DU of SO2.

 

Sources: Instituto Geofisico del Peru, Ingemmet press release & Tropomi

Sabancaya - confirmation of the presence of a 2nd dome in the summit crater - Doc. Ingemmet

Sabancaya - confirmation of the presence of a 2nd dome in the summit crater - Doc. Ingemmet

Sabancaya - 11/17/2020 Tropomi / Sentinel-5P has detected a strong sulfur dioxide signal near Sabancaya, with 13.65 DU of SO2. (bottom center of document) - Doc. DLR / Bia / ESA - Sentinel-5 P Tropomi

Sabancaya - 11/17/2020 Tropomi / Sentinel-5P has detected a strong sulfur dioxide signal near Sabancaya, with 13.65 DU of SO2. (bottom center of document) - Doc. DLR / Bia / ESA - Sentinel-5 P Tropomi

Last Wednesday (November 11, 2020), a period of ash emission began in Whakaari / White Island. Ash deposits were observed on some of the island's cameras, and at times a darker-than-usual plume was reported on the mainland. Satellite images provided at the time by MetService, courtesy of the Japan Meteorological Agency, confirmed the ash emission, but later images showed the presence of little or no apparent ash.

The gas measurement and observation flights on Monday November 16, 2020 again reported small amounts of ash in the plume. Overall, observations indicate a lower level of ash emission over the past few days.

Laboratory analyzes of the ash show that it includes hydrothermal minerals and ancient volcanic materials (ash sediments), and that no new magma is present. Ash particles are materials eroded from the 2019 ventilation area by the flow of steam and gas.

The quantities of CO2 and SO2 gas have decreased.

 

The high emission of volcanic gas combined with the increase in seismic activity confirms that Whakaari / White Island is in a period of heightened unrest. As a result, the volcanic alert level remains at level 2 and the aviation color code remains at yellow.

 

Source: Geonet

Whakaari / White island - broadcasts from 16.11.2020 - photo GeoNet

Whakaari / White island - broadcasts from 16.11.2020 - photo GeoNet

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Stromboli - 11.16.2020 / 09:18 UTC - photo Maurizio Ripepe / LGS

Stromboli - 11.16.2020 / 09:18 UTC - photo Maurizio Ripepe / LGS

Stromboli - 11.16.2020 / 09:18 UTC - Doc. LGS

Stromboli - 11.16.2020 / 09:18 UTC - Doc. LGS

Stromboli - 16.11.2020 / 09h18 - pyroclatic flow in the Sciara del Fuoco - photo LGS

Stromboli - 16.11.2020 / 09h18 - pyroclatic flow in the Sciara del Fuoco - photo LGS

Stromboli - 11.16.2020 / 09:18 UTC - Doc. INGV OE
Stromboli - 11.16.2020 / 09:18 UTC - Doc. INGV OEStromboli - 11.16.2020 / 09:18 UTC - Doc. INGV OE

Stromboli - 11.16.2020 / 09:18 UTC - Doc. INGV OE

The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etneo Observatory, informs that this November 16 at 09:17:50 UTC, an explosion, considered as major, was observed at Stromboli, in the center-south zone, accompanied by a plume ash about 1,000 meters high.

A small pyroclastic flow rolled down the Scira del Fuoco to sea level, where it continued for some 200 meters.

Shortly after the eruption, ashes and lapilli fell; the color of the particles, a few mm., are brown to red-brown (old materials present in the vent), however a small amount of lighter pumice is also present in the ash (small fraction of fresh magma which has produces the rash).

From the seismic point of view, the phenomenon, clearly visible on all the seismic stations of Stromboli, is characterized by a sequence of explosive events which started at 9:17 (UTC) for a duration of 4 minutes. Regarding the magnitude of the volcanic earthquake there are no significant variations.

 

N.B. The paroxysmal explosion warning system was and is still in operation. This explosion (major and not paroxysmal) exceeded the amplitude criterion (0.3 microrad) provided by the Paroxysmal Early-Warning system but not that on the duration of the ground inflation which precedes the paroxysmal explosions, for which the threshold was not exceeded of 0.85 provided by the automatic system to trigger the warning system

 

Sources INGV OE & LGS

Stromboli - major explosion 16.11.2020 - video INGV OE

A moderate explosion occurred at Santiaguito on November 16 at 7.15 am local time; it was accompanied by a plume of ash at 3,600 m. asl. and pyroclastic flows on the sides of the Caliente dome. The most important flow moved towards the upper part of the bed of the Rio San Isidro, on the SW flank of the dome.

The ashes dispersed in a SW direction towards the area of ​​San Marcos Palajuno and its surroundings.

This type of event is due to the unstable accumulation of blocky lava and fine pyroclasts in the dome of Caliente Dome, causing it to detach and channel in the form of avalanches and pyroclastic flows.

