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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
2021.09.20 La Palma - Doc. Sentinel-2 via Copernicus / EU 20.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

2021.09.20 La Palma - Doc. Sentinel-2 via Copernicus / EU 20.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

 La Palma - Image therm Flir21.09.2021  - InVolcan

La Palma - Image therm Flir21.09.2021 - InVolcan

The Cumbre Vieja / La Palma eruption continues with lava fountains from the new vent that opened on September 20 and a continuous lava flow emission. In the last few hours, the volcanic tremor has increased significantly, suggesting that the rate of exit has increased or that something else is changing.

La Palma - RSAM at 09.21.2021 around 18h - Doc. InVolcano

La Palma - RSAM at 09.21.2021 around 18h - Doc. InVolcano

Situation during the day of September 21:

The lava flow continues inexorably to advance towards the coastal area of ​​LaPalma Island. During the last hours, there has been a division of the flow into several arms due to the topography of the land (less slope ... widening of the flows). The flows advance slowly, destroying Todoque.

destroyed 166 buildings and covered around 106 hectares of land at the start of the day. The speed at which it advances has remained roughly constant at 300 meters per hour.

La Palma - The area affected by the lava flows reaches 154 hectares (source Copernicus EMS - 22.09.2021) - click to enlarge

La Palma - The area affected by the lava flows reaches 154 hectares (source Copernicus EMS - 22.09.2021) - click to enlarge

Inflation continued and reached 30 cm in places, a sign that the magma continues to pressurize and accumulate underground.

Other vents, perhaps further north, could open.

This is also shown by the continued seismic activity. Although much weaker than before the eruption, it remains significant. In the last 24 hours, there have been 3 earthquakes of magnitude 3.0 to 3.8 and 12 earthquakes between 2.0 and 2.9.

In the early evening, the evacuation of La Laguna was decided, depending on the advance of the lava and the possibility of opening new vents.

La Palma - Sentinel-1 ascending track interferogram, Sep 14-20, 2021 - Doc. Mounts Project

La Palma - Sentinel-1 ascending track interferogram, Sep 14-20, 2021 - Doc. Mounts Project

The DSN / Department of National Security informed us this September 22 at 8 a.m., that during the evening and night, the eruptive activity remained concentrated on 4 of the new mouths. The lava flows towards the coast continue in 2 main languages: the northern branch advances at 120 meters / hour and affects the locality of Todoque; the southern branch shows almost no movement.

Activity increased noticeably from the second vent that opened the day before and quickly became the main one.
Lava fountains several hundred meters high; we observe the explosion of large lava bubbles and an increase in the sound level of the eruption.

The surface affected by the lava flows reaches 154 hectares (source: Copernicus EMS).

The often asked question of the duration of such an eruption offers no answer ... However, InVolcan has established an average duration for the historical eruptions of the various volcanoes of the Cumbre Vieja system.

 

Sources : InVolcan, DSN, Copernicus, Mirova, Mounts Project, local media.

LaPalma - thermal anomalies at 22.09.2021 / 03:45 - the anomalies can be masked or attenuated by clouds - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_Latest10NTI

LaPalma - thermal anomalies at 22.09.2021 / 03:45 - the anomalies can be masked or attenuated by clouds - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_Latest10NTI

La Palma - average duration of volcanic eruptions in the Cumbre Vieja system - Doc. Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias / 22.09.2021

La Palma - average duration of volcanic eruptions in the Cumbre Vieja system - Doc. Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias / 22.09.2021

Ash emissions have decreased in frequency and intensity over the past 24 hours at Semisopochnoi, with distinct ash clouds currently drifting northwest between 3,000 and 4,500 meters.

Due to this drop in activity, the Alaska Volcano Observatory has lowered the color code from Aviation / Volcano Alert Level to Orange / Watch.

SO2 emissions have also been observed during the last 24 hours drifting north of the island. Seismicity remained high with explosions detected in seismic and infrasound networks.

Small eruptions producing minor ash deposits near the active northern crater of Mount Cerberus and ash clouds typically less than 3,000 meters above sea level have characterized recent activity, which shows no sign of slowing down.

 

Source: AVO

Semisopochnoi - SO2 emissions - Tropomi image 20.09.2021 / 00:47 UTC- Doc. AVO / Matt Loewen - one click to enlarge

Semisopochnoi - SO2 emissions - Tropomi image 20.09.2021 / 00:47 UTC- Doc. AVO / Matt Loewen - one click to enlarge

Strong northwest winds near Katmai and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes picked up loose volcanic ash, which erupted during the Novarupta-Katmai eruption of 1912, and carried it southeast into towards Kodiak Island early this September 21 in the morning.

The National Weather Service issued a SIGMET for this low level event and suggests the maximum cloud height is 2,500 meters above sea level.

This phenomenon is not the result of recent volcanic activity and occurs during periods of high winds and dry, snowless conditions in the Katmai region and other young volcanic areas of Alaska.

No eruption is in progress. All the volcanoes in the Katmai region (Snowy, Griggs, Katmai, Novarupta, Trident, Mageik, Martin) remain in the GREEN color code.

 

Source: AVO

Remobilization of the ashes of the Katmai - Doc. USGS - AVO 09.21.2021 / 11:48 AKDT - one click to enlarge

Remobilization of the ashes of the Katmai - Doc. USGS - AVO 09.21.2021 / 11:48 AKDT - one click to enlarge

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
La Palma - the eruptive site in a cloud gap - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 from 20.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

La Palma - the eruptive site in a cloud gap - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 from 20.09.2021 - one click to enlarge

The eruption is still in progress in La Palma, the lava is not very fluid and the flows follow the channels, they do not jump obstacles, according to Stavros Meletlidis, volcanologist at the National Geographic Institute / Espejo Publico .

The rash will completely change the orography (*). The land will become unusable and uninhabitable. The lava flows which descend the western slopes of La Palma towards the coast, are of an average height of 6 meters, and advance at 700 meters per hour. They will bury land, electrical and telephone communications and create acid rain when, in the next few hours, they reach the sea.

(*) Orography is the part of physical geography that is devoted to the description of mountains.

