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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Etna SEC - a new climax on 07.08.2021 - photo Gio Giusa

 Etna SEC - a new climax on 07.08.2021 - photo Gio Giusa

From around 19:00 UTC on July 8, the resumption of Strombolian activity is observed at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna; this is sharply increasing from 19:55 UTC. Based on the forecast model, the ash produced by the current activity is dispersed in the direction of S.

Around 8:45 p.m. UTC, we observe the gradual passage of Strombolian activity at the lava fountain stage at the Southeast crater. In addition, there is an overflow of lava in the SW direction. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the S direction, reaching a height of about 4000 m above sea level.


The INGV reports at 22:47 that the lava fountain of the Southeast crater is complete, while a weak emission of ash continues.

The explosive activity produced an eruptive cloud which reached about 11,000 m altitude, based on satellite images, moving first in the S direction then in the SE direction, and a small lava flow from the southern flank of the south-eastern crater cone. The flow, which has moved towards the SW, is currently still fed and is located at an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level. News has been received of fallout of volcanic material on the villages of Zafferana Etnea (E side), Fleri (SE side), Pedara and Cannizzaro (S side).

 

Source: INGV OE

Etna SEC- 08.07.2021 / 20h57 - webcam EMOT & EMOV INGV - one click to enlargeEtna SEC- 08.07.2021 / 20h57 - webcam EMOT & EMOV INGV - one click to enlarge

Etna SEC- 08.07.2021 / 20h57 - webcam EMOT & EMOV INGV - one click to enlarge

Etna- trémor at 09.07.2021 / 06h - INGV OE

Etna- trémor at 09.07.2021 / 06h - INGV OE

Etna - Thermal anomalies at 07.08.2021 / 9.50 a.m. - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A and MODIS thermal volcanic activity images - Doc. Mirova

Etna - Thermal anomalies at 07.08.2021 / 9.50 a.m. - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A and MODIS thermal volcanic activity images - Doc. Mirova

A moderate activity is observed at the Karymsky on July 7 and 8, 2021; it is accompanied by plumes of ash at 2,500 m. asl. extending 60 km west of the volcano.

KVERT issued an orange VONA on July 8, with ash explosions that can affect civil aviation and low-level flights at any time.

 

Source: KVERT / KSCNET

Karymsky - photo archives Volkstat 2020

Karymsky - photo archives Volkstat 2020

In Nyiragongo, the air quality monitoring carried out by the OVG during the eruption made it possible to limit the loss of human life due to toxic gases. However, some loss of human life was noted.

 

Source: Dr. Charles Balagizi / 08,07,2021

Nyiragongo - thermal anomalies at 07/06/2021 / 8:30 am - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A and MODIS thermal volcanic activity images - Doc. Mirova

Nyiragongo - thermal anomalies at 07/06/2021 / 8:30 am - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A and MODIS thermal volcanic activity images - Doc. Mirova

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Taal - phreatomagmatic episode of 07.07.2021 / 05h18

Taal - phreatomagmatic episode of 07.07.2021 / 05h18

Taal - 07.07.2021 - small phreatomagmatic plume - extract from video Phivolcs

Taal - 07.07.2021 - small phreatomagmatic plume - extract from video Phivolcs

At 5:18 a.m. on July 7, a short-lived phreatomagmatic eruption occurred at the main Taal crater and generated a grayish plume that rose 300 meters before drifting southeast. Five other short phreatomagmatic bursts occurred at 8:47 am, 9:15 am, 9:26 am, 11:56 am and 9:41 pm yesterday and caused short plumes that rose up to 700 meters above the main crater lake.

In the past 24 hours, the Taal Volcano network recorded 61 volcanic earthquakes, including

5 explosion-type earthquakes, 24 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, 21 volcanic earthquakes. episodes of two 2 to four 4 minutes, 10 hybrid earthquakes and a low level background tremor which ended yesterday at 6:21 pm but resumed at 9:52 pm.

High levels of volcanic sulfur dioxide or SO2 gas emissions and vapor-rich plumes that rose to 1,500 meters before drifting southwest were generated from the main crater of Taal. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 11,397 tonnes / day on July 7, 2021. Based on soil deformation parameters from electronic tilt, GPS continuous monitoring and InSAR, Taal Volcano Island began to deflate in April 2021 while the Taal region continues to experience a very slow expansion. Since 2020.

 

Alert level 3 (magmatic disturbances) now prevails over the Taal volcano. At Alert Level 3, magma exiting the main crater could cause an explosive eruption. The public is reminded that the entire Taal Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and entry to the island as well as the high risk barangays of Agoncillo and Laurel must be prohibited due to the dangers of pyroclastic and volcanic density currents. tsunami in case of strong eruptions. All activities on Taal Lake should not be permitted at this time.

 

Source: Phivolcs

Taal volcano island - DJI AIR2s drone flight over the crater lake - World Of Fun and Travel video 07.06.2021

Sernageomin and Segemar reported increased activity at Copahue, starting with minor and sporadic increases in tremors first detected in late May.

From June 30 to July 2, the tremors increased and the volume of water in the crater lake decreased significantly. Coincidentally, the crater's glow was visible in nighttime webcam views, and gas emissions increased. Residents reported smells of volcanic gas.

The increase in gas and vapor emissions between 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. on July 2 contained minor amounts of ash which left visible deposits on the SE and ENE flanks.

The alert level remained at green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).

 

Sources: Sernageomin & Global Volcanism Program

Copahue - ash deposits and small plume on 03.07.2021 - photo Valentina Sepulveda from Caviahue - one click to enlarge

Copahue - ash deposits and small plume on 03.07.2021 - photo Valentina Sepulveda from Caviahue - one click to enlarge

In Fagradalsfjall, the breaks are getting longer and the activity time is shorter, with a preference for night hours.

New flow measurements are awaited to confirm or deny the constancy of the magma supply.