 

Sources: Insivumeh & Conred

Santiaguito -16.11.2020 - explosion and pyroclastic flows at the Caliente dome - photo Edgar Cabrera, COLRED Finca El Faro

Santiaguito -16.11.2020 - explosion and pyroclastic flows at the Caliente dome - photo Edgar Cabrera, COLRED Finca El Faro

 Santiaguito -16.11.2020 - explosion and pyroclastic flows at the Caliente dome and seismogram - Doc. Insivumeh

Santiaguito -16.11.2020 - explosion and pyroclastic flows at the Caliente dome and seismogram - Doc. Insivumeh

At Sinabung, the PVMBG shows a declining seismicity curve.

For the day of November 16, the observatory records:

- 21 collapse / avalanche earthquakes

- 1 low frequency earthquake

- 1 earthquake related to a pyroclastic flow at 4:29 p.m., which moved over 2,000 meters towards the ESE, and left an imprint of 110mm in amplitude, lasting 240 sec.

 

Source: PVMBG

Sinabung - 11/16/2020 / 4:29 p.m. WIB - pyroclastic flow to ESE - photo Sadrah Peranginangin

Sinabung - 11/16/2020 / 4:29 p.m. WIB - pyroclastic flow to ESE - photo Sadrah Peranginangin

In Semeru, on Java, an image from the Sentinel-2 L2A bands 12,11,4 satellite of November 16, 2020 shows the presence of hot spots at the summit crater and on the flow on the side of the volcano.

The PVMBG informs for November 14:

- 81 eruption earthquakes

- 4 blast / emission earthquakes

- 1 local tectonic earthquake

- 3 distant tectonic earthquakes.

 

Sources: PVMBG & Sentinel-2

Semeru - hot spots at the top and on the casting - image Sentinel-2 L2A bands 12,11,4 / 16.11.2020

Semeru - hot spots at the top and on the casting - image Sentinel-2 L2A bands 12,11,4 / 16.11.2020

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Etna - activity of 14.11.2020 - photo Boris Behncke

Etna - activity of 14.11.2020 - photo Boris Behncke

Etna - 14.11.2020 / 08:36 - webcam INGV OE Emot0172

Etna - 14.11.2020 / 08:36 - webcam INGV OE Emot0172

Etna at dawn and nightfall on November 14, 2020 :

a strombolian activity, still very modest but practically continuous, animates the Crater of the South-East.

On the same day, we can also observe sporadic emissions of ash (cold material) from the New Mouth, more specifically the " BN-1 ", that is to say the westernmost of the two mouths which have been reopening for a few month inside the crater, also known as  " The 1968 Mouth ".

 

Source: Boris Behncke

 Etna - activity of 14.11.2020 - photo Boris Behncke

Etna - activity of 14.11.2020 - photo Boris Behncke

During the last hours, the Pacaya volcano has increased its effusive activity; mainly on its southwest flank.

Avalanches of large blocks (1 to 3 m.) Over 500 meters are recorded, and two lava flows, each about 300 meters long, in a south-westerly direction. A degassing plume, white and bluish, 3,000 m high. asl. accompanies this activity. This activity is effusive, the lava flows occur through fissures, a type of activity specific to the volcano.

The explosive activity is maintained, in a cycle of construction-destruction of the intracratical cone.

The observations will be disrupted with the influence of Hurricane IOTA: increasing cloudiness, heavy rains, and sustained winds.

 

Source: Insivumeh, Conred, and David Rojas.

Pacaya  - 15.11.2020 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,5  / Copernicus /  Vulcanologia SSG

Pacaya - 15.11.2020 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,5 / Copernicus / Vulcanologia SSG

 Pacaya - avalanche of boulders and gas plume - Insivumeh special bulletin 11.15.2020 / 1.30 p.m. loc.

Pacaya - avalanche of boulders and gas plume - Insivumeh special bulletin 11.15.2020 / 1.30 p.m. loc.

Pacaya - photo David Rojas 16.11.2020

Pacaya - photo David Rojas 16.11.2020

Aerial images of the Kluchevskoy volcano group (Kluchevskoy, Kamen, Bezymianny).

On November 12, scientists from the Institute of Volcanology attempted to land on the slopes of Bezymianny to take samples after a recent eruption of the volcano. The wind was strong and did not let the helicopter land, but excellent shots were taken

 

Source: volkstat.ru

The Klyuchevskoy group - photo 12.11.2020 / Volkstat.ru

The Klyuchevskoy group - photo 12.11.2020 / Volkstat.ru

Bezymianny crater - photo 11.12.2020 / Volkstat.ru

Bezymianny crater - photo 11.12.2020 / Volkstat.ru

At Klyuchevskoy, in aviation code orange, the moderate explosive-effusive eruption continues.