La Palma - 09.20.2021 advanced lava flow - destruction of homes - Forecast risk map - logarithmic probability of lava invasion with heights of 6 m to less than 5 meters - the eruptive fracture is symbolized by a line blue. Doc. IGNes and press - one click to enlarge
La Palma - 09.20.2021 advanced lava flow - destruction of homes - Forecast risk map - logarithmic probability of lava invasion with heights of 6 m to less than 5 meters - the eruptive fracture is symbolized by a line blue. Doc. IGNes and press - one click to enlargeLa Palma - 09.20.2021 advanced lava flow - destruction of homes - Forecast risk map - logarithmic probability of lava invasion with heights of 6 m to less than 5 meters - the eruptive fracture is symbolized by a line blue. Doc. IGNes and press - one click to enlarge

La Palma - 09.20.2021 advanced lava flow - destruction of homes - Forecast risk map - logarithmic probability of lava invasion with heights of 6 m to less than 5 meters - the eruptive fracture is symbolized by a line blue. Doc. IGNes and press - one click to enlarge

Simulations carried out by the National Geographic Institute (IGN) estimate that the lava is directed towards the cores of La Bombilla and Puerto Naos, on the coast.

Throughout the early hours of Monday, the volcano continued to expel large amounts of lava and gases and pyroclasts. Evacuations of the affected and at-risk population have already been completed, with the exception of a few scattered houses, and all places where lava may occur have been evacuated.

According to the latest information, the new volcano has two cracks, about 200 meters apart, and eight mouths through which the lava emerges, which would have affected more than 160 houses on its way to the coast through the El Paso ravine.

The lava has already reached the municipality of Los LLanos de Aridane after crossing the LP2 road.

Classes are suspended in El Paso, Los Llanos de Aridane and Tazacorte due to the eruption of the volcano.

La Palma - SO₂ emissions pass over La Gomera and reach the African coast - image Sentinel-5P Tropomi (via S. Carn) from 20.09.2021 / 14:12

La Palma - SO₂ emissions pass over La Gomera and reach the African coast - image Sentinel-5P Tropomi (via S. Carn) from 20.09.2021 / 14:12

Sentinel5P / TROPOMI data from September 20 shows SO2 emissions from the eruption passing over La Gomera and reaching the West African coast. The SO2 plume data is very high (> 700 DU) at the eruption site. The total mass of SO₂ is approximately 30 to 65 kilotons depending on the assumed altitude of the plume.

On the other hand, the deformation of the ground, which had reached 15 centimeters before the eruption of the volcano, increased to 19 centimeters: there is still a magmatic input in the area, and new cracks may appear in the following hours and days.

At around 9 p.m. local time, a new crack opened, one km away. west of other vents; an earthquake of Ml 3.8 followed at 9:32 am loc.

La Palma - FLIR thermal image of the eruptive column - photo 20.09.2021 InVolcan

La Palma - FLIR thermal image of the eruptive column - photo 20.09.2021 InVolcan

An in-depth study has been carried out for years to define the state of volcanic unrest in La Palma, by José Fernandez & al., published in Nature / Scientific reports (source references) in January 2021.

This was accomplished thanks to the use of satellite radar observations and an original advanced interpretation technique. This study shows the detection of the onset of volcanic unrest on the island of La Palma, most likely decades before a potential eruption.

La Palma - Conceptual model of the evolution of unrest. Two main surfaces obtained in the 3D gravimetric crustal model (green and gray surfaces), the sources of positive pressure modeled for the periods 2006-2010 and 2017-2020, the sources modeled for landslides and dips in 2019-2020 and the location of events seismic. The proposed path followed by the seismic depth magma (yellow path) before, and probably after, the seismic swarms in 2017 and 2018 that could have opened new fractures. - Source: IGEO (CSIC-UCM)

La Palma - Conceptual model of the evolution of unrest. Two main surfaces obtained in the 3D gravimetric crustal model (green and gray surfaces), the sources of positive pressure modeled for the periods 2006-2010 and 2017-2020, the sources modeled for landslides and dips in 2019-2020 and the location of events seismic. The proposed path followed by the seismic depth magma (yellow path) before, and probably after, the seismic swarms in 2017 and 2018 that could have opened new fractures. - Source: IGEO (CSIC-UCM)

The geodesic techniques used here make it possible to follow the migration of fluids induced by the injection of magma at depth and to identify the existence of sources of dislocation, under the Cumbre Vieja volcano. Therefore, they should continue to be monitored using these and other techniques. The results have implications for monitoring steep-sided volcanoes on oceanic islands.

Sentinel-5P / Tropomi for SO2 emissions; Sentinel-1 for deformation; Sentinel-2 for thermal anomalies / the Sentinel system has been activated by the European Commission with Copernicus - Doc. Mounts project / Twitter compte @MountsSystem. - one click to enlarge

Sentinel-5P / Tropomi for SO2 emissions; Sentinel-1 for deformation; Sentinel-2 for thermal anomalies / the Sentinel system has been activated by the European Commission with Copernicus - Doc. Mounts project / Twitter compte @MountsSystem. - one click to enlarge

Sources:

- Canary Islands media: RTVC - Tiempo de Canarias

- IGNes

- Mounts Project

- Sentinel-5P / Tropomi  for SO2 emissions; Sentinel-1 for deformation; Sentinel-2 for thermal anomalies / the Sentinel system has been activated by the European Commission with Copernicus

- Detection of volcanic unrest onset in La Palma, Canary Islands, evolution and implications - by José Fernández, Joaquín Escayo, Zhongbo Hu, AntonioG. Camacho, SergeyV. Samsonov, Juan F. Prieto, Kristy F. Tiampo, Mimmo Palano, Jordi J. Mallorquí & EumenioAncochea. / Nature Scientific reports - link

Fagradalsfjall - parameters of the eruption on 17.09.2021 - Doc. Jardvis.is

Fagradalsfjall - parameters of the eruption on 17.09.2021 - Doc. Jardvis.is

In Fagradalsfjall, a new measurement of the lava volume took place on September 17. Aerial photographs were also taken by the Institute of Natural History from the Fisfélag plane. Terrestrial models were made based on these measurements and they were compared to older data.

The measurements show that the average lava flow over this eight-day period was 11.8 m³ / s. The same lava flow was the longest in May and June, but longer than in August. The eruption was down on 9 but resumed on 11 September. We can therefore see that the average flow was 16 m³ / s from September 11th to 17th.

The lava is now 151 million cubic meters and the area 4.8 square kilometers.

After the eruption resumed, lava flowed into Geldingadalur and reached Nátthaga. Lava flowed north for some time and filled a gap that was between the northern craters active in April and the high plain of Fagradalsfjall.

