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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

Before noon on March 28, 2021, the two craters of the volcano in Geldingadalur began to change their morphology somewhat. The craters have been given nicknames and the highest is called the south and the lower north. The flow of this through a southwest facing breach merged with the flow in the southern channel to the side of the lava rivers. This could be the first step in the union of the craters.
 

Lava that has formed over the Geldingadalur craters over the past nine days has now covered the valley floor. There are three to seven million cubic meters of lava rising from the earth, which may seem less on another scale as it is 0.003 to 0.007 cubic kilometers. The lava flow increases rather than decreases. This is one of the conclusions of a summary by the Volcano and Nature Conservation group at the University of Iceland, which was published this morning.

Geldingadalgos - 03.28.2021 - morphology change around 11:50 am - RUV webcam

Geldingadalgos - 03.28.2021 - morphology change around 11:50 am - RUV webcam

Besides an explosion and a small plume of brown ash around 4:25 p.m., many people noticed beautiful pyrocumulus, visible as far as Reykjavik.

"In Geldingadalur, we have lava that is 800 to 1200 degrees; it constantly heats the atmosphere above the lava, and creates such a rise in ambient humidity to form a beautiful cloud," says Elín Björk Jónasdóttir, meteorologist at the Icelandic meteorological office.

Geldingadalgos - small plume of brown ash on 03/28/2021 at 4:21 p.m. - RUV webcam

Geldingadalgos - small plume of brown ash on 03/28/2021 at 4:21 p.m. - RUV webcam

Reykjanes Peninsula - 03.28.2021 / 6pm approximately - A "Pyrocumulus" above the eruptive site seen from Reykjavik - photo Dr. Evgenia Ilynskaya

Reykjanes Peninsula - 03.28.2021 / 6pm approximately - A "Pyrocumulus" above the eruptive site seen from Reykjavik - photo Dr. Evgenia Ilynskaya

Geldingadalgos - 03.28.2021 / 8:21 p.m. - 2 active lava fountains, a flow feeding the lava field - RUV webcam

Geldingadalgos - 03.28.2021 / 8:21 p.m. - 2 active lava fountains, a flow feeding the lava field - RUV webcam

American scientists have built a lava flow simulator and their hypothesis is that if it continues to erupt, the lava will flow south to Nátthaga. The edge of the lava field at Geldingadalur has slowed the spread of lava and the lava can recharge so that it is higher than the edge ... the containment can then suddenly give way and a sudden overflow is possible.

The popularity of the eruption has not waned and many traveled to Geldingadalur today. Two car parks have been put into operation at Suðurstrandavegur. A section had to close today, due to an overflow. It has been decided to close Geldingadalur this evening at nine o'clock; visitors should exit the area by midnight. This was done to rest the rescue team which has been on duty for over a week.

Suðurstandarvegur is closed and no one should enter the region any more, before the situation is reviewed.

 

Sources : IMO, RUV, mbls, Óróapúls and Police du Suðurnes

Geldingadalgos - 03.29.2021 / around 8am - east webcam mbls

Geldingadalgos - 03.29.2021 / around 8am - east webcam mbls

Krisuvik - thermal anomalies at 03/29/2021 2:55 a.m. - Doc. Mirova

Krisuvik - thermal anomalies at 03/29/2021 2:55 a.m. - Doc. Mirova

After an increase in seismicity from March 22 to 26, 2021 at Piton de La Fournaise, with a number of earthquakes peaking at 95 on March 26, the daily number of earthquakes is decreasing, with on March 27 and 28 respectively : 55 and 8 earthquakes .

The OVPF points out that during the recharge phases, the rate of seismicity can be erratic. A rapid increase in seismicity may be linked to a destabilization of the hydrothermal system located under the summit, due to the rise of magma.

Piton de La Fournaise - Histogram representing the number of superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded between January 1 and March 28, 2021 (© OVPF-IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Histogram representing the number of superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded between January 1 and March 28, 2021 (© OVPF-IPGP).

Inflation continues on the other hand; with a source located between 1,500 and 2,000 meters below the Dolomieu crater, at the level of the superficial magmatic reservoir.

The composition of the fumaroles at the top shows a "hydrothermal type" composition, dominated by water and H2S, with low amounts of SO2 and CO2. Sulfur dioxide flows are decreasing around the perimeter of the Enclosure.

The process of recharging the surface reservoir continues ... to be continued.

 

Source: OVPF

Dolomieu crater of Piton de La Fournaise - photo archives © Bernard Duyck

Dolomieu crater of Piton de La Fournaise - photo archives © Bernard Duyck

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Pacaya - lava flow with the FLIR camera 03/27/2021 / 2:10 p.m. - W. Chigna / Un.Bristol / Insivumeh

 Pacaya - lava flow with the FLIR camera 03/27/2021 / 2:10 p.m. - W. Chigna / Un.Bristol / Insivumeh

In Pacaya, Guatemala, explosions at the Mackenney crater expel ballistic material to a height of 150 meters, with fallout in the vicinity of the crater. Ash plumes reach 3,000 meters asl, dispersing to the south and southeast for 15 km. The ashes are reported from the communities of El Rodeo, El Patrocinio, Cedro, and San Vicente Pacaya.

The lava flow is active on the southwest flank, about 2,300 meters long, 400 m wide. and 2.5 m high, setting fire to vegetation. Its movement is recorded by a tremor at the PCG seismic station.

 

Source: Insivumeh

Pacaya - thermal anomalies at 03/28/2021 / 04:30 am - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

Pacaya - thermal anomalies at 03/28/2021 / 04:30 am - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_logVRP

At Merapi, between March 19 and 25, 2021, the BPPTKG reports:
- Pyroclastic avalanche flows occurred 4 times, with a maximum sliding distance of 1800 m to the southwest and were recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 70 mm and a duration of 174 seconds .
- Collapses were observed 104 times, with a maximum gliding distance estimated at 1,200 meters in the southwest and twice in the southeast with a maximum distance of 400 m.

Pacaya and Merapi activity.