The lava flow descends Apakhonchich falls, on the south-eastern flank of the volcano, while the Strombolian activity and the gas and vapor emissions, loaded with a little ash, are more or less important.

The KVERT notes a large thermal anomaly throughout the past week, which culminates this November 15 at 11 a.m. at VRP 1162 MW (Mirova).

 

Sources: KVERT & VOKKIA

 Klyuchevskoy - seen from F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing Kamchatkan Volcanological Station -Klyuchi village, 30 km to the north-north-east, on 11.15.2020 - IVS FEB RAS KVERT webcam

Klyuchevskoy - seen from F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing Kamchatkan Volcanological Station -Klyuchi village, 30 km to the north-north-east, on 11.15.2020 - IVS FEB RAS KVERT webcam

KLyuchevskoy - thermal anomalies as of 15.11.2020 - Doc. Mirova Modis - one click to enlargeKLyuchevskoy - thermal anomalies as of 15.11.2020 - Doc. Mirova Modis - one click to enlarge

KLyuchevskoy - thermal anomalies as of 15.11.2020 - Doc. Mirova Modis - one click to enlarge

This November 15 from 6:40 am local, the seismic stations BULB and BILB of the Tungurahua volcano record a high frequency signal, perhaps associated with the appearance of mudslides and debris (lahars) which descend the drainages of the volcano. Proximity to rivers is not recommended.

We can make a connection with the information of November 9 which mentions a process of resuspension of ash in the upper part of Tungurahua, following strong winds blowing towards the north-west. (NOAA - IGEPN satellite image)

 

Source: IGEPN

Tungurahua - from 6:40 am loc. on 15.11.2020, a high frequency seismic signal linked to lahar, mud flow - IGEPN

Tungurahua - from 6:40 am loc. on 15.11.2020, a high frequency seismic signal linked to lahar, mud flow - IGEPN

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Heard island - two lava flows at Mawson peak on 11.11.2020 - image Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

Heard island - two lava flows at Mawson peak on 11.11.2020 - image Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

The effusive eruption continues at Mawson peak, on Heard island.

Images from the Sentinel-2 satellite revealed a hot spot (heavily obscured by clouds) on November 9.

This November 11, we see two lava flows in the opposite direction, one on the northwest flank and the other on the south-southwest flank, becoming almost parallel in the slope, about 500 meters long, before being masked by the clouds.

 

Heard island - moderate thermal anomaly on 11.11.2020 - Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

 

Heard island, on the Kerguelen plateau in the southern Indian Ocean, consists mainly of the emergent part of two volcanic structures.

The large, glacier-covered, basalto-trachytic composite cone of Big Ben volcano comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mount Dixon sits at the northwestern end of the island across a narrow isthmus.

The historically active Mawson peak forms the highest point on the island; it is located in a caldera 5-6 km wide, jagged on the southwest side of Big Ben.

According to the Global Volcanism Program, Mawson peak has been erupting since September 5, 2012, still "ongoing".

 

Sources: Sentinel-2 and Global Volcanism Program

A rare sight of Heard island cleared by Sentinel-2 image nat. colors on 05/31/2019 - one click to enlarge

A rare sight of Heard island cleared by Sentinel-2 image nat. colors on 05/31/2019 - one click to enlarge

In Colombia, during this week the SGC through its Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Manizales, commemorates the 35th anniversary of the eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, which occurred on November 1985.

 

The volcano continues to emit water vapor and gases, mainly sulfur dioxide. The column of gas and vapor reached a maximum height of 2,122 m measured at the top of the volcano on November 4. On November 13, Sentinel-5P / Tropomi detected a strong signal of sulfur dioxide with 11.66 DU of SO2.

Nevado del Ruiz the summit in 1985 - photo Jeffrey Marso USGS

Nevado del Ruiz the summit in 1985 - photo Jeffrey Marso USGS

Nevado del Ruiz - the lahars who devastated Armero on 09.12.1985 - Doc. USGS

Nevado del Ruiz - the lahars who devastated Armero on 09.12.1985 - Doc. USGS

Nevado del Ruiz - a strong sulfur dioxide signal with 11.66 DU of SO2 detected by Tropomi - Doc. DLR / BIRA / ESA

Nevado del Ruiz - a strong sulfur dioxide signal with 11.66 DU of SO2 detected by Tropomi - Doc. DLR / BIRA / ESA

In terms of seismicity, that generated by the fracturing of rocks has slightly decreased in the number of earthquakes and increased seismic energy released compared to the previous week. During the week, several episodes of low-energy drumbeat-type seismicity were recorded, associated with fracturing of the rock.

An increase in seismicity linked to fluid dynamics, inside volcanic conduits, in terms of the number of events and the seismic energy released, is observed compared to the previous week. This activity

seismic activity was characterized by the appearance of continuous volcanic tremor, tremor pulses, long-period and very long-period earthquakes, of varying energy level and spectral content. Some of these signals were associated with gas and ash emissions, confirmed by cameras installed on the volcano.