It should be noted that the measurements show the volume and its changes. The density of the lava can vary and it has been pointed out that next to the craters there is a cavity further or less far. No attempt is made here to estimate this effect, to find an equivalent volume of dense rock or lava mass. A common estimate is that the volume of dense rock is around 80% of the total volume and it is likely that the same applies to lava at Meradalir, Geldingadalur and Nátthaga, but the cavity is closer to the crater.

 

Source: Jardvis.is

Fagradalsfjall - coumée in the valley of Natthaga on 09.19.2021 at 6:20 a.m. and 9:50 a.m. Webcam Almannavarnir Borgarfjall

Fagradalsfjall - coumée in the valley of Natthaga on 09.19.2021 at 6:20 a.m. and 9:50 a.m. Webcam Almannavarnir Borgarfjall

Fagradalsfjall - tremor at 21.09.2021 - Doc. Hraun.vedur

Fagradalsfjall - tremor at 21.09.2021 - Doc. Hraun.vedur

Fagradalsfjall - thermal anomalies at 19.09.2021 (flow in Geldingadalur and Natthaga) the lava field can be seen to the right of the flows (in black) - - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

Fagradalsfjall - thermal anomalies at 19.09.2021 (flow in Geldingadalur and Natthaga) the lava field can be seen to the right of the flows (in black) - - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

Fagradalsfjall - extension of the lava field, update 20.09.2021 - Doc. GeoVis Lab Iceland / Un. Iceland

Fagradalsfjall - extension of the lava field, update 20.09.2021 - Doc. GeoVis Lab Iceland / Un. Iceland

Etna had to come forward and get some media coverage for him.

The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor, after a first gradual increase started with large oscillations a few hours earlier, showed a sudden increase from 02:20 UTC today and around 02:40 UTC it reached the range of high values. The volcanic tremor source centroid is located in the south-eastern crater area at an altitude of about 2900 m above sea level.

From around 6:15 a.m. UTC, images from video surveillance cameras show an ash emission from the southeast crater.

At 6:55 UTC we observe the resumption of Strombolian activity at the level of the Southeast crater. The eruptive cloud produced by the current activity reaches a height of about 4500 m and, depending on the model
expected, it disperses towards the ENE.
The increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor continues with a further increasing trend. The center of gravity of volcanic tremor sources is located in the south-eastern crater area at an altitude of about 2900-3000 m above sea level.

 

Source: INGV OE

Etna SEC - 51 ° paroxysme - 09.21.2021 / 07h39 - INGV webcam Emot0153

Etna SEC - 51 ° paroxysme - 09.21.2021 / 07h39 - INGV webcam Emot0153

Etna SEC - ash and gas emission on 09.21.2021 / 07h42 - INGV webcam Emov0154

Etna SEC - ash and gas emission on 09.21.2021 / 07h42 - INGV webcam Emov0154

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
La Palma - lava fountains in the night of 19-20.09.2021 - TV Canarias

La Palma - lava fountains in the night of 19-20.09.2021 - TV Canarias

The Volcanological Institute of the Canary Islands (INVOLCAN) has confirmed and formalized the start of the volcanic eruption on the island of La Palma, in the Canary Islands on September 19 at around 3:10 p.m. (Canary Island time) in the area of ​​Cabeza de Vaca, in El Paso.
An emergency evacuation is in progress! (see previous articles).

La Palma - progression of earthquakes at the start of the eruption - Doc. IGNes - one click to enlargeLa Palma - progression of earthquakes at the start of the eruption - Doc. IGNes - one click to enlarge
La Palma - progression of earthquakes at the start of the eruption - Doc. IGNes - one click to enlarge

La Palma - progression of earthquakes at the start of the eruption - Doc. IGNes - one click to enlarge

La Palma -19.09.2021 / 3:10 p.m. - thermal measurements by InVolcan during the start of the eruption - INVOLCAN

La Palma -19.09.2021 / 3:10 p.m. - thermal measurements by InVolcan during the start of the eruption - INVOLCAN

The eruptive rift appears to have suddenly opened along one of the mountains in the southwest of the island.
The eruptive fracture, in addition to the small lava fountains, feeds small lava flows that slowly advance towards the valley, and towards an inhabited area of ​​El Paso. A plume of ash and gas rose several hundred meters high.

The mountain slopes / volcanic ridge, where the fracture has opened, are also rich in vegetation, therefore there is a high risk that lava could start large fires.

InVolcan teams have counted seven eruptive vents on the crack at the start of the eruption. The temperature of the melt was measured at 1.075 ° C.

La Palma - the eruptive fissure with 7 vents on 19.09.2021 - photo Involcan / Alba

La Palma - the eruptive fissure with 7 vents on 19.09.2021 - photo Involcan / Alba

La Palma - the eruptive fissure and the lava fountains - Doc. RTVC 19.09.2021

La Palma - the eruptive fissure and the lava fountains - Doc. RTVC 19.09.2021

At 6 pm, the president of the Cabildo de La Palma, Mariano Hernández Zapata indicated that there were no people affected by the eruption, however several homes were affected by the flows; it is estimated that there are currently five eruptive vents through which, at least two, enough magma is emanating that has already passed the Tacande highway and is heading towards Alcalá and El Paraíso, which have already been evacuated.

700 people were evacuated as a precaution on the coast of Los Llanos de Aridane, because the lava can affect the main road that connects the capital of the municipality to Puerto Naos. The first deputy mayor and councilor for citizen security, Lorena Hernández, detailed in statements to Efe that among the evacuees are 500 tourists staying at the hotel in Puerto Naos.

 

During the night, the lava fountains remained active, and the lava flows advanced towards the inhabited area.

La Palma - the lava fountains during the night from 19 to 20.09.2021 - TV Canarias

La Palma - the lava fountains during the night from 19 to 20.09.2021 - TV Canarias

La Palma - the eruption threatens a residential area - doc. Noticias Impactantes de todo el Mundo

La Palma - the eruption threatens a residential area - doc. Noticias Impactantes de todo el Mundo

La Palma - "the volcano in the village" ... - 19.09.2021 - Doc. Noticias Impactantes de todo el Mundo

La Palma - "the volcano in the village" ... - 19.09.2021 - Doc. Noticias Impactantes de todo el Mundo

Eruption at LaPalma - Sixty Media

The young Cumbre Vieja, the southern volcano, is one of the two volcanic centers of the island of La Palma. The elongated volcano dates back about 125,000 years and is oriented N-S. Eruptions over the past 7,000 years have formed abundant ash cones and craters along the Cumbre Vieja axis, producing fissure-fed lava flows that from November ash steeply to the sea. Its latest manifestation date from October 26 to November 18, 1971; The activity of six different vents built the Teneguia cone. (GVP)

 

Sources: InVolcan, IGNes, TV Canarias, Noticias Impactantes de todo el Mundo

Teneguia volcano - eruption of 26.10.1971 - Archive doc via InVolcan

Teneguia volcano - eruption of 26.10.1971 - Archive doc via InVolcan

Historical eruptions of Cumbre Vieja with dates - Doc. Canarias volcanoes

Historical eruptions of Cumbre Vieja with dates - Doc. Canarias volcanoes

Ash emissions from the eruption underway at Semisopochnoi have increased in frequency and intensity. Satellite images show an ash cloud at an estimated altitude of 15,000 feet above sea level extending about 60 miles (100 km) to the southeast until 05:00 UTC. Explosions were observed throughout the day and an increase in sulfur dioxide emissions was observed in satellite data this afternoon. These observations represent an increase in eruptive activity and the aviation color code and volcanic alert level are increased to RED / Warning.