 

Sources: Webcams & measurements of the tremor / Hraun

Fagradalsfjall - glowing active vent on 07.08.2021 / 00:37 - Visir 2 webcam

Fagradalsfjall - glowing active vent on 07.08.2021 / 00:37 - Visir 2 webcam

Fagradalsfjall - 08.07.2021 / 00:40 - webcam langihryggur NV

Fagradalsfjall - 08.07.2021 / 00:40 - webcam langihryggur NV

Fagradalsfjall - variations of the tremor on 08.07.2021 - Doc. Hraun.is

Fagradalsfjall - variations of the tremor on 08.07.2021 - Doc. Hraun.is

Dr Adam Stinton returned to St Vincent to undertake a preliminary photogrammetric study of the La Soufrière summit in June 2021.
 

This aerial photographic mapping (performed using a Sony a6000 24.2MP camera with a 20mm lens - software: AgiSoft Metashape) confirmed that no new lava dome formed as a result of the explosions that ended on the 22 April 2021, and the average characteristics inside the new crater (including the crater itself) are all the result of the explosive phase of the eruption between April 9 and 22, 2021.

Mapping has identified several prominent fumaroles that are the source of the vapor and gas plumes visible above the rim of the summit crater on a clear day.
The presence of fumaroles also confirms the detection of thermal anomalies inside the new crater by the satellites.

 

Source: UWI-SRC

Soufriere of st. Vincent - aerial photographic mapping of June 2021 - Doc. UWI-SRC / Dr. Stinton - one click to enlarge
Soufriere of st. Vincent - aerial photographic mapping of June 2021 - Doc. UWI-SRC / Dr. Stinton - one click to enlarge
Soufriere of st. Vincent - aerial photographic mapping of June 2021 - Doc. UWI-SRC / Dr. Stinton - one click to enlarge

Soufriere of st. Vincent - aerial photographic mapping of June 2021 - Doc. UWI-SRC / Dr. Stinton - one click to enlarge

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Etna SEC- activity seen from Tremestieri (a little blurred by the falls of pyroclasts) on July 6, 2021 - photo Boris Behncke

Etna SEC- activity seen from Tremestieri (a little blurred by the falls of pyroclasts) on July 6, 2021 - photo Boris Behncke

On July 6, 2021 around 9:30 p.m. UTC, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna is observed. According to the forecast model, the ash produced by the current activity is dispersed in the SE direction. This activity intensifies from 10 p.m. UTC.
From 22:30 UTC, the gradual transition from Strombolian activity to the form of a lava fountain is observed at the SE crater. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the S direction, reaching a height of about 5000 m above sea level.

Observations made by INGV staff present in the field show an abundant fallout of coarse material that covers the sides of the cone of the south-eastern crater up to the area of ​​the ancient Torre del Filosofo. A relapse of lapilli is reported in Tremestieri and Nicolosi, on the southern slope.

Etna - trémor at 07.07.2021 / 07h- Doc. INGV OE

Etna - trémor at 07.07.2021 / 07h- Doc. INGV OE

Etna SEC- activity seen from Tremestieri (a little blurred by the falls of pyroclasts) on July 6, 2021 - photo Boris Behncke

Etna SEC- activity seen from Tremestieri (a little blurred by the falls of pyroclasts) on July 6, 2021 - photo Boris Behncke

The lava fountain of the southeast crater ceased its activity a little after midnight, while a weak Strombolian activity with ash emission continues on July 7. The eruptive activity produced a small lava flow from the southern flank of the cone of the southeast crater. The flow, which was heading towards the SW, is currently fed and is located at an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level.

 

In its weekly report, the INGV displays a map of the flows between June 28 and July 4.

The full article can be read by following this link: https://buff.ly/3jNUuRF
 

 

Source: INGV OE

Map of the Etna flows from June 28 to July 1 and 4 on a shaded model of the terrain. BN: Bocca Nuova, VOR: Voragine; NEC: northeast crater; SEC: south-eastern crater. The base the topographic reference on which the morphological updates have been superimposed is DEM 2014 developed by the Aerogeophysical Laboratory-Section Rome 2 / via INGV OE - one click to enlarge

Map of the Etna flows from June 28 to July 1 and 4 on a shaded model of the terrain. BN: Bocca Nuova, VOR: Voragine; NEC: northeast crater; SEC: south-eastern crater. The base the topographic reference on which the morphological updates have been superimposed is DEM 2014 developed by the Aerogeophysical Laboratory-Section Rome 2 / via INGV OE - one click to enlarge

According to IGPeru, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels during the week of June 28 to July 4, 2021. An average of 91 daily explosions were observed, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching up to 3,000 meters above the summit.

During this week, 1,103 volcanic earthquakes associated with the circulation of internal fluids were analyzed; VT earthquakes, related to the fracturing of rocks, occurred mainly to the northwest and northeast of the volcano, of magnitude between 1.9 and 3.6.

No significant variations in deformation.

Eleven thermal anomalies were identified by satellite, with a maximum of VRP 56 MW. Two hot spots were visible on the Sentinel-2 images.

The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, with an inaccessible area 12 km in radius around the crater.

 

Sources: I.G. Peru, Mirova and Sentinel-2

Sabancaya - thermal anomalies, with 2 hot spots in the crater - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A of 06.28.2021 / 2:57 p.m. - one click to enlarge

Sabancaya - thermal anomalies, with 2 hot spots in the crater - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A of 06.28.2021 / 2:57 p.m. - one click to enlarge

Sabancaya - activity between 28.06.2021 and 04.07.2021 - Doc. I.G. Peru

Sabancaya - activity between 28.06.2021 and 04.07.2021 - Doc. I.G. Peru

In recent days, the rhythm of the eruption at Fagradalsfjall has changed somewhat. The rash subsided but resumed, with so-called rash pauses.
Ármann Höskuldsson, a volcanologist, was at the eruption site says lava was still flowing under the crust. The eruption would not have stopped: the eruption was never very powerful, and given the height taken by the crater, it is easier for it to flow directly into the lava field rather than to s' rise to get out of the crater.

Fumaroles are still emerging from the lava field, and "red" is still visible: the lava is flowing under the surface.