Morphological analysis of the peak area based on photos of the southwest sector from March 25 to March 18, 2021, shows changes in the peak area due to fall activity and dome growth.
The volume of the lava dome in the southwest sector is 949,000 m³ with a growth rate of 13,300 m³ / day.
Morphological analysis of the peak area based on photos of the southeast sector from March 25 versus March 18, 2021 shows that the height of the central dome is 65 m.


The seismic intensity this week is lower than last week.
The deformation of Mount Merapi which was monitored by EDM and GPS this week did not show significant changes.
There is no report of lahars or additional flow in the volcano's drainages.

Merapi - seismicity at 03/27/2021 - BPPTKG table

Merapi - seismicity at 03/27/2021 - BPPTKG table

Merapi - Pyroclastic flow of 03/27/2021 / 6:34 am - Doc. PVMBG / Magma

Merapi - Pyroclastic flow of 03/27/2021 / 6:34 am - Doc. PVMBG / Magma

On March 27, the main crater exhibits white smoke with a medium to thick high of about 100 to 300 meters from the summit. Eight pyroclastic collapse flows were observed with a sliding distance of 1800 m to the southwest. 27 boulder avalanches were observed with a maximum sliding distance of 1000 m towards the southwest.


The state of the activity is defined at level 3 / siaga.
Current potential hazards in the form of lava avalanches and hot clouds in the south-southwest sector include the Yellow, Boyong, Bedog, Krasak, Bebeng and White rivers for up to 5 km and in the southern sector. -est, the Gendol river for 3 km. During this time, the ejection of volcanic material in the event of an explosive eruption can reach a radius of 3 km from the summit.

 

Source: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia & BPPTKG

Merapi - activity of 27.03.2021 - Doc. Tunggularum-G. Merapi-B. Geologi
Merapi - activity of 27.03.2021 - Doc. Tunggularum-G. Merapi-B. Geologi

Merapi - activity of 27.03.2021 - Doc. Tunggularum-G. Merapi-B. Geologi

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Geldingadalgos - 03.26.2021 / 11:15 am - RUV webcam

Geldingadalgos - 03.26.2021 / 11:15 am - RUV webcam

Geldingadalgos - 03.26.2021 / 2:06 p.m. - two active hornitos - RUV zoom mode webcam

Geldingadalgos - 03.26.2021 / 2:06 p.m. - two active hornitos - RUV zoom mode webcam

The eruption in Geldingadalur is still ongoing. The activity of the lava fountain is low and no volcanic ash was detected, but a high level of volcanic gases was measured near the eruption site, as well as very high thermal anomalies (measurements are less attenuated by the atmospheric conditions, this March 26, where we reached a VRP of 1172 MW).

Geldingadalgos / Krisuvik - Thermal anomalies at 03/27/2021 / 04:45 - Doc. Mirova - one click to enlargeGeldingadalgos / Krisuvik - Thermal anomalies at 03/27/2021 / 04:45 - Doc. Mirova - one click to enlarge

Geldingadalgos / Krisuvik - Thermal anomalies at 03/27/2021 / 04:45 - Doc. Mirova - one click to enlarge

The high resolution images from Planet Labs SkySats satellites give us an excellent synthetic view of the two active hornitos, the lava flow, the lava field, and the sulfur gas emissions.

The eruptive site in Gledingadalur - near IR image (the vegetation is in red) detailing the lava flow - Doc. PlanetLabs SkySats 26.03.2021 - one click to enlarge

The eruptive site in Gledingadalur - near IR image (the vegetation is in red) detailing the lava flow - Doc. PlanetLabs SkySats 26.03.2021 - one click to enlarge

The lava field in Geldingadalur continues to expand steadily. The Met Office has now made a lava flow forecast and, based on an eruption rate of five to six cubic meters per second, one can expect the lava field to pour into the next valley at Easter - likely Easter Monday (April 5).

 

Sources: IMO, RUV, mbls, PlanetLabs

Geldingadalgos - 17 day model with a constant flow of ~ 5.8 m³ / s. - Lava flow modeling by Gro B. M. Pedersen 26.03.2021

Geldingadalgos - 17 day model with a constant flow of ~ 5.8 m³ / s. - Lava flow modeling by Gro B. M. Pedersen 26.03.2021

The explosive eruptive activity of Nevados de Chillan remains low, without much impact. It generates dense pyroclastic density currents of low incidence.

The effusive activity is noticed by the continuous increase of the lava dome and the collapse deposits on the northeast side.

The L5 flow, on the northern flank, advances at an average of 0.1m. / h.year at the front and now measures 925 meters from the edge of the Nicanor crater. Its temperature is 236 ° C.

 

The seismic activity produced by the dynamics of internal fluids shows a stable trend.

The inflationary trend is maintained, as well as thermal anomalies consistent with the presence of a magmatic body on the surface.

The technical alert remains at Amarilla / Change in behavior of volcanic activity.

 

Source: Sernageomin

Nevados de Chillan - field analyzes of the L5 flow - Doc. Sernageomin 26.03.2021
Nevados de Chillan - field analyzes of the L5 flow - Doc. Sernageomin 26.03.2021

Nevados de Chillan - field analyzes of the L5 flow - Doc. Sernageomin 26.03.2021

There has been no change in the activities of the La Soufrière volcano in St. Vincent during the last twenty four hours.
Volcanic tectonic earthquakes continue to be recorded under the volcano and their magnitude is such that they can be felt in villages such as Fancy, Owia, Point and Sandy Bay.

The alert level remains at Orange.

The National Emergency Management Organization / NEMO reminds the public that no evacuation orders or notices have been issued, but also encourages residents, especially people living in communities near the volcano, to be more prepared in case it is necessary to evacuate at short notice.
NEMO continues to call on the public to refrain from visiting the La Soufrière volcano, in particular entering the crater, as this is extremely dangerous.

 

The senior scientist who monitors the La Soufrière volcano in St Vincent, Professor Richard Robertson, says an increase in earthquakes at the site could suggest an explosive eruption could occur soon. "And one of the things that will cause it to go explosive is the arrival of new materials; new material to give it energy," said Robertson, adding that the earthquakes that started on Tuesday could indicate that the fresh magma tries to make its way to the surface.

At the end of January, the dome was hovering around four to five million cubic meters. Now it is 13.1 million cubic meters. 