Increasing clouds high over Semisopochnoi will likely obscure satellite views of ash emissions within the hour. Seismic and infrasound monitoring will continue to provide notification of ongoing explosive activity, but cannot determine the height or extent of ash emissions. The Alaska Volcano Observatory will continue to closely monitor all available data.

 

Source: AVO

Semisopochnoi - ash emissions - photo AVO 14.08.2021

Semisopochnoi - ash emissions - photo AVO 14.08.2021

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

The Volcanological Institute of the Canary Islands (INVOLCAN) has just confirmed and made official the start of the volcanic eruption on the island of La Palma, in the Canaries. Everything happens in real time (around 3:10 p.m. to 3:15 p.m. according to the television extract) so it is very difficult to have details on the start of the eruption.
For the moment we know that a plume of ash and gas rose to several hundred meters high. It appears from some images that the eruptive fracture that opened along one of the island's mountains is producing small lava fountains.
An emergency evacuation has been going on for about an hour!

La Palma - eruption in progress - 09.19.2021 / 3.10 p.m. - Doc. RTVC

La Palma - eruption in progress - 09.19.2021 / 3.10 p.m. - Doc. RTVC

La Palma - eruption in progress - 09.19.2021 / 3.10 p.m. -  Meteo Trás-os-Montes - Portugal

La Palma - eruption in progress - 09.19.2021 / 3.10 p.m. - Meteo Trás-os-Montes - Portugal

The IGN had confirmed this September 19 at 12h UTC that the seismic activity has accelerated in recent hours in La Palma, with intense surface seismicity between 0 and 6 km and many earthquakes felt by the population. So far and since the start of the series, 6,632 earthquakes have been detected, of which 1,317 have been located. During today, 327 earthquakes were detected, of which 86 were localized with a maximum magnitude of 3.8 or the earthquake which occurred at 10:16 a.m. (UTC), widely felt on the island and at a depth of 2 km. The maximum cumulative vertical deformation has increased to about 15 cm in the area close to the current seismicity and its distribution is still compatible with a center of pressure in this area. Another disturbing trend is the general tendency of earthquakes to become shallower. Overall, the likelihood of another volcanic eruption continues to rise

 

The Pevolca has decided to start evacuating people with reduced mobility as a priority in the urban areas of Las Manchas (Las Manchas de Abajo, Jedey, San Nicolás and El Paraíso), which includes the municipalities of El Paso and Los llanos de Aridane; El Charco (Fuencaliente), La Bombilla (Los Llanos de Aridane and Tazacorte) and El Remo and Puerto Naos (Los Llanos de Aridane).

The volcanic traffic light remains yellow, although civil protection actions are intensifying and the Technical Directorate is empowered to schedule the selective evacuation of other areas of Cumbre Vieja, if necessary, under the coordination of Cabildo and the town halls. The estimated population is one thousand people.

The volcanic traffic light remains yellow, although civil protection actions are intensifying and the Technical Directorate is empowered to schedule the selective evacuation of other areas of Cumbre Vieja, if necessary, under the coordination of Cabildo and the town halls. The estimated population is one thousand people.

 

Some precautionary measures communicated to the inhabitants of #LaPalma #CanaryIslands during the last 2 hours: (Cabildo de La Palma- 19.09.2021 / 13h)
- Closure of the Los Brecitos LP-214 road.
- Closure of the Refugio del Pilar recreation area
- Closure of the Caños de Fuego Center and access to the Cueva de las Palomas
Access to the rest of the cavities located in the area is prohibited
- The network of trails in La Palma and the forest tracks that cross the municipalities of Fuencaliente, El Paso, Los Llanos de Aridane and Villa de Mazo are closed.
- Small game day is suspended in these same municipalities.
- People were also advised to take their cattle to the El Paso and San Isidro livestock fairs in Breña Alta.

La Palma - seismicity at 19.09.2021 / 10:07 am - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - seismicity at 19.09.2021 / 10:07 am - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - seismogram at 19.09.2021 / 12h UTC - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - seismogram at 19.09.2021 / 12h UTC - Doc. IGNes

To be continued ...

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity, #Sismologia
Karymsky - photo D. Melnikov / IVS FEB RAS, KVERT 09/17/2021

Karymsky - photo D. Melnikov / IVS FEB RAS, KVERT 09/17/2021

A moderate eruptive activity continues at Karymsky, with an ash plume on September 17 at 2,000-2,500 meters asl. extending eastward for 38 km.

On September 18, explosions were accompanied by an ash plume at more than 4,300 m. asl., moving 145 km east and northeast of the volcano.

A thermal anomaly marks the volcano.

The aviation code remains orange, other ash explosions can occur at any time, reaching an altitude of 6-7 km and affecting air traffic.

 

Sources: KVERT & Mirova / Sentinel-2

Karymsky - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A and Modos thermal volcanic activity from 09.19.2021 / 00h41 - Doc. Mirova S2MIR_Last

Karymsky - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8A and Modos thermal volcanic activity from 09.19.2021 / 00h41 - Doc. Mirova S2MIR_Last

In Fagradalsfjall, around 2:45 p.m. on September 18, police and civil defense announce the closure of Trail A. Lava has now started to flow over the reserve areas near Trail A and it won't be long before it begins to flow on the path and up to Nátthagakriki.

Police and rescue teams are now working to clear the trail. People are ordered to go to trail B or C. Trail C is particularly recommended in this regard. Caution is recommended: the course of events remains unpredictable and lava can flow with great speed.