 

Source: interview in RUV

Fagradalsfjall - tremor at 07.07.2021 - Doc. Hraun.is

Fagradalsfjall - tremor at 07.07.2021 - Doc. Hraun.is

Fagradalsfjall - fumaroles on the lava field at 07.07.2021 / 02:50 - webcam_slaga NNA / Veðurstofa Íslands

Fagradalsfjall - fumaroles on the lava field at 07.07.2021 / 02:50 - webcam_slaga NNA / Veðurstofa Íslands

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
  Ili Lewotolok - 05.07.2021 / 08:36 WITA - PVMBG webcam

 Ili Lewotolok - 05.07.2021 / 08:36 WITA - PVMBG webcam

The eruption of Ili Lewotolok, which began on November 27, 2020 (GVP), continues.

Seismicity has been on the rise since mid-June 2021.

The eruptive episodes follow one another in recent days: the PVMBG noted an eruptive episode on July 5 at 08:36 WITA, accompanied by a plume of gray ash observed at about 1,000 meters above the summit, and drifting towards the southeast; its seismogrammic imprint is of a max. 45 mm for 42 sec.

On July 6 at 06:52 WITA, another eruptive episode was accompanied by a plume of gray ash 800 m. above the summit, recorded with a max. 45 mm for 46 sec.

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga.

The VAAC Darwin issued an orange aviation code on July 6.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, VAAC Darwin

Ili Lewotolok - seismicity on the rise since mid-June 2021 - Doc. Magma Indonesia 05.07.2021

Ili Lewotolok - seismicity on the rise since mid-June 2021 - Doc. Magma Indonesia 05.07.2021

Ili Lewotolok - 07/06/2021 / 06:54 AM WITA - PVMBG webcam

Ili Lewotolok - 07/06/2021 / 06:54 AM WITA - PVMBG webcam

The Merapi, on Java, presented yesterday July 5 a white plume, observable at 100-150 meters above the summit.

Seismicity was characterized by:

- 1 earthquake linked to a pyroclastic flow, with an amplitude of 52 mm and a duration of 123.8 seconds.
- 242 Avalanche / collapse earthquakes, with an amplitude of 3-34 mm and a duration of 11-140 seconds.
- 18 blast / emission earthquakes, with an amplitude of 3 to 15 mm and the duration of the earthquake from 5 to 37.2 seconds.
- 57 hybrid / multiphase earthquakes
- 5 shallow volcanic earthquakes.

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity at 05.07.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity at 05.07.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG

Merapi, from Deles - 07.05.2021 / 12.57pm - photo Sukiman Lintas Merapi
Merapi, from Deles - 07.05.2021 / 12.57pm - photo Sukiman Lintas Merapi

Merapi, from Deles - 07.05.2021 / 12.57pm - photo Sukiman Lintas Merapi

In Iceland, the eruption of Fagradalsfjall continues according to the pattern noticed in recent days, as evidenced by the tremor diagram.

 

Source: Hraun.vedur.is

Fagradalsfjall eruption - Landsat 8 / USGS image from 04.07.2021

Fagradalsfjall eruption - Landsat 8 / USGS image from 04.07.2021

Fagradalsfjall - tremor on 05.07.2021 - Doc. Hraun.is

Fagradalsfjall - tremor on 05.07.2021 - Doc. Hraun.is

A loud explosion rocked the Caspian Sea region on July 4 at ~ 9:30 p.m. local, where Azerbaijan has vast offshore oil and gas fields.

The cause of the explosion, which raised a column of fire into the sky on Sunday night, was not immediately determined, but state oil company Socar said preliminary information indicated it was it was a mud volcano.

Socar spokesman Ibrahim Ahmadov was quoted by Azerbaijani news agency APA as saying that the explosion took place about 10 km (six miles) from the Umid gas field, which is located 45 miles (75 km) from the coast of the capital, Baku.

Mark Tingay, a mud volcanoes expert and assistant associate professor at the Australian University of Adelaide, said the evening July 4 explosion in the Caspian Sea "could certainly be a mud volcano" and that the location "roughly corresponds" to a mud volcano called Makarov Bank, which exploded in 1958, releasing a column of flame 500 to 600 meters high and 150 meters wide.

The country has "hundreds" of mud volcanoes, a quarter of which are known to erupt violently.

 

Source: international media & Twitter / Mark Tingay

Azerbaijan - Makarov Bank mud volcano, 07.05.2021 - photo Gavriil Grigorov / TASS

Azerbaijan - Makarov Bank mud volcano, 07.05.2021 - photo Gavriil Grigorov / TASS

Azerbaijan - mud volcano 07/05/2021 - photo Euronews

Azerbaijan - mud volcano 07/05/2021 - photo Euronews

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Etna SEC - LAVE webcam 04.07.2021 / 5.30pm

 Etna SEC - LAVE webcam 04.07.2021 / 5.30pm

Etna still in good health!

From around 11:00 UTC, the average amplitude of the Etna volcanic tremor showed a gradual increase and at around 14:40 UTC it reached the high range.

The resumption of Strombolian activity at the level of the southeast crater was observed at 14:56 UTC.

From 15:25 UTC, the passage of Strombolian activity to the lava fountain stage is observed. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the ESE direction.

After reaching the maximum value around 15:50 UTC, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed a gradual decrease, which became much more evident from 16:40 UTC.

The lava fountain in the Southeast Crater ceased its activity at 5 p.m. UTC; a weak strombolian activity remains with ash emission. In addition, only the lava flow of the SW sector remains supplied.

 

Source: INGV OE

Etna SEC - the fountaining seen by the therm webcam. EMOT / INGV on 07/04/2021 / 3:36 p.m

Etna SEC - the fountaining seen by the therm webcam. EMOT / INGV on 07/04/2021 / 3:36 p.m

Etna - trémor on 05.07.2021 / 07h - Doc. INGV

Etna - trémor on 05.07.2021 / 07h - Doc. INGV

In Fagradalsfjall, the activity has presented a new rhythm in recent days: between an almost total extinction, and a strong surge.