In January, the dome was between 100 and 200 meters in diameter, but it is now 900 meters long, and extends from the Larikai Breccia to where the fumarole is located on the pre-existing dome. "

 

Sources - UWI-SRC Bulletin LA SOUFRIÈRE # 43 of March 25, 2021 8:00 p.m., & NEMO

Soufriere of St. Vincent - partial view of the new lava dome on 23.03.2021 - photo NEMO

Soufriere of St. Vincent - partial view of the new lava dome on 23.03.2021 - photo NEMO

At Piton de La Fournaise, the number of tectonic earthquakes has been high over the last two days, with 79 VT earthquakes on 25.03 and 95 on 26.03.

Numerous landslides were reported: 8 on 25.03 and 13 on 26.03.

The GPS in the summit area and in the far field record inflation, witnessing the pressurization of a surface source and a deep source.

CO2 emissions from the ground: increasing throughout the network.

All the lights are on for a next activity, as Aline Peltier says, but what form will it take?

 

Sources: OVPF daily bulletins and local media

Piton de La Fournaise - 03.25.2021 / 10:16 GMT - webcam Dolomieu East / OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - 03.25.2021 / 10:16 GMT - webcam Dolomieu East / OVPF

In short, and developed tomorrow, the volcanic activity of Merapi is still quite high in the form of effusive eruptive activity. The state of the activity is defined at level 3 / siaga.
Current potential hazards in the form of lava avalanches and hot clouds in the south-southwest sector include the Yellow, Boyong, Bedog, Krasak, Bebeng and White rivers for up to 5 km and in the southern sector. -est, the Gendol river for 3 km. During this time, the ejection of volcanic material in the event of an explosive eruption can reach a radius of 3 km from the summit.

 

This March 27, between 00 and 12 h, seven pyroclastic flows of collapse were observed at Merapi.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, BPPTKG, local media.

Merapi - pyroclastic flow of collapse on 03/27/2021 / 06:34 - kamera CCTV FREKOM di Kemirikebo

Merapi - pyroclastic flow of collapse on 03/27/2021 / 06:34 - kamera CCTV FREKOM di Kemirikebo

Merapi - pyroclastic flow of collapse on 03/27/2021 / 6:34 a.m. - photo PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

Merapi - pyroclastic flow of collapse on 03/27/2021 / 6:34 a.m. - photo PVMBG / Magma Indonesia

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

AVO reports continued low level activity to Veniaminof.

Elevated surface temperatures are observed at the top cone and the sidewall vent.

Satellite observations reveal fresh ash deposits extending over about 10 km. south-east on the snow of the caldera.

Seismicity shows periods of repeated seismic events and tremor.

 

2021.03.26 - Veniaminof - RSAM VNFG, Last 24 hours, 5 minute average. - Doc. AVO

Back to the noises formed during the activity of March 23: the audible noises in the vicinity of the volcano are caused by the bursting of large pockets of gas with the active cone, in the case of typical Strombolian activity, characterizing basaltic volcanoes basalto-andesitic (see diagrams below)

 

Sources: AVO

Veniaminof - explanation of the origin of the explosion noises - Doc. AVO

Veniaminof - explanation of the origin of the explosion noises - Doc. AVO

The eruption continues in Geldingadalur, with low fountaining activity, no ash production, but significant gas releases.

The high gas levels required a press release from ISOR:

The outlook is for a prolonged eruption in Geldingadalur. This fact awaits us the unique opportunity to see an eruption with our own eyes. But we want you to be careful.
It has now become clear that the gas emissions from volcanoes are nothing like what we have seen before. There is an extremely dangerous and potent mixture of CO2 and CO, which are potentially lethal gases. Keep in mind that there are a lot of police and rescue workers at the eruption sites working to keep us safe.
They all have GAS METERS, when the gas meters start to whine, it is better to move at least 10m. higher than where they are. THEY HAVE GAS MASKS, not all of them. This message includes a table on gas resistance and the effects of volcanic gases rising up volcanoes.
"

Geldingadalgos - 25.03.2021 / 08:32 - Gas on the path to the observation - RUV webcam

Geldingadalgos - 25.03.2021 / 08:32 - Gas on the path to the observation - RUV webcam

A busy eruption site day and night - photos by Gunnar Freyr Gunnarsson and Andrei Menshenin - one click to enlargeA busy eruption site day and night - photos by Gunnar Freyr Gunnarsson and Andrei Menshenin - one click to enlarge

A busy eruption site day and night - photos by Gunnar Freyr Gunnarsson and Andrei Menshenin - one click to enlarge

The Suðurnes police decided to block access to the Geldingadalur eruption sites for the night of March 25-26, both because of the gases emitted, the bad atmospheric conditions ... and the lack of minimum equipment visitors.

According to the latest news from Kristin Jondsdottir / IMO, InSAR data suggests that the dyke is only shallow around the eruptive site, and that there is no indication of the presence of near-surface magma elsewhere along the dyke.

 

Sources: IMO, RUV, mbls, ISOR

Pacaya - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,5 of 25.03.2021 - Doc. Insivumeh

Pacaya - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,5 of 25.03.2021 - Doc. Insivumeh

In its bulletin of March 25 at 6 p.m. Local Insivumeh reports continuous activity in Pacaya, with moderate explosions accompanied by ash plumes at 3,500 m. asl., moving south-west, south-east, north and north-east over 15-20 km. and generating falling fine particles.

 

2021.03.25 6 p.m. loc. - Pacaya - RSAM - Doc. Insivumeh

The lava flow on the southwest flank reaches approximately 2,500 m. long, with a lava front 250 meters wide reaching the vegetation level, and starting fires and destroying coffee and avocado plants.

 

Sources: Insivumeh & Conred

Erta Ale - Sentinel image 12.11.8A NIR from 03.24.2021 / 07:36 a.m.
Erta Ale - Sentinel image 12.11.8A NIR from 03.24.2021 / 07:36 a.m.

Erta Ale - Sentinel image 12.11.8A NIR from 03.24.2021 / 07:36 a.m.