 

Around 5:40 p.m. local time, the tremor began to drop suddenly ... yet another behavior of this surprising volcano. Due to the weather on webcams, it's hard to tell how long the lava is flowing or if lava is still in the crater.

 

Sources: Police and Civil Defense of Suðurnes, Hraun.vedur, RUV, mbls

Fagradalsfjall - fall of the tremor on 19.09.2021 - Doc. Hraun.vedur.is

Fagradalsfjall - fall of the tremor on 19.09.2021 - Doc. Hraun.vedur.is

The seismic activity in Cumbre Vieja / La Palma, which started on the 11 at 03:18 (UTC), has decreased over the past 48 hours, however, over the past 12 hours there has been a slight increase with an earthquake of magnitude 3.2 mbLg located at 03:26 (UTC) today, at a depth of 0.1 km, which was felt by the population of intensity III (EMS98). So far and since the start of the series, 5391 earthquakes have been detected, of which 1102 have been located.

The maximum cumulative vertical deformation is of the order of 10 cm in the zone close to seismicity and its distribution is still compatible with a center of pressure in this zone. These movements were observed both with the island's GNSS network and with InSAR data (Sentinel-1).

Source: IGN 18.09.201

La Palma - seismic swarms at 18.09.2021 / 12h - IGNes

La Palma - seismic swarms at 18.09.2021 / 12h - IGNes

La Palma - nbr. earthquakes per hour between 10.09 and 18.09 - Doc. InVolcano

La Palma - nbr. earthquakes per hour between 10.09 and 18.09 - Doc. InVolcano

La Palma - interferometric analyzes by Sentinel-1 / variations between 2 satellite passes - one click to enlargeLa Palma - interferometric analyzes by Sentinel-1 / variations between 2 satellite passes - one click to enlarge

La Palma - interferometric analyzes by Sentinel-1 / variations between 2 satellite passes - one click to enlarge

La Palma remains under close monitoring :

INVOLCAN today installed a seismic network on La Palma. It will allow a type of signal: the volcanic tremor, to be detected with more sensitivity, if it occurs.
A seismic network is a set of seismic stations installed at a short distance from each other which, in addition to detecting seismic waves, makes it possible to establish the direction from which these waves originate.
Using analysis techniques similar to those used by telecommunication antennas, this tool will detect with even more sensitivity any seismic signal coming from inside the volcano, including volcanic tremor, which is an important precursor of a possible eruptive phase.
This activity was made possible thanks to the VOLRISKMAC (MAC / 3.5b / 124) and VOLRISKMAC II (MAC2 / 3.5b / 328) projects, co-financed by the INTERREG VA Spain-Portugal MAC Cooperation Program (Madeira-Azores-Canaries) 2014- 2020 from the European Commission.

Update from 4.30 p.m. (Canary Island time): no significant thermal anomaly was observed in the surface environment of the western slope of Cumbre Vieja and in the summit area, during helicopter overflight

Source :  InVolcan

La Palma - 09.18.2021 - Installation of the seismic network, IR thermography by helicopter, sampling in Dos Aguas (Barranco de las Angustias) by the teams InVolcan - one click to enlarge
La Palma - 09.18.2021 - Installation of the seismic network, IR thermography by helicopter, sampling in Dos Aguas (Barranco de las Angustias) by the teams InVolcan - one click to enlargeLa Palma - 09.18.2021 - Installation of the seismic network, IR thermography by helicopter, sampling in Dos Aguas (Barranco de las Angustias) by the teams InVolcan - one click to enlarge

La Palma - 09.18.2021 - Installation of the seismic network, IR thermography by helicopter, sampling in Dos Aguas (Barranco de las Angustias) by the teams InVolcan - one click to enlarge

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Popocatépetl - moderate explosion on 09.16.2021 / 10:08 p.m. - WebcamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - moderate explosion on 09.16.2021 / 10:08 p.m. - WebcamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - minor explosion on 09.17.2021 / 03.35am - WebcamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - minor explosion on 09.17.2021 / 03.35am - WebcamsdeMexico

During the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 95 exhalations have been identified, some accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and ash. The broadcasts were mainly dispersed to the northwest.

Five minor explosions were also detected on 09/16 at 11:05 am and 3:35 pm and three recorded on September 17 at 12:41 am, 3:34 am and 5:49 am. A moderate explosion occurred on 09/16 at 10:07 p.m.
In addition, 334 minutes of low to medium amplitude tremors and a volcanotectonic earthquake (VT) with a calculated magnitude of 1.7 were recorded yesterday at 19:54 (local time).

Cenacom reports light ash falls in the municipalities of Valle de Chalco, Ixtapaluca, Chalco, Tlalmanalco, Amecameca, Ayapango, Tenango del Aire, Temamatla y Ecatzingo in the State of Mexico, as well as in the municipalities of Iztapalapa, Xochimilco and Tlahuac in Mexico City.

The volcanic alert remains at Amarillo Fase 2.

 

Source: Cenapred

Popocarépetl - plume of 09.17.2021 / 11:45 a.m. - photo Dra. Ana Lillian Martin del Pozzo Via Volcanologia UNAM

Popocarépetl - plume of 09.17.2021 / 11:45 a.m. - photo Dra. Ana Lillian Martin del Pozzo Via Volcanologia UNAM

The eruption continues, and lava is still flowing at Fagradalsfjall.

Mirova detected a very strong thermal anomaly on September 18 at 4 a.m., of VRP 2,891 MW.

An observer reports a vegetation fire caused by the entry of lava into a hole.

 Krisuvik - very important thermal anomaly this 18.09.2021 / 04h00 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Krisuvik - very important thermal anomaly this 18.09.2021 / 04h00 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Fagradalsfjall - tremor at 18.09.2021 - Doc. Hraun.vedur.is

Fagradalsfjall - tremor at 18.09.2021 - Doc. Hraun.vedur.is

Iceland In Frame / live this night video - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJq6a5AeA-8&t=2521s

The Fagradalsfjall eruption is remarkably divided into sections, as Páll Einarsson explains in a synthetic graph. The volcano switches between eruptions suddenly and very decisively.

The division into sections is clearly shown in this composite disturbance graph of the Fagradalsfjall seismic station since August:

- periodic eruption (lotubundið gos) until September 2,

- interruption of the rash (goshle) 2-11. September, then a

- eruption (sigos) until September 13,

- and a volcanic eruption (sveiflugos) thereafter, where the eruption lasts a few minutes but is not seen for 5 to 10 minutes.