This type of behavior has been the case before, but at the moment the fluctuations are longer and more extreme.

This July 5, the activity was strong, but hidden by the mist in the early hours.

Fagradalsfjall - tremor fluctuations on 04.07.2021 - IMO

Fagradalsfjall - tremor fluctuations on 04.07.2021 - IMO

Fagradalsfjall - a clearing in the fog - webcam langihryggur NV 05.07.2021 / 05h00

Fagradalsfjall - a clearing in the fog - webcam langihryggur NV 05.07.2021 / 05h00

Fagradalsfjall - great activity this 05.07.2021 / 06:35 - webcam mbls

Fagradalsfjall - great activity this 05.07.2021 / 06:35 - webcam mbls

The establishment of the new dam intended to slow the flows is completed; testers have been incorporated into the thickness of the earth / rock layer to check the temperature and pressure during the future overflow by lava.

 

Sources: RUV, mbls, IMO, Volcano Chaser

Fagradalsfjall - Natthaga valley - new dam with built-in pressure detectors to check the pressure experienced by the lava and its temperature during the future overflow - photo Volcano Chaser 30.06.2021

Fagradalsfjall - Natthaga valley - new dam with built-in pressure detectors to check the pressure experienced by the lava and its temperature during the future overflow - photo Volcano Chaser 30.06.2021

During the last 24 hours, the Taal volcano network has recorded seventeen (17) volcanic earthquakes, including one (1) volcanic tremor event lasting forty-five (45) minutes, sixteen (16 ) low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, and low-level earthquake that has persisted since April 8, 2021.

High levels of sulfur dioxide emissions and vapor-rich plumes that reached up to two thousand five hundred (2,500) meters high that drifted southwest, southeast and north - northwest was generated from the main crater of Taal.

Sulfur dioxide emissions reached a new all-time high, averaging 22,628 tonnes / day on July 4, 2021. Based on soil deformation parameters from electronic tilt, continuous GPS and InSAR monitoring , Taal Volcano Island began to deflate in April 2021 while the Taal region continues to experience very slow expansion. since 2020.

 

Source: Phivolcs

Taal - activity summary as of 05.07.2021 / 08h - Doc. Phivolcs

Taal - activity summary as of 05.07.2021 / 08h - Doc. Phivolcs

Yellowstone's seismic activity is currently above background levels, with 445 localized earthquakes for June 2021, but still within historical limits. For example, in June 2017, there were more than 1,100 localized earthquakes!

The June seismicity in Yellowstone was marked by four earthquake swarms. The largest event last month was a minor magnitude 3.1 earthquake located 11 miles northeast of West Yellowstone, MT on June 28 at 8:29 AM MDT. This event is part of a sequence of earthquakes in the same area that began on June 19.
Sequences of earthquakes of this type are common and account for about 50% of the total seismicity in the Yellowstone region.

 

Subsidence of the Yellowstone caldera, which has continued since 2015, slowed in May / June 2021, reflecting seasonal groundwater recharge. Each summer, water from melting snow causes the ground to swell slightly, causing subsidence trends to pause, or even a minor amount of uplift (less than 1 cm / fraction of an inch). In the Norris Geyser Basin area, no significant uplift or subsidence has been detected by a nearby GPS station since early 2020.

Current volcanic alert level: NORMAL

Current Aviation Color Code: GREEN

 

Source: USGS

Norris Geyser Basin - view to NW from S, Yellowstone National Park. - photo Wall Graham / USGS

Norris Geyser Basin - view to NW from S, Yellowstone National Park. - photo Wall Graham / USGS

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

In Guatemala, the Fuego observatory reports this July 3, 2021 from 3 to 5 explosions per hour, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 m. asl. scattered in a north and west sector. Meanwhile, a white to gray degassing column is observed at 4,400 m Asl.

Ash fallout is sporadic, between weak to strong, on the communities of San Miguel Duenas, Parramos, Jocotenango and Chimaltenango;

Avalanches are reported in the direction of the Ceniza, Trinidad, Raniluya, Santa teresa and Las Lajas barrancas, part of which reaches the vegetation limit.

 

Source: Insivumeh

Fuego - LAndsat 8 SWIR images from 02.07.2021 - Via Insivumeh
Fuego - LAndsat 8 SWIR images from 02.07.2021 - Via Insivumeh

Fuego - LAndsat 8 SWIR images from 02.07.2021 - Via Insivumeh

The monitoring stations installed near the NevadosDeChillán CV recorded this Saturday, July 3, at 1:51 p.m., 2 explosive events associated with the dynamics of fluids inside the volcanic system (LP).

The volcanic alert remains in Amarilla.

 

Source: Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - 03.07.2021, at 5:52 p.m. and 6:12 p.m. UTC respectively - webcam Portezuelo / Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - 03.07.2021, at 5:52 p.m. and 6:12 p.m. UTC respectively - webcam Portezuelo / Sernageomin

In the last 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Monitoring Network recorded 31 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes and a low-intensity background tremor, which has persisted since April 8, 2021. The temperature of the main crater lake is 71.8 ° C and the water pH of 1.59.

The highest levels of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions and tall, vapor-rich plumes from the main Taal crater were recorded on July 3, 2021.

SO2 emissions averaged 14,699 tonnes / day, the highest never recorded at Taal, while the upwelling of the main crater lake generated plumes of steam that rose 2,500 meters above Volcano island. The high SO2 emissions could be followed by eruptive activity at the main crater similar to increases in SO2 flux of 14,326 tonnes / day and 13,287 tonnes / day on June 28 and the morning of July 1, 2021, respectively, which preceded the short-lived phreatomagmatic eruption at 3:16 p.m. on July 1.

In addition, the increase in SO1, associated with high relative humidities of 79-91% and wind speeds of 0.5-2 meters / second over Lake Taal based on data from All- stations Weather from the observatory of the Taal volcano and the volcanic island, is also likely to favor the formation of smog or volcanic vog on the riparian communities of the province of Batangas.