The deformation of the volcanic surface, measured from GNSS (Satellite System of Global Navigation) stations and electronic inclinometers, did not show any additional changes compared to those reported in recent weeks.

 

The activity level remains at 3 / amarillo - changes in the behavior of volcanic activity.

 

Sources: SGC & Tropomi

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 Sinabung - the growing dome - photo Firdaus Surbakti 12.11. 2020 / 6h26WIB - one click to enlarge

Sinabung - the growing dome - photo Firdaus Surbakti 12.11. 2020 / 6h26WIB - one click to enlarge

At Sinabung, white fumaroles are observed about 50 to 500 m above the summit.

Pyroclastic flows generated by avalanches were observed, with a sliding distance of 1500 m to the east and south-east. Avalanches were observed, with a sliding distance of 200 to 500 m from the summit to the east and south-east

This November 12, 2020, it was recorded:

- 1 earthquake related to a pyroclastic flow

- 32 collapse / avalanche earthquakes

- 4 blast / emission earthquakes

- 21 low frequency earthquakes

- 3 hybrid / multiphase earthquakes

- 3 local tectonic earthquakes

- 1 distant tectonic earthquake

The growth of the dome continues, and places it more and more in a slight cantilever, increasing the number of collapses and falls of blocks, which can generate pyroclastic flows.

 

Source: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, Firdaus Surbakti / Beidar Sinabung

 Merapi - 13.11.2020 / 07:50 - BPBD Psudalops Sleman

Merapi - 13.11.2020 / 07:50 - BPBD Psudalops Sleman

 Merapi - seismicity and deformation as of 12.11.2020 - Doc. BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity and deformation as of 12.11.2020 - Doc. BPPTKG

In Merapi, on Java, the fear of an eruption, following the increase in seismicity and deformation, pushes the authorities to carry out new evacuations in advance: they concern around 1,300 residents among the most vulnerable (835 of the Magelang regency , 203 from sleman, 133 from Boyoali and 123 from Klaten).

Preventively, the stupas of the near temple of Borobodur are covered with protective tarpaulins.

 

Sources: BNPB & Jakarta Post

Merapi - protection of the stupas of the temple of Borobodur in view of the fallout of ash from an upcoming eruption of Merapi

Merapi - protection of the stupas of the temple of Borobodur in view of the fallout of ash from an upcoming eruption of Merapi

The Sernageomin reports that during the last 24 hours in Nevados de Chillan, the seismicity consists of LP earthquakes and low to moderate energy tremor, related to the explosions, accompanied by plumes up to 600 meters in height .

Amarilla alert is maintained

 

Source: Sernageomin

Nishinoshima - overview of 28.10.2020 / 14:48 by the Japan Coast Guards

Nishinoshima - overview of 28.10.2020 / 14:48 by the Japan Coast Guards

Nishinoshima - the crater active on 10/28/2020 / 3:17 p.m. - overflight by the Japan Coast Guards

Nishinoshima - the crater active on 10/28/2020 / 3:17 p.m. - overflight by the Japan Coast Guards

In Nishinoshima, in the Ogasawara Islands, activity has been sporadic, between low and moderate, since the end of August.

From the photos of the last flyby, the crater seems to have breached a little more since September 5.

No thermal anomalies since November 7 by Mirova.

The specific alert level remains at "Warning around the crater" (danger of entering the volcano)

 

Sources: Japan Coasts Guards - Latest update 2020.11.2 and Mirova

What's new in Nishinoshima - Rapidly growing island - Video Earthquake Research Institute, Univ. Tokyo / ERI - with English subtitles

A video, posted online by the Earthquake Research Institute at the University of Tokyo, narrates the evolution of Nishinoshima in the Ogasawara Islands, and evolution scenarios.

The volcano resumed its eruption in December of last year, and a large amount of lava eruption continued until the summer. He got a little taller.

The latest discoveries of Nishinoshima known from observations and analysis of volcanic ash confirm that the paroxysmal phase was the consequence of a magma of deeper origin of a composition close to that of basalt.

How will it evolve?

Scientists propose different paths of evolution:

1. Continued growth of the volcanic island following the activity

2. Generation of a tsunami: the emerged part of the volcano constitutes the top of a large seamount of more than 3,000 meters above the ocean floor; some of the lava that has accumulated at the top can collapse along the flanks, causing a tsunami that can reach Chichijima.

3. Slow erosion, over several centuries, in the event of cessation of activity.

This video illustrates the construction of a volcanic island, followed by scientists live, and its possible evolution.

 

Source: Video of the Science AGORA 2020 exhibition, during Sciencet AGORA 2020

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