 

Sources : Video Iceland In Frame & Páll Einarsson / Jarðsöguvinir - Friends of Historical Geology

Fagradalsfjall eruption - tremor graph as of 09/17/2021 - Doc. Páll Einarsson, comments above.

Fagradalsfjall eruption - tremor graph as of 09/17/2021 - Doc. Páll Einarsson, comments above.

Everything indicates that the Grímsvötn volcanic system under the ice cap of the Vatnajökull glacier is ready to erupt, according to Benedikt Gunnar Ófeigsson, a deformation scientist at the Icelandic Met Office, picked up by mbl.is.
Data from a GPS station at the top of the glacier shows that the ice cap above Grímsvötn continues to expand.

A second nearby GPS station, on a cliff in Grímsfjall mountain, southeast of Grímsvötn, also recorded inflation. “This station shows increased inflation, which is due to the build-up of magma,” says Benedikt.

"What is different now compared to the last eruption is that the surface of the (subglacial) lakes is higher than it has been for a long time. Therefore, once a jökulhlaup ( glacial breakup) will occur, a very sudden drop in pressure will accompany it. This can trigger an eruption, according to the data we have on previous eruptions at Grímsvötn. "

 

Source : mbls

Grimsvötn - photo archives Icelandic coast guards / 10.2020

Grimsvötn - photo archives Icelandic coast guards / 10.2020

The growth of the Sheveluch lava dome continues, strong fumarole activity and incandescence of the lava dome and hot avalanches accompany this process.

An extrusive eruption of the volcano continues. Ash explosions up to 10-15 km. altitude. could arise at any time. Current activity could affect international and low-flying aircraft.
Satellite data by KVERT showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano.

Aviation Code Orange

 

Sources: KVERT 16.09 and Mirova

Sheveluch - The Growing Dome, strog fumaroles activity - photo Andrew Matseevsky 09.15.2021

Sheveluch - The Growing Dome, strog fumaroles activity - photo Andrew Matseevsky 09.15.2021

Sheveluch - Image Sentinel-2 ba, ds 12,11,8A & Modis thermal volcanic activity at 09.16.2021 / 00h31- Doc. Mirova

Sheveluch - Image Sentinel-2 ba, ds 12,11,8A & Modis thermal volcanic activity at 09.16.2021 / 00h31- Doc. Mirova

The effusion of lava continued at Great Sitkin this week. The growing lava dome has now reached the southern and western edges of the summit crater.

A satellite radar image from September 16 shows that the dome currently has dimensions of about 1,130 m east-west and about 910 m north-south, and a thickness of about 30 m.

Seismicity remains high with small earthquakes consistent with the continued lava flow. High surface temperatures have been seen on clear satellite images over the past week. No explosive activity or ash emission was detected in the seismic, infrasound and satellite data.

There is no indication of how long the lava effusion will continue during the current eruption, and it is possible that explosive activity will occur with little or no warning.


The current alert level is Watch and the aviation code Orange
The Great Sitkin volcano is monitored by local seismic and infrasound sensors, satellite data, web cameras, and remote infrasound and lightning networks.

 

Source: AVO

Great Sitkin - lava dome / image  NIR at 28.08.2021 - Dietterich Anna  / AVO

Great Sitkin - lava dome / image NIR at 28.08.2021 - Dietterich Anna / AVO

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Nevados de Chillan - infographic Sernageomin / 09.2021 explaining the presence of 2 lava domes

Nevados de Chillan - infographic Sernageomin / 09.2021 explaining the presence of 2 lava domes

Nevados de Chillan - 3rd dome identified on a SkySat satellite image - Doc. Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - 3rd dome identified on a SkySat satellite image - Doc. Sernageomin

From the photo-interpretation of a very high resolution SkySat-type image dated September 15, 2021, the growth of an effusive body attributable to a dome-shaped morphology inside the Nicanor crater of the Nevados de Chillan complex is identified.

Ellipsoidal in shape, it has a major axis of 40 m and a minor axis of 27 m. It has an elongated shape in a northwest-southeast direction.

From the analysis of Sentinel-2 L2A satellite images of the same date, it is confirmed that it has abnormal thermal radiation.

In terms of surface activity, the appearance of this new morphology is preceded by a considerable decrease in the rate of extrusion of L5 and L6, disappearance of the thermal anomalies which explain a decrease in the temperature of these lava flows, as well as the disappearance of episodes of incandescence
nocturnal during most of the first half of September.

The RSAM of the continuous seismic signal, calculated every 6 hours, shows a gradual rise since yesterday 14
September, coinciding with a greater record of volcanic seismic signals, in particular LP and tremor.

 

Source : Sernageomin & Mirova

Nevados de Chillan - thermal anomaly in the crater - image Sentinel -2 bands 12,11,8A 09.15.2021 / 2:37 p.m. via Mounts project

Nevados de Chillan - thermal anomaly in the crater - image Sentinel -2 bands 12,11,8A 09.15.2021 / 2:37 p.m. via Mounts project

Nevados de Chillan - thermal anomalies at 09.17.2021 / 03.40 a.m. - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_Latest10NTI

Nevados de Chillan - thermal anomalies at 09.17.2021 / 03.40 a.m. - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_Latest10NTI

The lava flow during the eruption in Geldingadalur increased on September 16, 2021. A first appearance of the incandescence at the re-entry of the flows in Nátthaga is visible on the webcam around 7:50 pm. Around midnight, lava flows again, very fluid, over the foothills of the Nátthaga Valley, similar to that of September 15.


The turning point of the Fagradalsfjall eruption today is that the eruption has become the longest eruption in Iceland in the 21st century, with 181 days since the eruption started on March 19. As a result, the rash lasted longer than the Holuhraun rash, which lasted 180 days. The eruption began there on August 31, 2014 and ended on February 27, 2015.


Nothing indicates an end of eruption.

 

Sources: RUV, mbls, Dr. E.Ilyinskaya

NinaNX video - https://youtu.be/FHQAxqJc7m0

Fagradalsfjall - tremor at 17.09.2021 - Doc. Hraun.vedur.is

Fagradalsfjall - tremor at 17.09.2021 - Doc. Hraun.vedur.is

The white plume of Bromo (Tengger caldera on Java) was observed with fluctuating intensity about 50-500 meters from the summit on September 15, 2021.

PVMBG signals a continuous tremor episode, with an amplitude of 0.5-1 mm, dominant at 1 mm.

The activity level is at 2 / waspada.