Alert level 3 prevails over the Taal volcano and the current SO2 parameters indicate an ongoing magmatic extrusion at the main crater that could lead to subsequent explosions.

 

Source: Phivolcs

Taal -  the lake of volcano island degassing - 04.07.2021 - photos Philippine Star
Taal -  the lake of volcano island degassing - 04.07.2021 - photos Philippine Star

Taal - the lake of volcano island degassing - 04.07.2021 - photos Philippine Star

In June 2021, the OVPF recorded in the Piton de la Fournaise massif in total:

• 48 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes (0 to 2.5 km above sea level) below the summit craters;

• 1 deep earthquake (below sea level);

• 119 collapses (in the Dolomieu Crater, the ramparts of the Fouqué and Piton de Crac enclosures, and the East River).

 

The inflation of the building, which began in April 2021, continued throughout June 2021. This inflation showed a build-up of pressure in the superficial magmatic reservoir located around 2 km deep.

 

Since June 7, 2021, a new trend of increasing CO2 fluxes has been recorded both in the far field, and to a lesser extent in the near field.

The building's inflation and the CO2 levels in the soil which remained high in June 2021 witnessed magmatic transfers from deep areas to the superficial magmatic reservoir which continued after the end of the eruption of April 9-May 25, 2021.

 

Source: OVPF monthly bulletin

Illustration of the deformation over the last six months (eruptive periods are in red). The variations in distance between two GPS receivers crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top, at the base of the terminal cone and in the far field are represented here. A rise is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano (© OVPF-IPGP).

Illustration of the deformation over the last six months (eruptive periods are in red). The variations in distance between two GPS receivers crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top, at the base of the terminal cone and in the far field are represented here. A rise is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano (© OVPF-IPGP).

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
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Fagradalsfjall eruption: stop or go ?

After a sudden drop in the tremor on July 2 at around 1 a.m., no incandescent lava is now visible in the crater in Geldingadalur.

Is the volcano taking a break, or is the eruption over?

Fagradalsfjall - flight over vent # 5 where no activity is visible - photo Visit Reykjanes via Kristín Jónsdóttir / ~3pm

Fagradalsfjall - flight over vent # 5 where no activity is visible - photo Visit Reykjanes via Kristín Jónsdóttir / ~3pm

Fagradalsfjall - helicopter flight over the eruptive site - photo Gisli Olafsson 02.07.2021 / online around 4 p.m.

Fagradalsfjall - helicopter flight over the eruptive site - photo Gisli Olafsson 02.07.2021 / online around 4 p.m.

An overview of the active vent in Geldingadalur by Gisli Olafsson shows that the crater has emptied and that no trace of incandescent lava is visible.

The Coast Guard helicopter passes a little later and notices that lava has returned ... a rise of the tremor around 4 p.m. marks the return to business of the volcano, and around 7 p.m., a spattering is visible at the vent # 5.

2021.07.02 Fagradalsfjall - some lava in the crater on 02.07.2021 - photo Coast Guards via mbls

2021.07.02 Fagradalsfjall - some lava in the crater on 02.07.2021 - photo Coast Guards via mbls

Fagradalsfjall - 02.07.2021 - after a steep fall, the tremor started to rise again - Doc. Kristín Jónsdóttir / IMO

Fagradalsfjall - 02.07.2021 - after a steep fall, the tremor started to rise again - Doc. Kristín Jónsdóttir / IMO

Fagradalsfjall vent # 5 - resumption of incandescence on 02.07.2021, at 6:57 p.m. and 7:02 p.m. respectively - Visir and RUV webcam - one click to enlargeFagradalsfjall vent # 5 - resumption of incandescence on 02.07.2021, at 6:57 p.m. and 7:02 p.m. respectively - Visir and RUV webcam - one click to enlarge

Fagradalsfjall vent # 5 - resumption of incandescence on 02.07.2021, at 6:57 p.m. and 7:02 p.m. respectively - Visir and RUV webcam - one click to enlarge

The flows resume towards Meradalur around 10 p.m. And they are still active this July 3 at the start of the day.

 

Sources: webcams of the volcano - and followed by Kristín Jónsdóttir and Gisli Olafsson

Meradalur - 02.07.2021 / 22h00 an active casting - webcam Veðurstofa Íslands

Meradalur - 02.07.2021 / 22h00 an active casting - webcam Veðurstofa Íslands

Fagradalsfjall - 03.07.2021 / 01:05 - webcam_slaga NNA

Fagradalsfjall - 03.07.2021 / 01:05 - webcam_slaga NNA

Fagradalsfjall - 03.07.2021 / 02h00 - webcam_langihryggur NV

Fagradalsfjall - 03.07.2021 / 02h00 - webcam_langihryggur NV

Fagradasfjall eruption - resume at the beginning of the video with the red cursor to see the resumption of the flows - mbls video

A series of three (3) short phreatomagmatic gusts occurred at 10:25 a.m., 10:47 a.m. and 11:01 a.m. on July 2, 2021, and produced short plumes rising 100 meters above the main crater lake of Taal. An active ascent of hot volcanic fluids from the main Taal crater lake followed in the afternoon.

In the last 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network recorded forty-eight (48) volcanic earthquakes, including two (2) volcano-tectonic earthquakes, forty (40) low frequency volcanic earthquakes, six ( 6) volcanic earthquakes lasting up to four (4) minutes, and one low level earthquake that has persisted since April 8, 2021.

High levels of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions are observed, as are vapor-rich plumes that reached up to three thousand (3,000) meters high that drifted southwest and north-north. west from the main Taal crater. Sulfur dioxide  emissions were on average 10,254 tonnes / day on July 2, 2021. In addition, vog was observed on the Taal volcano and its surroundings.

Based on ground deformation parameters from electronic tilt, continuous monitoring by GPS and InSAR, Taal Volcano Island began to deflate in April 2021 as the Taal region continues to undergo expansion. very slow since 2020.


This July 3, an active upwelling of hot volcanic fluids from the main crater lake of Taal is observed from 7.15 a.m. to 7.42 a.m. The generated plumes rose 2,400 meters above the crater and contributed to vog over the Taal Caldera area.