Fluctuating activity has been observed thanks to the Sentinel satellite in the Erta Ale caldera in Ethiopian Afar in recent days.

It was noticed at the south pit crater 5 days ago, and yesterday marked the two pit craters, with more activity at the north pit.

The thermal anomalies noted by Mirova oscillate between VRP 25 MW on March 23 and VRP 128 MW on March 25 / 08h a.m.

 

Sources: Sentinel-2 / Mounts project and communication from Seifegebreil Shifferaw.

Erta Ale - Doc. Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8 & Modis thermal volcanic activivity / Mirova from 24.03.2021 / 07:56

Erta Ale - Doc. Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,8 & Modis thermal volcanic activivity / Mirova from 24.03.2021 / 07:56

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Soufrière de St. Vincent - the new dome encircles the old one - 23.03.2021 - photo NEMO

Soufrière de St. Vincent - the new dome encircles the old one - 23.03.2021 - photo NEMO

Monitoring scientists from the Belmont Observatory led by scientists from the UWI Seismic Research Center (SRC) noted a change in seismic activity associated with the ongoing eruption of La Soufrière volcano in St. Vincent.

Until March 23, 2021, seismic activity had been dominated by very small low frequency events that were associated with the ongoing extrusion of the lava dome.

As of approximately 10:30 a.m. local time (2:30 p.m. UTC) on the 23rd March 2021, the surveillance network recorded a swarm of small, low-frequency seismic events that lasted about 45 minutes. These events were probably associated with the movement of magma under the dome, although their depth cannot be determined.

As of 4:53 p.m. local time (20:53 UTC) on March 23, 2021, the monitoring network began recording volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. These earthquakes are normally associated with subterranean fractures of the rock mass and are usually generated by magma pushing through an inflexible rock mass. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been located beneath the volcano, at depths of up to 10 km below the summit. The largest of them had a magnitude of 2.6.

Soufrière de St. Vincent - the crater and its domes - 23.03.2021 - photo NEMO - one click to enlarge

Soufrière de St. Vincent - the crater and its domes - 23.03.2021 - photo NEMO - one click to enlarge

The 2020-2021 St. Vincent Soufriere Dome continues to grow laterally into the crater, as it encircles the old 1979 dome.
Conditions were very windy on March 23, but the team of technicians and scientists managed to take a few snapshots and began preparations for the installation of a multi-gas instrument.
Thanks to the contribution of the French Civil Security of Martinique. It takes a lot of skill to land on the flanks of the volcano in adverse weather conditions.

 

The alert level remains at Orange and no evacuation order or notification has been given.

 

Source: NEMO St. Vincent and the Grenadines

Piton de La Fournaise - magmatic recharge in progress - photo archives IPR

Piton de La Fournaise - magmatic recharge in progress - photo archives IPR

Following the resumption of seismicity on March 13 under the Piton de la Fournaise, it continued and intensified. Thus between March 13 and 24, 250 summit volcano-tectonic earthquakes, with a magnitude between <1 and 2.6, were recorded and located under the Dolomieu crater between 0 and 0.9 km above sea level. (ie between 1.6 and 2.5 km deep).

Yesterday, March 24, 81 earthquakes were recorded under the summit area, including an earthquake of magnitude 2.6. This seismicity leads to destabilization of the edges of the Dolomieu crater and the number of collapses, 31 yesterday, is also increasing.

Piton de La Fournaise - Histogram representing the number of superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded between January 1 and March 24, 2021 (© OVPF-IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Histogram representing the number of superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded between January 1 and March 24, 2021 (© OVPF-IPGP).

This seismicity is accompanied by an inflation (swelling) of the Piton de la Fournaise building. The source at the origin of this inflation is located between 1.5 and 2 km deep under the Dolomieu crater, at the level of the superficial magmatic reservoir.

The CO2 fluxes in the ground are still increasing, especially on the sides of the volcano in the far field (Plaine des Cafres and Plaine des Palmistes sectors). Since CO2 is the first gas to be released from magma at great depth (from the mantle), its detection in the far field is often associated with a deep rise of magma.
Since yesterday, March 24, a slight increase in SO2 has been detected on the NOVAC stations of the OVPF located around the perimeter of the Enclos Fouqué, as well as on the multigas station of the OVPF located at the top. On the summit station, this increase in SO2 is coupled with CO2.

This deep rise of magma is at the origin of the pressurization of the superficial magmatic reservoir, and of the associated seismicity and inflation which intensify.

This recharging process from the depths to the shallow reservoir can take several days to weeks before the roof of the reservoir weakens and breaks, resulting in an injection of magma to the surface and an eruption, but can also stop without giving rise to a rash in the short term.

Last minute: the Prefecture announces the closure of public access to the upper part of the Enclosure as of Thursday, March 25 at 2 p.m.

Find all the information relating to the activity of Piton de la Fournaise on the various media of the OVPF-IPGP:
- the website (http://www.ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf),
- the Twitter account (https://twitter.com/obsfournaise?lang=fr),
- and the facebook account (https://www.facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise/)

Taal - the main crater and its steam plumes + photo from AFP / Ed Jones archives

Taal - the main crater and its steam plumes + photo from AFP / Ed Jones archives

In the last 24 hours, the Taal volcano network recorded 268 volcanic earthquakes, including 243 volcanic tremor episodes lasting 1 to 8 minutes and 25 low frequency volcanic earthquakes.

Activity at the main crater consisted of a weak emission of steam-laden plumes from the fumarolic vents that rose 5 meters. Sulfur dioxide emissions which averaged 1,109 tonnes / day were measured yesterday March 24, 2021.

Maximum temperatures of 71.8 °C and a pH of 1.59 were last measured from the main crater lake on March 4 and February 12, 2021, respectively.

Regarding the soil deformation parameters from the electronic tilt, continued analysis of GPS and InSAR data indicated very slow and steady inflation and expansion of the Taal region since the eruption of January 2020. These parameters may indicate increased magmatic activity shallow below the edifice.


Alert Level 2 (Heightened Agitation) is currently maintained over Taal Volcano, but this unrest has increased and is under constant assessment.