Communities around Mount Bromo and visitors / tourists / climbers are recommended not to enter the area within 1 km of the active crater of Mount Bromo.
Communities around Mount Bromo, traders, tourists, mountaineers, and Mount Bromo tour operators should be aware of the occurrence of sudden phreatic eruptions and without being preceded by obvious volcanic symptoms.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, Oystein Lund Andersen (photo of 16,09,2021 / https://twitter.com/oysteinvolcano/status/1438508528310702082/photo/2)

Bromo - gas and steam plume 09.15.2021 / 09:19 AM WIB - PVMBG-Magma Indonesia webcam

Bromo - gas and steam plume 09.15.2021 / 09:19 AM WIB - PVMBG-Magma Indonesia webcam

In La Palma, the seismic activity continues to migrate slightly to the northwest, at depths of around 8 km, recording, in addition, 50 shallow earthquakes between 1-5 km. The maximum cumulative deformation reaches about 10 cm.

 

The seismic activity started at 3:18 am (UTC) on the 11th. At 9:30 am (UTC) today, 4,530 earthquakes were detected in the southern area of ​​the island of La Palma, of which they located a total of 1,023. The activity continues to migrate slightly in a north-westerly direction. Since 00:11 (UTC) on the 15th, 50 earthquakes have been located at depths between 1 and 5 km. The energy accumulated so far is 2.8 × 1011 Joules.

The maximum cumulative vertical deformation is of the order of 10 cm in the zone close to seismicity and its distribution is still compatible with a center of pressure in this zone. These movements were observed both with the island's GNSS network and with InSAR data (Sentinel-1).

According to InVolcan / Instituto Volcanologico de Canarias, 11 million cubic meters of magma have already been injected inside Cumbre Vieja.

 

Sources: IGNes - 16,09,2021 / 13h UTC & INVOLCAN

La Palma - seismic swarm on 16.09.2021 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - seismic swarm on 16.09.2021 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - horizontal and vertical movement in some of the GNSS stations - Doc. InVOLCAN 09.16.2021

La Palma - horizontal and vertical movement in some of the GNSS stations - Doc. InVOLCAN 09.16.2021

INVOLCAN continues to work in the field. Colleagues Alba and Bev take gas samples to be able to estimate the level of carbon dioxide emitted by the volcanic system of Cumbre Vieja / photo Twitter 16.09.2021

INVOLCAN continues to work in the field. Colleagues Alba and Bev take gas samples to be able to estimate the level of carbon dioxide emitted by the volcanic system of Cumbre Vieja / photo Twitter 16.09.2021

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Fukutoku - Okanoba - areas of discolored water attesting to an activity - photo Japan Coast Guards 09.12.2021 - one click to enlarge.

Fukutoku - Okanoba - areas of discolored water attesting to an activity - photo Japan Coast Guards 09.12.2021 - one click to enlarge.

The Japanese Coast Guard reported that during an overflight of Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba on September 12, observers noted that the West Island was unchanged, while the East side had been completely eroded and submerged.

The yellow-green to yellow-brown discolored water extended from the ventilation zone to the SW, S and SE, suggesting continued eruptive activity. Another area of ​​discolored water was approximately 2 km in diameter and was about 2 km ENE of the volcano, attesting to still ongoing activity.

The discolored water prompted JMA to issue a navigation warning to nearby vessels.

 

Source: Japan Coast Guard / via Global Volcanism Program weekly report

Fukutoku - Okanoba - West island and discolored water area; the east island is no longer visible due to its erosion - photo Japan Coast Guards 12.09.2021 - one click to enlarge.

Fukutoku - Okanoba - West island and discolored water area; the east island is no longer visible due to its erosion - photo Japan Coast Guards 12.09.2021 - one click to enlarge.

Seismic activity, which started in La Palma / Canary Islands at 3:18 a.m. (UTC) on September 11, 2021, continues.

Until 12:00 (UTC) on September 15, 4,222 earthquakes were detected in the southern area of ​​the island of La Palma, of which a total of 920 were located.

The activity continues to migrate in a north-westerly direction.

Since 00:11 (UTC), 20 earthquakes have been located at depths between 1 and 3 km (with errors between 2 and 3 km), the event with the highest magnitude being 2.9 mbLg, at a depth of 0.4 km. The rest of the activity continues at depths between 7 and 9 km. The energy accumulated so far is 2.5 × 1011 Joules. These movements were observed both with the island's GNSS network and with InSAR data (Sentinel-1).
 

PEVOLCA confirms an Amarilla semaphore.

 

Sources: IGNes, PEVOLCA, GEVolcan

La Palma - location of earthquakes according to dates and deformation on 15.09.2021 - Doc. IGNes
La Palma - location of earthquakes according to dates and deformation on 15.09.2021 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - location of earthquakes according to dates and deformation on 15.09.2021 - Doc. IGNes

La Palma - The Sentinel1 interferogram (ascending orbit) shows ~ 6 cm of signal with reduced range (towards the satellite) - 09.15.2021 - NB: it must be confirmed by the following passage in descending orbit.

La Palma - The Sentinel1 interferogram (ascending orbit) shows ~ 6 cm of signal with reduced range (towards the satellite) - 09.15.2021 - NB: it must be confirmed by the following passage in descending orbit.

La Palma - Graphs of the mean depth, mean magnitude and seismic energy accumulated in this seismic swarm of La Palma at 15.09.2021 - Author, Javier Arroyo / GEVolcan

La Palma - Graphs of the mean depth, mean magnitude and seismic energy accumulated in this seismic swarm of La Palma at 15.09.2021 - Author, Javier Arroyo / GEVolcan

La Palma - semaphore for the population - Doc. PEVOLCA

La Palma - semaphore for the population - Doc. PEVOLCA

The alert level of the volcano La Soufrière de St. Vincent has been lowered to YELLOW.
A Yellow alert level means that the volcano is agitated, that the seismic or fumarolic activity is higher than the historical level of the volcano.
Activities on the volcano have been weak and significantly reduced in recent months since the last explosive eruption on April 22, 2021.
All the communities that evacuated following the evacuation order given on April 8, 2021 can now return to their homes.
Access to the top of the volcano remains restricted.