 

About 317 families or 1,282 people have been preventively evacuated due to phreatomagmatic eruptions, the National Council for Disaster Risk Reduction and Management reported yesterday.
The Ministry of Tourism has called on tourists and tour operators near the Taal volcano to evacuate. He also called for postponing non-essential activities and trips to high-risk cities until they are declared safe by authorities.
Malacañang called on residents living near the volcano to heed the call of local government units for evacuation and to take precautionary measures due to a possible eruption.

 

Alert level 3 (magmatic agitation) now prevails over the Taal volcano.

 

Sources: Phivolcs and Philippine Star

Taal - activity summary on 03.07.2021 - Doc. Phivolcs

Taal - activity summary on 03.07.2021 - Doc. Phivolcs

Several ash emissions were observed at the Reventador, in the morning of July 2, 2021, in a westerly and north-westerly direction, heights around 800 and 1000 meters above the crater level.

The Washington VAAC reported 2 warnings of emissions observed in satellites, its direction was maintained towards the west and the heights did not exceed 1000 meters above the level of the crater.

FIRMS reported 7 thermal alerts to Reventador in the last 24 hours

From the night and part of the morning of today the volcano appeared clear allowing to observe the described emissions and at night the incandescence in the crater and the rolling of incandescent material on the south-eastern and north-eastern flanks. east of the volcano.

The seismicity from 01 to 02.07.2021 / 11h is characterized by 53 explosion earthquakes, 42 LP earthquakes, 6 emission tremor episodes and one harmonic tremor

Alert: naranja - Level of superficial activity: high - and internal activity: moderate

 

Source: IGEPN

 Reventador - 07/02/2021 / 12:30 p.m. - ash plume - IGEPN webcam

 Reventador - 07/02/2021 / 12:30 p.m. - ash plume - IGEPN webcam

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Taal - 07/01/2021 / 3:17 p.m. - plume of the phreatomagmatic eruption - photo Phivolcs

Taal - 07/01/2021 / 3:17 p.m. - plume of the phreatomagmatic eruption - photo Phivolcs

Taal - summary table of activity on 02.07.2021 - Doc. Phivolcs

Taal - summary table of activity on 02.07.2021 - Doc. Phivolcs

Update on Taal activity by the Phivolcs on July 1, 2021/11 p.m.


Alert Level 3 (magmatic unrest) was triggered over Taal volcano at 3:37 p.m. today, after a phreatomagmatic eruption from the main crater occurred at 3:16 p.m. The eruption lasted for five minutes according to visual monitors and generated a dark plume about a kilometer high. The event was recorded halfway through as a low-frequency blast earthquake, but was not preceded by seismic precursors or ground deformation. However, abnormally high SO2 volcanic gas emissions preceded the eruption, averaging 14,241 tonnes / day and 13,287 tonnes / day on June 28 and July 1, 2021, respectively. A marked increase in volcanic gas surges also began on June 28, 2021 which generated plumes that rose about three kilometers above the island of the Taal volcano.

Since the phreatomagmatic event earlier this afternoon, four short phreatomagmatic bursts have occurred that lasted no more than two minutes each and produced short plumes rising 200 meters above the main crater lake. . These events occurred at 6:26 p.m., 7:21 p.m., 7:41 p.m. and 8:20 p.m. The ascent of the main crater lake that started at 8:07 p.m. this evening is underway.

Taal's Level 3 alert status means that there is magmatic extrusion in progress in the main crater which may lead to more subsequent explosions. PHIVOLCS strongly recommends that the island of Taal Volcano and the high risk barangays of Bilibinwang and Banyaga, Agoncillo and Boso-boso, Gulod and east of Bugaan East, Laurel, Batangas province be evacuated due to possible risks of currents pyroclastic density and volcanic tsunami if stronger eruptions subsequently occur.

The public is reminded that the entire island of the Taal Volcano is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) and that entry to the island as well as the high-risk barangays of Agoncillo and Laurel must be prohibited. . All activities on Taal Lake should not be permitted at this time. Communities around the shores of Lake Taal are advised to remain vigilant, take precautionary measures against airborne ash and vogs, and calmly prepare for a possible evacuation if the unrest escalates.

 

Source: Phivolcs

Videos of the eruptive plume on:

- facebook: https://www.facebook.com/PHIVOLCS/videos/187254863355936

- twitter: https://twitter.com/i/status/1410574212134178823

Etna SEC- the lava fountains at 07/02/2021 / 12:59 am and 1:59 am loc. -  webcam LAVE
Etna SEC- the lava fountains at 07/02/2021 / 12:59 am and 1:59 am loc. -  webcam LAVE

Etna SEC- the lava fountains at 07/02/2021 / 12:59 am and 1:59 am loc. - webcam LAVE

On 01.07.2021 from 22:40 UTC, the resumption of Strombolian activity is observed at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna.
At 22.40 UTC the amplitude of the volcanic tremor is high. The last tremor location, at 9.45pm UTC, is near the southeast crater at a depth of approximately 3.0 km asl.
From 22.50 UTC, Strombolian activity changes to the lava fountain stage. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the WNW direction.
In a report at 11:37 p.m., the INGV reports that the SEC lava fountain activity continues. In addition, there is an overflow of lava in the SW direction. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the ESE direction.


On 02.07.2021, from 00.50 UTC, the lava fountain in the southeast crater ceased, while weak Strombolian activity persists. As for the lava overflow, there is still
fed in the direction of SW.

 

Source: INGV OE

Etna - variations of the tremor at 02.07.2021 / 07h - Doc. INGV OE

Etna - variations of the tremor at 02.07.2021 / 07h - Doc. INGV OE

An eruptive episode occurred at Sinabung on Thursday, July 1, 2021 at 11:51 a.m. WIB, accompanied by a gray and thick ash plume at a height of ± 800 m above the summit (± 3260 m above the level of the sea), drifting southwest and west. This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 101 mm and a duration of 88 seconds.