 

Source: Phivolcs

Geldingadalgos - on the eruptive site, a second prominent vent formed, contiguous to the original spatter cone - RUV webcam of 03.24.2021 at 4:14 p.m. and 7:36 p.m.
Geldingadalgos - on the eruptive site, a second prominent vent formed, contiguous to the original spatter cone - RUV webcam of 03.24.2021 at 4:14 p.m. and 7:36 p.m.

Geldingadalgos - on the eruptive site, a second prominent vent formed, contiguous to the original spatter cone - RUV webcam of 03.24.2021 at 4:14 p.m. and 7:36 p.m.

In Iceland, some changes can be seen in the Reykjanes Peninsula in Geldingadalur:

- a second prominent vent formed adjacent to the existing main vent.

- lava pools quickly form in Geldingadalur, (video that Aníta Ólöf Jónsdóttir - https://www.facebook.com/Hekluhestar/videos/1070698806752537). It shows how easily a layer of solidified magma loosens from the liquid magma in the lava pond that lies beneath all the new black lava.
The magma that flows from the craters flows in particular under the newly solidified lava. So it is dangerous to walk on newly solidified lava, even when it has turned black and cold. (RUV)

Lava field in Geldingadalur - lava pools / lava pool forming intermittently - Photo Aníta Ólöf Jónsdóttir / RUV video 24.03.2021

Lava field in Geldingadalur - lava pools / lava pool forming intermittently - Photo Aníta Ólöf Jónsdóttir / RUV video 24.03.2021

As part of monitoring the eruption, Pleiades images were used to measure lava thickness in the lava field, which reached up to 22 meters, lava volumes and effusion rates, thanks to ForMaTere for arrangements and CNES & AirbusSpace.

Lava field in Geldingadalur - Measurements of the Pleiades satellites (volume, thickness of the flow, flow) - Doc. ForM@Terre via Joaquin Belart / 23.03.2021 - 13h15

Lava field in Geldingadalur - Measurements of the Pleiades satellites (volume, thickness of the flow, flow) - Doc. ForM@Terre via Joaquin Belart / 23.03.2021 - 13h15

How long could this eruption last ? (ISOR - Iceland geosurvey)

This process began on February 24, 2021.
It took about 4 weeks for the influx of magma to fill the space provided by the movement of the plate in the magma chamber. After that, the magma had no other exit than to the surface in Geldingadalur.
It is as if a direct pipe has come to the surface of the molten material at the top of the mantle. It is therefore the quantity at the top of the mantle which determines the quantity of material which finally reaches the surface.
It has been estimated that the flow of magma through the Geldingadalur craters is approximately 5.7 cubic meters per second. It is a similar amount that has constantly flowed from the mantle in the Krafla magma chamber for 10 to 15 years in the last century. So it is just as likely that we will see another eruption on the Reykjanes Peninsula that could last for years.

A prolonged rash is not predicted, but it could last much longer than one would expect depending on the small size of the eruption. But we're at least lucky with where the magma chose to surface, where it could erupt for years without major problem and form a shield volcano.

 

Sources: IMO, RUV, mbls, ForMaTerre, ISOR

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
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The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etna Observatory, reports that a new increase in Strombolian activity is observed at the SE crater on March 23, 2021 at around 8:32 p.m. UTC.

At around 10 p.m. UTC, a lava fountain is underway at SE Crater. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity if it is dispersed towards the southwest ... on the way to the 16th paroxysm !

Etna SEC - 03.23.2021 / 8:51 p.m. EMOT INGV OE webcam

Etna SEC - 03.23.2021 / 8:51 p.m. EMOT INGV OE webcam

ETNA SEC - 03.23.2021 / 10:18 p.m. - EMOT INGV OE webcam

ETNA SEC - 03.23.2021 / 10:18 p.m. - EMOT INGV OE webcam

At 02:37 GMT a pyroclastic flow was also used for the INGV-OE surveillance cameras, even confirmed for the INGV staff present on the scene. The flow is oriented towards the Bove valley reaching about 2900 m in height.
On the seismic level, the increase in the magnitude of the volcanic tremor on very high values ​​continues.

From 02:30 UTC, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor is decreasing, while still remaining on high values.

Etna SEC - 03.24.2021 / 01:23 - EtnaLive / Vedetta.org / Vincenzo Modica

Etna SEC - 03.24.2021 / 01:23 - EtnaLive / Vedetta.org / Vincenzo Modica

Etna SEC 16 ° paroxysm - 03.24.2021 / 05h48 - EtnaLive / Vedetta.org / Vincenzo Modica

Etna SEC 16 ° paroxysm - 03.24.2021 / 05h48 - EtnaLive / Vedetta.org / Vincenzo Modica

Etna SEC - lava flow 03.24.2021 / 6:42 a.m. - webcam Emct0134 INGV OE

Etna SEC - lava flow 03.24.2021 / 6:42 a.m. - webcam Emct0134 INGV OE

Two flows were generated by the activity, one well fed towards the Bove Valley which reached around 1900 to 1800 m, and another less fed towards the south which settled in the summit area.

The INGV announced at 5:43 am UTC that according to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity if it is dispersed towards the south-east. The maximum height estimated by satellite east of 6000 m at sea level. It was also reported by staff INGV-OE to relapse of ash in Catania.

 

Sources: INGV OE, INGV webcams and Etna Live video

Etna SEC - 03.24.2021 / 07:45 - video EtnaLive / Vedetta.org / Vincenzo Modica

Etna SEC - 03.24.2021 / 07:45 - video EtnaLive / Vedetta.org / Vincenzo Modica

In the Reykjanes Peninsula, a new, smaller fissure opened better on the side of the main crater during the eruption of Geldingadalur at Fagradalsfjall, where a large amount of dense lava flows. In recent days, most of the activity has taken place in the main crater, but now it's highly visible in both places.

A new, smaller crack opened on the side of the main crater during the Geldingadalur eruption - photo 23.03.2021 / mbls

A new, smaller crack opened on the side of the main crater during the Geldingadalur eruption - photo 23.03.2021 / mbls

The southwest wind eased today making the air quality unhealthy near the eruption site after 7:00 p.m. on March 23, 2021.