 

Source: UWI

Soufriere de Si. Vincent - fumarole activity in the crater - photo during the flyby by Dr. Richard Robertson 07.09.2021

Soufriere de Si. Vincent - fumarole activity in the crater - photo during the flyby by Dr. Richard Robertson 07.09.2021

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Fagradalsfjall 15.09.2021- lava flows quickly - photo Pic Asta Rut - Háskóli Íslands via Dr. Evgenia Ilyinskaya

Fagradalsfjall 15.09.2021- lava flows quickly - photo Pic Asta Rut - Háskóli Íslands via Dr. Evgenia Ilyinskaya

Fagradalsfjall 15.09.2021- lava reaches the established fortifications - photo Háskóli Íslands via Dr. Evgenia Ilyinskaya

Fagradalsfjall 15.09.2021- lava reaches the established fortifications - photo Háskóli Íslands via Dr. Evgenia Ilyinskaya

Changes of the day at the eruptive site of Fagradalsfjall

Lava flows from Geldingadalur along the fortifications, on hiking trail A and up to the Nátthaga valley.

The meteorological office is closely monitoring the development of the situation, but civil defense and police are responsible for evacuating the area.

Rescue teams from Suðurnes were called when they suddenly noticed an increase in the lava flow towards Nátthaga on September 15 at around noon. The spectators were expelled from the danger zone, but the Police had to intervene as some did not respect the instructions given.

The area had been closed today for security reasons ... but around 1pm, the Police of Suðurnes announced that "The hiking trails B and C are passable but the hiking trail A is closed".

 

Sources: Dr. Evgenia Ilyinskaya, mbls, RUV, Safe Travel, Benjamin Hennig, Eurovolc, Lögreglan á Suðurnesjum

Lava flows can be observed along the slopes between the Geldingadalir and Nátthagi valleys (see red circle on the map newly published on September 15, 2021). - Doc. Benjamin Hennig 09.15.2021

Lava flows can be observed along the slopes between the Geldingadalir and Nátthagi valleys (see red circle on the map newly published on September 15, 2021). - Doc. Benjamin Hennig 09.15.2021

Lava moving rapidly towards  Nátthaga - photo 09.15.2021 / Björn Oddsson-WP7 participant, NCIP and Ásta R. Hjartardóttir, UI. EUROVOLC

Lava moving rapidly towards Nátthaga - photo 09.15.2021 / Björn Oddsson-WP7 participant, NCIP and Ásta R. Hjartardóttir, UI. EUROVOLC

Fagradalsfjall - tremor on 15.09.2021 - Doc. Hraun.vedur.is

Fagradalsfjall - tremor on 15.09.2021 - Doc. Hraun.vedur.is

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Popocatépetl - explosion of 09/14/2021 / 8:45 am - Vulcanologia UNAM

Popocatépetl - explosion of 09/14/2021 / 8:45 am - Vulcanologia UNAM

 Popocatépetl - explosion of 09/14/2021 / 8:47 am - WebcamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - explosion of 09/14/2021 / 8:47 am - WebcamsdeMexico

During the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 130 exhalations have been identified, probably accompanied by volcanic gases and light amounts of ash.

There were also 379 minutes of low to medium amplitude tremor.

In addition, three explosions were recorded, one moderate on 13 at 12:05, and two small on 14.09 at 08:46 and 08:59. The 8.46 am explosion was preceded by a gradual increase in degassing; the eruptive plume is minted at a height of 1,500 meters above the crater, dispersing towards Puebla.

The volcanic alert remains at Amarillo fase 2.

Last minute: an explosion is reported at 11:50 p.m., accompanied by the expulsion of incandescent fragments on the sides of the volcano and a plume of ash.

 

Sources: Cenapred / 14.09 / 11h loc. and Vulcanologia UNAM

Santa Maria - thermal anomalies at 09/14/2021 / 07:55 am - Doc.Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Santa Maria - thermal anomalies at 09/14/2021 / 07:55 am - Doc.Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

At the Santiaguito, airplane turbine-like sounds generated by scattered degassing in the dome rising 300 meters from the Caliente dome and by gray-colored explosions dispersing in a west and south-west direction; during the night and early in the morning of September 14, they generated weak incandescent avalanches from the dome of the dome to the level of the vegetation. Ash falls are reported on the volcanic perimeter.

Due to the permanent extrusion of the material and its instability, weak and moderate debris avalanches have been observed from the dome of the Caliente dome on the western and southwest flanks; there is a likelihood that they generate moderate to strong pyroclastic flows.

Mirova reported weak thermal anomalies of 5 and 3 Mw respectively on September 13 and 14.

Fuego - lava flow and boulder avalanche in the barranca Ceniza on 09.13.2021 - Insivumeh / Landsat-8 SWIR

Fuego - lava flow and boulder avalanche in the barranca Ceniza on 09.13.2021 - Insivumeh / Landsat-8 SWIR

In Fuego, a lava flow has been observed since September 13 in the barranca Ceniza, with an approximate length of 150 to 200 meters. Mirova reports moderate thermal anomalies on September 13 and 14, between 75 and 31 MW.

Weak white fumaroles and explosions accompanied by ash have been observed at night and early in the morning in a range of 8 to 12, which rise to an approximate height of 4500 to 4700 m., dispersing in a southwest direction generating ash fall in areas close to the area. Incandescent pulses were observed rising 300 above the crater, accompanied by a faint white fumarole.

Constant avalanches of boulders were heard in the direction of the barrancas Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Santa Teresa, some of the material reached the edge of the vegetation.

 

Sources: Insivumeh and Mirova.

Kilauea, Halema'uma'u - the solidified surface of the lava lake has not changed since 03.09.2021 - photo K. Mulliken / HVO

Kilauea, Halema'uma'u - the solidified surface of the lava lake has not changed since 03.09.2021 - photo K. Mulliken / HVO

The Kīlauea volcano is not erupting. Following the recent intrusion of sub-surface magma in the area south of the Kīlauea caldera, which slowed significantly on August 30, earthquake rates and soil deformation in this area have remained close to levels of before the intrusion.

Over the past week, 13 low-magnitude earthquakes, all less than M2.5, have been detected under the Kīlauea summit region. These earthquakes occurred approximately 1 to 3 kilometers (0.6 to 1.9 miles) below ground level near Halema'uma'u. There has been no noticeable seismic activity in the vicinity of the recent intrusion; since August 30, inclinometers have not detected any substantial ground deformation in the summit region. These observations suggest that the supply of new magma to the intrusion slowed or stopped.

Other monitoring data streams, including sulfur dioxide emission rates and webcam views, show no significant change.

The surface of Halema'uma'u lava lake, which was actively erupting from December 2020 to May 2021, remains covered with a stagnant and solidified lava crust.

No unusual activity was noted in the Kīlauea East Rift area.

Current volcanic alert level: Advisory
Current Aviation Color Code: Yellow

 

Source : HVO

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