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga. Residents and visitors / tourists are requested not to carry out activities in the resettled villages, as well as within a radius of 3 km from the summit of G. Sinabung, 5 km of sector radius for the south-eastern sector, and 4 km for the east-north sector.

 

Source: PVMBG & Magma Indonesia

Sinabung - 07/01/2021 / 11:53 am WIB - photo PVMBG - Magma Indonesia

Sinabung - 07/01/2021 / 11:53 am WIB - photo PVMBG - Magma Indonesia

In Fagradalsfjall, despite a drop in the volcanic tremor on July 01 afternoon, coupled with low activity in the crater, it picked up nicely overnight.

A possible collapse at the level of the crater is responsible for an ash plume around 3:44 a.m. on July 2.

 

Sources: Veðurstofa Íslands & webcams RUV and mbls

Fagradalsfjall - fall of the tremor on 01.07.2021 - Doc. Veðurstofa Íslands

Fagradalsfjall - fall of the tremor on 01.07.2021 - Doc. Veðurstofa Íslands

Fagradalsfjall - stable lava flow on the night of 01.07.2021 - RUV webcam

Fagradalsfjall - stable lava flow on the night of 01.07.2021 - RUV webcam

Fagradalsfjall - 02.07.2021 / 01:10 - webcam langihryggur NV

Fagradalsfjall - 02.07.2021 / 01:10 - webcam langihryggur NV

Fagradalsfjall - 02.07.2021 / 03:44 - probable collapse at the active crater responsible for the ash emission - webcam mbls / Natthaga valley

Fagradalsfjall - 02.07.2021 / 03:44 - probable collapse at the active crater responsible for the ash emission - webcam mbls / Natthaga valley

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Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Merapi - 06/30/2021 / 4:44 p.m. - Panguk webcam

 Merapi - 06/30/2021 / 4:44 p.m. - Panguk webcam

Merapi - 06/30/2021 / 5:41 p.m. - Babadan webcam

Merapi - 06/30/2021 / 5:41 p.m. - Babadan webcam

At Merapi, avalanches of incandescent lava were observed in the southwest and southeast with a maximum slide distance of 800 to 1,800 m. White smoke from the main crater was observed with moderate to thick intensity, around 100-200 m.

Thanks to the seismographic recordings of June 30, 2021, it was recorded:
- 17 earthquakes of pyroclastic avalanche flows
- 377 avalanche / collapse earthquakes
- 28 blast / emission earthquakes
- 4 hybrid / multiphase earthquakes
- 1 distant tectonic earthquake

Based on the Mount Merapi activity report, the observation period of June 30, 2021 at 12 p.m. - 6 p.m. WIB, there were 9 hot avalanches with a maximum amplitude of 60 mm and a maximum duration of 128 seconds.
In total, 8 hot avalanche clouds slide southeast (upstream of Kali Gendol) with a maximum slide distance of 1,000 m, and 1 hot avalanche cloud with a maximum slide distance of 1,300 m . towards the southwest.

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga.

 

Source: PVMBG & BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity at 06.30.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity at 06.30.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG

During the last 24 hours, the Taal Volcano Network recorded 10 volcanic earthquakes, including 8 low frequency volcanic earthquakes and 2 volcanic earthquakes with durations of forty to one hundred and ten seconds, and a bottom tremor of low level which has persisted since April 8, 2021.

High levels of volcanic sulfur dioxide or SO2 gas emissions and vapor-rich plumes that reached up to two thousand (2000) meters high and drifted southwest were observed from the main crater. of Taal.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were on average 6,685 tonnes / day as of June 30, 2021. The levels on June 29 were 8,982 tonnes / day and those on June 28 were 14,326 tonnes / day.

Additionally, some Vog has been observed above the Taal Caldera.

Based on ground deformation parameters from electronic tilt, continuous monitoring by GPS and InSAR, Taal Volcano Island began to deflate in April 2021 as the Taal region continues to undergo expansion. very slow since 2020. These parameters generally indicate that magmatic disturbances continue to occur at shallow depth. under the building.

 

Update : This serves as notice for the raising of the alert status of Taal from Alert Level 2 (increasing unrest) to Alert Level 3 (magmatic unrest). At 1516H (3:16 PM) PST, Taal Volcano Main Crater generated a short-lived dark phreatomagmatic plume 1 kilometer-high with no accompanying volcanic earthquake.

 

Sources: Phivolcs and Sentinel-5P Tropomi / Adam Platform

2021.07.01 Taal - gas and steam plume - photo Seys Marasigan / Seys Channel - via Philippine Weather System

2021.07.01 Taal - gas and steam plume - photo Seys Marasigan / Seys Channel - via Philippine Weather System

Taal - SO2 plume from 06.28.2021 - Sentinel-5P via adam Platform

Taal - SO2 plume from 06.28.2021 - Sentinel-5P via adam Platform

UPDATE 2021.07.01 - Taal - kilometer-high short-lived dark phreatomagmatic plume without volcanic earthquake - via Trizh Twitter

UPDATE 2021.07.01 - Taal - kilometer-high short-lived dark phreatomagmatic plume without volcanic earthquake - via Trizh Twitter

The Kīlauea volcano is no longer erupting. No surface activity has been observed by field teams or webcam images since May 23, 2021. The surface of the lake is completely covered by a solidified lava crust.

Seismicity has slowly increased in recent weeks in the summit region, with continued gradual summit inflation in recent months. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain slightly high. It is possible that the Halema'uma'u vent will resume its eruption or that the Kīlauea will enter a longer period of quiescence before the next eruption.

The most recent sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates, measured on June 16, 2021, were 70 tonnes per day (t / d) (update). SO2 emission rates approach the levels associated with the non-eruptive period from late 2018 to late 2020 (30-35 t / d) and are significantly lower than the emission rates which were on average above 800 t / d from mid-February to mid-April. Summit tiltmeters have recorded three cycles of deflation-inflation over the past week, as well as continued gradual inflation in recent months. Seismicity has increased slowly in recent weeks, with a small swarm of earthquakes in the summit region on June 23.