The concentration of SO2 near the volcano can exceed 9000 µg / m3, and be higher in the valleys, like that of CO2. IMO and the Suðurnes police chief advise to leave the area before 5:00 p.m. and get away from the valleys.

A strong SO2 plume is detected by Sentinel-5P / Tropomi, drifting towards Reykjavik and the northeast (Tropomi via Simon Carn)

Reykjanes peninsula - accumulation of gas in Geldingadalur - 23.03.2021 / 11:50 - RUV webcam

Reykjanes peninsula - accumulation of gas in Geldingadalur - 23.03.2021 / 11:50 - RUV webcam

Iceland - eruption in Reykjanes Peninsula emits strong plume of SO2 - image Sentnel-5P tropomi 03/23.2021 / 2:17 p.m. / BIRA / DLR / ESA via S. Carn

Iceland - eruption in Reykjanes Peninsula emits strong plume of SO2 - image Sentnel-5P tropomi 03/23.2021 / 2:17 p.m. / BIRA / DLR / ESA via S. Carn

Sources: IMO, RUV, mbls

To read: Characterization of rock samples collected on the 1st and 2nd days of the eruption - major elements and mineral chemistry / Univ. Of Iceland

http://earthice.hi.is/sites/earthice.hi.is/files/characterization_of_the_1st_and_2nd_day_of_volcanic_products_from_geldingadalahraun_2021.pdf

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Pacaya - 03.21.2021 - gray plume emitted from the crater and a white fumarole in the part of the crack that opened last week. - photo Insivumeh

Pacaya - 03.21.2021 - gray plume emitted from the crater and a white fumarole in the part of the crack that opened last week. - photo Insivumeh

Pacaya - ash plume and gas from 03.22.2021 - photo Orlando Itzep, Unidad de Prevención de Volcanes. via Conred

Pacaya - ash plume and gas from 03.22.2021 - photo Orlando Itzep, Unidad de Prevención de Volcanes. via Conred

In Pacaya, activity continues, with moderate to strong explosions, with ballistic expulsions 500 meters above the Mackenney crater, settling over 300 to 600 meters away, and accompanied by ash plumes at a height of 3,500 -4,000 meters asl., moving towards an East and South sector, this March 22.

Strong electrical activity is observed in the pyrocumulus (cumulus flammagenitus) emitted by the volcano.

Lava flows are observed, respectively 1,500 meters long on the southwest flank, and 500 meters on the eastern flank.

 

Sources: Insivumeh & Conred

Pacaya - projection des zones touchées par les chutes de cendres - Doc. NOAA / Insivumeh

Pacaya - projection des zones touchées par les chutes de cendres - Doc. NOAA / Insivumeh

Merapi - 23.03.2021 - the avalanche pyroclastic flow at 12:06 is largely obscured by clouds - photo Tunggularum-G. Merapi B. Geologi

Merapi - 23.03.2021 - the avalanche pyroclastic flow at 12:06 is largely obscured by clouds - photo Tunggularum-G. Merapi B. Geologi

The pyroclastic avalanche flows follow one another at Merapi.

On March 22, the PVMBG reported 2 flows, recorded on a seismogram with an amplitude varying between 10 and 48 mm, lasting 134 to 150 seconds.

On March 23, at 10:58 am WIB, another pyroclastic flow was mentioned with an amplitude of 56 mm, lasting 141 seconds, and yet another at 12:02 WIB, recorded on a seismogram with an amplitude of 70 mm and a duration of 174 seconds. Its range is estimated at 1,800 m to the southwest. The wind was blowing from the southeast.

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga.

 

PVMBG source

Reykjanes Peninsula - Geldingadalsgos - 03/22/2021 / 6:58 p.m. - RUV webcam

Reykjanes Peninsula - Geldingadalsgos - 03/22/2021 / 6:58 p.m. - RUV webcam

The eruption in the Reykjanes Peninsula / Geldingadalsgos stabilized on a single vent from the initial fissure.

The explosive activity is low there, with the emission of lava packets, projected near the explosion zone and welded to the underlying projections. It built a cone of projections with steep walls, 25 meters high, in successive phases of construction-subsidence.

 

Geldingadalsgos - recent lava sample - Doc. Univ. Iceland 03/20.2021

 

Most of the lava comes out in the form of flows. This lava is smooth, pahoehoe, forms lava tunnels and builds a lava field which gradually fills the valley.

The lava flowing in Geldingadalur is basalt. It is the main feature of Icelandic volcanic belts, but it is likely to come from great depth. According to the analyzes of the samples, the connection is direct with the center of the Earth's mantle. This basalt is called olivine tholeiite and comes from "primitive" magma that is found at a depth of 17 to 20 kilometers.

 

Sources: IMO & RUV

Veniaminof - image Sentinel-2 enhanced nat. colors + IR overlay from 03.21.2021 / via Pierre Markuse - one click to enlarge

Veniaminof - image Sentinel-2 enhanced nat. colors + IR overlay from 03.21.2021 / via Pierre Markuse - one click to enlarge

Low-level eruptive activity continues at Veniaminof.

Small explosions at Veniaminof were observed in local seismic data and infrasound data at Chignik lagoon on the morning of March 21. A cloud of volcanic gas has been detected in satellite data extending southeast at an altitude of 5,000 feet or less. Minor low-level ash emissions from the small cone in the summit caldera and lava eruption in the intracaldera glacier at a vent ~ 1 km (0.6 mile) east of the top of the cone continues.

 

Sources: AVO & Sentinel-2 / Pierre Markuse

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 Geldingadalsgos - a small eruption, but a big spectacle - photo Ragnar Axelsson 03.21.2021

Geldingadalsgos - a small eruption, but a big spectacle - photo Ragnar Axelsson 03.21.2021

The eruption in Geldingadalur is still ongoing. The activity of the lava fountain is low and the mapping of the lava flow is in progress. No volcanic ash was detected but a high level of volcanic gases was measured near the eruption site.

IMO specialists took gas measurements at the eruption site yesterday. There are indications that gas emissions from the eruption are slightly lower than the previous day, but the gas concentration near the lava flow was measured above the danger threshold.