Even with reduced effusion rates and no signs of lava lake activity, conditions around Halema'uma'u Crater remain dangerous.

 

The current Volcanic Alert Level is ADVISORY and the current Aviation Color Code: YELLOW

 

Source: HVO-USGS

Bluish gas is visible over the lava lake of Halema'uma'u Crater in this image taken from the southwest rim on June 25, 2021 at 12:37 p.m. HST. Although the eruptive activity has paused at the summit of Kīlauea, gases rich in sulfur dioxide can still be seen emanating from the lava lake, mainly along the northern margin, but also at the western vent and along the southern margin. - USGS photo taken by J.M. Chang.

Bluish gas is visible over the lava lake of Halema'uma'u Crater in this image taken from the southwest rim on June 25, 2021 at 12:37 p.m. HST. Although the eruptive activity has paused at the summit of Kīlauea, gases rich in sulfur dioxide can still be seen emanating from the lava lake, mainly along the northern margin, but also at the western vent and along the southern margin. - USGS photo taken by J.M. Chang.

Ash emissions were identified on a satellite image today at Sarychev peak in the central Kurils.
The ash plume reached an altitude of 3,048 m and extended about 30 km west-northwest of the volcano.
Satellite images from June 12, 23, 25 and 29 measured thermal anomalies in the summit crater.
Therefore, the alert level for the volcano has been raised to “yellow” today.

 

Source: SVERT / Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team volcano activity update 30 June 2021

Sarychev - small thermal anomaly - Sentinel-2 bands image 12,11,4 from 06.29.2021

Sarychev - small thermal anomaly - Sentinel-2 bands image 12,11,4 from 06.29.2021

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
  Fagradalsfjall active vent #5 - 29.06.2021 / 20h57 - Visir webcam - one click to enlarge

 Fagradalsfjall active vent #5 - 29.06.2021 / 20h57 - Visir webcam - one click to enlarge

  Fagradalsfjall active vent #5 - 29.06.2021 / 20h58 - Visir webcam - one click to enlarge

 Fagradalsfjall active vent #5 - 29.06.2021 / 20h58 - Visir webcam - one click to enlarge

Eruption of Fagradalsfjall

Difficult to interpret what is happening at the eruption site in Geldingadalur, where the seismic tremor dropped on June 28 and then picked up again.

A heavy fog is blocking the view of the crater and is expected to last until Friday. The stability of the atmosphere may prevent the eruptive plume from forming.

But on 29 June at 20:55, it was clear that there was still intense activity and plenty of lava. However, until verified on the ground, a new phase seems to be emerging.

 

Sources: mbls & Visir

Etna SEC - lava fountain and ash plume on 28.06.2021 - photo Gio Giusa

Etna SEC - lava fountain and ash plume on 28.06.2021 - photo Gio Giusa

Etna SEC - all the power of the volcano in this photo of 28.06.2021 - photo by Gio Giusa

Etna SEC - all the power of the volcano in this photo of 28.06.2021 - photo by Gio Giusa

With a slight delay, ... on 28 June at about 16:00 (14:01 UTC), strombolian activity at the South-East Crater of Etna resumed, passing to the lava fountain phase at about 17:00 (15:01 UTC).

This explosive activity was accompanied by two lava flows, one towards the SW and the other in the southwest of the South-East Crater.

In accordance with the predictive model, the eruptive column dispersed to the south-southeast, reaching a height of about 10 km s.l.m.

At about 17.30 hrs the lava fountain stopped.

 

Sources: INGV OE

Etna - tremor variations on 30.06.2021 / 06h - Doc. INGV OE

Etna - tremor variations on 30.06.2021 / 06h - Doc. INGV OE

The activity of Sabancaya remained at a moderate level during the week of 21-27 June 2021, with an average of 80 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching up to 3,000 metres above the summit.

I.G.Peru has detected 1,102 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal magma fluids over this period. The VT earthquakes, related to rock fracturing, with magnitudes between 1.8 and 2.9, occurred mainly to the north and northeast of the volcano.

The deformation parameters do not show significant anomalies. Four thermal anomalies were recorded, with a maximum of 16 MW.

The volcanic alert remains at naranja, associated with the 12 km radius non-accessible area around the crater.

 

Source: I.G.Peru

Sabancaya - activity from 21 to 27.06.2021 - doc. I.G.Peru

Sabancaya - activity from 21 to 27.06.2021 - doc. I.G.Peru

 Sabancaya - thermal anomalies at 28.06.2021 / 15h07 - Sentinel-2 & MODIS thermal volcanic activity - Doc. Mirova

Sabancaya - thermal anomalies at 28.06.2021 / 15h07 - Sentinel-2 & MODIS thermal volcanic activity - Doc. Mirova

La Soufrière de St. Vincent volcano - Update of 29/06/21 13:00


Seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low since the tremor associated with the April 22 explosion and ash discharge. Over the past 24 hours, only a few small earthquakes have been recorded.
Persistent steam emissions from some areas within the crater continue to be the dominant observable feature.
Thermal anomalies continue to be detected but do not indicate that an explosive event is imminent but that there is a source of heat, most likely from a small body of remaining magma near the floor of the summit crater.
Sulphur dioxide flux measurement was carried out by helicopter on 25 June and gave an average SO2 flux of 215 tonnes per day.

 

While volcanic activity is declining, the continued presence of hot spots near the surface, daily seismic activity and significant outgassing are evidence that the system is still active. There is a small but NOT INSIGNIFICANT possibility that escalation of activity may still occur with little or no warning.
The volcano is at ORANGE alert level.

 

Source: UWI-SRC

Soufrière de St. Vincent - the crater on 29.06.2021 and 29.03.2021 - photos UWI-SRC - click to enlarge
Soufrière de St. Vincent - the crater on 29.06.2021 and 29.03.2021 - photos UWI-SRC - click to enlarge

Soufrière de St. Vincent - the crater on 29.06.2021 and 29.03.2021 - photos UWI-SRC - click to enlarge

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