Due to the ongoing seismic activity in the Reykjanes Peninsula, people are advised to avoid steep terrain as boulders and boulders can fall and the risk of landslides is increased.
Yesterday around 240 earthquakes were detected, the largest M3.2 just NNE of Grindavík.

Many people had to be rescued last night and overnight who tried to get to the eruption sites despite the bad weather. Photo Slysavarnafélagið Landsbjörg / mbls

Many people had to be rescued last night and overnight who tried to get to the eruption sites despite the bad weather. Photo Slysavarnafélagið Landsbjörg / mbls

An emergency arose in the area around the eruption last night due to bad weather (expected) and the fate of the occupants of five cars is still uncertain. The exhausted people had to be rescued and transported by ambulance. 38 people were taken to a first aid post in Grindavík.

By midnight it was clear that the problem was serious because at that time 140 cars were unattended, that is, people had not returned to the cars. An official search was carried out for five people and four groups, two groups of seven people and two groups of four people, for a total of 27 people.

People are still coming to the scene despite the suggestions of the rescue teams. There was sleet and strong winds in the Reykjanes Peninsula ... it was not a weather for sightseeing. "It was a serious situation up there and it is not known how it will end," Guðbrandur says, but they are trying to find out which individuals are in the cars which are still unattended.

 

Source: IMO & mbls

Piton de La Fournaise - Source of deformation model pCDM) deduced from a Bayesian inversion of the surface displacement data recorded between March 13 and March 21, 2021, in cartographic views and vertical sections. The color level indicates the maximum probability level combined with the volume change sign (yellow-orange-red for inflation, green-cyan-blue for deflation). The black, red and green arrows are respectively the observed displacements, the modeled displacements and the residuals. Ellipses represent errors. The best model is indicated in the form of yellow plans (© OVPF-IPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Source of deformation model pCDM) deduced from a Bayesian inversion of the surface displacement data recorded between March 13 and March 21, 2021, in cartographic views and vertical sections. The color level indicates the maximum probability level combined with the volume change sign (yellow-orange-red for inflation, green-cyan-blue for deflation). The black, red and green arrows are respectively the observed displacements, the modeled displacements and the residuals. Ellipses represent errors. The best model is indicated in the form of yellow plans (© OVPF-IPGP).

Following the resumption of seismicity on March 13 under the Piton de la Fournaise, it continues. Thus between March 13 and March 21, 90 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, of magnitude between <1 and 1.8, were recorded and located under the Dolomieu crater between 0.2 and 0.9 km above the level of the sea ​​(ie between 1.6 and 2.3 deep).

This seismicity is accompanied by a resumption of inflation in the building. The source at the origin of this inflation is located about 2 km deep under the Dolomieu crater, at the level of the superficial magmatic reservoir.

Piton de La Fournaise - number of superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded between January 1 and March 21, 2021 (© OVPF-IPGP).

 

The CO2 fluxes in the ground are still increasing, especially on the sides of the volcano in the far field (Plaine des Cafres and Plaine des Palmistes sectors). Since CO2 is the first gas to be released from magma at great depth (from the mantle), its detection in the far field is often associated with a deep rise of magma.

This deep rise of magma is at the origin of the pressurization of the superficial magmatic reservoir, and the seismicity and inflation associated with it.

This recharging process from the depths to the shallow reservoir can take several days to several weeks before the reservoir roof weakens and breaks, resulting in an injection of magma to the surface and an eruption, but can also stop without giving rise to an eruption in the short term.

Current alert level: Vigilance

 

Source: Bulletin of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise from 22/03/2021 - 10: 00 local time

Find all the information relating to the activity of Piton de la Fournaise on the various media of the OVPF-IPGP:

- Internet (http://www.ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf),
- Twitter (https://twitter.com/obsfournaise?lang=fr),
- Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise/)

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Geldingadalsgos - the eruptive site explained - RUV image / captions in Spanish.

Geldingadalsgos - the eruptive site explained - RUV image / captions in Spanish.

On the eruptive site of Geldingadalur / Fagradalsfjall - NB: the new eruption, now called the "Geldingadalsgos" eruption by the Icelandic media -, an impressive spectacle took place at the crater of the main spatter cone on March 21 around 2:30 p.m. of it collapsed and the lava flow carved out a new path to its right (as seen from the webcam) or in the direction in which the numerous spectators observed the eruption.
It seems that people have moved up the hill away from the crater. Lava is now flowing in a new channel on the slope.

 

During the flyby by the IMO teams, we can see that the lava flows on either side of the crack and the spatter cones could meet and cut off access to this area.

Geldingadalsgos - overview of the eruptive site on March 21, 2021 / 2:47 p.m. - Doc. IMO
Geldingadalsgos - overview of the eruptive site on March 21, 2021 / 2:47 p.m. - Doc. IMO

Geldingadalsgos - overview of the eruptive site on March 21, 2021 / 2:47 p.m. - Doc. IMO

The Suðurnes police chief has decided to close this small area next to the eruption crack in Geldingadalur. This decision is based on a resolution of the Scientific Council, which drew attention to the fact that the large crater could shatter and that the lava flow could quickly change direction. There is also a risk that another eruption crack will open near the crater, which happened during the 2010 eruption in Fimmvörðuháls. The closed area is marked in red in the photo below.

In addition, the meteorological office predicts bad weather for the next 24 hours and tourists must be very well equipped if they are to walk to the eruption sites. The weather deteriorates considerably at night with strong winds, sleet or snow.

 

Comment on RUV: Úlfar Lúðvíksson, police chief in Suðurnes, says the reason the area closest to the crack is closed is first and foremost because people put themselves in danger there. !
 

Sources: Suðurnes Police Chief / Department of Civil Protection - 2021,03,21 / 4:29 p.m. - & RUV

Geldingadalsgos - closure of the shaded area for security reasons - Doc. Department of Civil Protection

Geldingadalsgos - closure of the shaded area for security reasons - Doc. Department of Civil Protection

According to the UWI, the new dome of the Soufrière de St. Vincent continues to extend over the crater floor and has increased in height.

His approximate measurements as of March 19, 2021 are 921 m. long over 243 m. wide, for a height of 105 m. Its volume is estimated at 13.12 million m³.

 

Sources: UWI and NEMO.

Soufriere de St. Vincent - partial view of the new growing dome - photo 18.03.2021 / UWI

Soufriere de St. Vincent - partial view of the new growing dome - photo 18.03.2021 / UWI

Soufrière St. Vincent - imprint of the new dome on 19.03.2021 - Doc. UWI

Soufrière St. Vincent - imprint of the new dome on 19.03.2021 - Doc. UWI

Soufrière St. Vincent - measurements and volume of the new dome on 19.03.2021 - Doc. UWI

Soufrière St. Vincent - measurements and volume of the new dome on 19.03.2021 - Doc. UWI

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In the Reykjanes Peninsula, the Fagradalsfjall / Geldingadalur eruption showed a change on March 20 in the past four hours. At least 4 spatter cones are observed. The eruption is of low intensity but there is still a lot of magma in the crust.

Reykjanes -20.03.2021 - the eruptive site of Geldingadalur at the start of the day - photo Kristin Magnusson via mbls

Reykjanes -20.03.2021 - the eruptive site of Geldingadalur at the start of the day - photo Kristin Magnusson via mbls

Reykjanes -20.03.2021 - the eruptive site of Geldingadalur at 5:19 p.m. (cutoff of the water stream) and at 7:28 p.m. - RUV webcam
Reykjanes -20.03.2021 - the eruptive site of Geldingadalur at 5:19 p.m. (cutoff of the water stream) and at 7:28 p.m. - RUV webcam

Reykjanes -20.03.2021 - the eruptive site of Geldingadalur at 5:19 p.m. (cutoff of the water stream) and at 7:28 p.m. - RUV webcam

The Scientific Council for Civil Protection and Emergency Management held an internet meeting today to discuss the eruption of Geldingadalir. The treatment of the latest measurements and data, on which scientists from the Iceland Met Office, the University of Iceland and ÍSOR have worked, was reviewed.
Temporary results indicate that the eruption fissure was originally about 200 m. in length, the lava about 10 to 15 m thick where it is thickest, and its total volume has grown to about 0.4 M m3.
Given the current situation, the eruption is confined to a very small area in a dell and it is highly unlikely that a lava flow will cause damage. No volcanic ash is detected at the eruption sites and strong gas pollution due to the eruption is not expected in populated areas

The aviation code remains orange.

The spatter cones spread over the fissure and lava flow in Geldinadalur - Doc. Landhelgisgæsla Íslands - Icelandic Coast Guard

The spatter cones spread over the fissure and lava flow in Geldinadalur - Doc. Landhelgisgæsla Íslands - Icelandic Coast Guard

The Scientific Council warns against the following risks near eruption sites:
- New cracks may open near eruption sites without warning.
- Glowing lava may fall from the edge of the lava flow, and a rapid and sudden surge could occur when new tongues of lava cross the edge of the lava, which is difficult to avoid while running.
- The craters have now reached several meters high and can be unstable, they can break and a strong and sudden lava flow can take a new direction.
- Explosions can occur where lava flows over waterlogged ground and throws it in all directions.
- Lava flows through a closed valley and potentially lethal types of gas can build up in dells, which can be fatal. The danger intensifies when the wind decreases.

Reykjanes -20.03.2021 - the lava flows in Geldingadalur at the start of the day and the archaeological site on the right - photo Kristin Magnusson via mbls

Reykjanes -20.03.2021 - the lava flows in Geldingadalur at the start of the day and the archaeological site on the right - photo Kristin Magnusson via mbls

Lava threatened to engulf a pre-Christian cemetery, and a team of archaeologists came to save possible elements.

A magnitude 3.2 earthquake rocked the area about 3.6 kilometers northeast of Grindavík at an hour and a half last night, but it was the first magnitude three earthquake near the city ​​in a few days. Some had hoped that with an eruption the people of Grindvík would be free from all seismic activity, but this is not the case. The seismic activity does not disappear even in the event of an eruption, but it decreases; earthquakes can be expected as long as the lava is flowing. About 500 earthquakes were measured in Reykjanes on Saturday, but at worst at the start of the month they were in the thousands a day.

 

Sources: IMO, Univ. Of Iceland, RUV, mbls, Icelandic coast guards

Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 03.21.2021 / at 7.45 a.m. - Doc. IMO
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 03.21.2021 / at 7.45 a.m. - Doc. IMO
Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 03.21.2021 / at 7.45 a.m. - Doc. IMO

Reykjanes Peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 03.21.2021 / at 7.45 a.m. - Doc. IMO

In Pacaya, the level of activity remains high, with Strombolian activity at Mackeney crater, characterized by a plume of ash and gas at 3,500 - 4,500 meters asl. moving 30 km to the south and southwest, and the expulsion of ballistic material 100-400 meters above the crest.

At the effusive level, a new lava flow in a southwest direction measures 500 meters and the flow toward the southeast is maintained at a length of 850 meters; Both flows present boulder falls at the lava front, which cause fires in the vegetation.

 

Source: Insivumeh

Pacaya - activity of 20.03.2021 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.5 - Doc. Insivumeh

Pacaya - activity of 20.03.2021 - image Sentinel-2 bands 12.11.5 - Doc. Insivumeh

Pacaya - RSAM / average seismic amplitude increasing since March 20 around 3 p.m. - Doc. Insivumeh

Pacaya - RSAM / average seismic amplitude increasing since March 20 around 3 p.m. - Doc. Insivumeh

AVO changed the Cleveland aviation code, in the Aleutian volcanic arc, to yellow, and the volcanic alert to advisory on March 20, 2021 at 9.44 p.m. Z.

Satellites have detected an increase in volcanic gas emissions and high surface temperatures since March 2020. A local earthquake on March 10 was measured by seismometers 100 km away on Umnak Island, indicating a potential rise in l 'activity.

 

The last activity of the volcano dates back to June 2, 2020; its explosions are typical for the production of small clouds of volcanic ash, which dissipate within a few hours.

 

Source: AVO

Cleveland - File photo Burke Mees / AVO - 02/03/2020 / 12 a.m.

Cleveland - File photo Burke Mees / AVO - 02/03/2020 / 12 a.m.

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