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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

From approximately 11:30 UTC on June 12, 2021, an increase in the intensity and frequency of Strombolian activity is observed at the level of the southeast crater of Etna, which produces a discontinuous ash emission which is scattered in the summit area.
From approximately 11:30 UTC, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed a clear increase and around 12:15 UTC, it reached the high range; At present, the parameter still shows a clear increasing trend. The centroid of volcanic tremor sources is located in the area of ​​the southeastern crater at an altitude of 2900-3000 m above sea level. At the same time, infrasonic activity has also intensified and shows a clear trend of increase, both in terms of the rate of occurrence and in the energy of infrasonic events, which are located in the south-eastern crater.

Etna SEC - 06.12.2021 - photo Rosanna Corsaro via INGV

Etna SEC - 06.12.2021 - photo Rosanna Corsaro via INGV

A further increase in Strombolian activity at the southeast crater is observed from around 12:50 UTC. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by this activity disperses in the SW direction.

In addition, an overflow of lava is observed from the southern flank of the southeast crater which extends in a southwest direction. The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor continues to show an increasing trend, in the range of high values. The center of gravity of the source of the volcanic tremor is located in the south-eastern crater area at an altitude of 2900-3000 m above sea level.

Etna SEC - 06.12.2021 / 1:03 p.m. - EMOT / INGV webcam

Etna SEC - 06.12.2021 / 1:03 p.m. - EMOT / INGV webcam

From around 7:30 p.m. the Strombolian activity of the southeast crater passed to a lava fountain. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses to the south. As for the lava overflow, it is well fed and its front has reached an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level. In addition, an additional flow is observed which extends in an easterly direction and which around 19:00 UTC reached the upper western edge of the Bove valley.

From around 21:15 UTC, the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed a rapid decrease and reached the base of the high value range around 22:50 UTC. Currently, this parameter shows a new downward trend.

At 11:16 pm we observe that the lava fountain of the southeast crater has ceased; instead, Strombolian activity continues.
The eruptive cloud produced during the fountain dispersed towards the SSE and news of a fallout of volcanic material was received at the Sapienza refuge. Lava overflows are reported.

The decrease in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, reported in the same press release, also continued in the following hours and around 00:30 the parameter reached the range of low values. Currently, the amplitude of the tremor shows a stationary trend within this level. The center of gravity of the springs
of the volcanic tremor is located in the area between the Bocca Nuova crater and the southeast crater, at an altitude of 2900-3000 m above sea level.

 

Source: INGV OE

Etna SEC - Lava fountain and flow on 12.06.2021 / 20:04 - EMOT / INGV webcam

Etna SEC - Lava fountain and flow on 12.06.2021 / 20:04 - EMOT / INGV webcam

Etna SEC - 12.06.2021, the main phase started at sunset - photo Boris Behncke

Etna SEC - 12.06.2021, the main phase started at sunset - photo Boris Behncke

Etna - trémor on 13.06.2021 / 06h - INGV OE document

Etna - trémor on 13.06.2021 / 06h - INGV OE document

During the past 24 hours, the Taal volcano network has not detected any volcanic earthquakes, however, a low-level earthquake has persisted since April 8, 2021. The activity of the main crater has been dominated by the ascent of hot volcanic fluids in its lake which generated plumes of 1,500 meters high which drifted towards the northwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were on average 9,911 tonnes / day as of June 10, 2021.

The activity of the main crater, dominated by the rise of hot volcanic fluids in its lake, generated plumes 1,000 meters high that drifted southwest and northwest. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were on average 4,673 tonnes / day on June 11, 2021.

Taal - photo sat. de la caldera and Volcano Island - Imagery courtesy of Planet Inc. / via GVP

Taal - photo sat. de la caldera and Volcano Island - Imagery courtesy of Planet Inc. / via GVP

" The unprecedented level of sulfur dioxide flux during this period of seismic quiescence warns the public not only of continuing magmatic unrest, but also of the direct impact of volcanic gas on downwind populations and economies. localities around Taal Lake ” the Phivolcs said in an advisory.

 

Alert level 2 (increased unrest) is currently maintained on the Taal volcano. DOST-PHIVOLCS reminds the public that at Alert Level 2, sudden steam or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ash falls and fatal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas in and around TVI. DOST-PHIVOLCS strongly recommends that entry be strictly prohibited into the volcanic island of Taal, the permanent danger zone or PDZ of Taal, especially the surroundings of the main crater and the Daang Kastila fissure, as well as the occupation and boating on Taal Lake.

 

Sources: Phivolcs and Philippine Star

Nyiragongo - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 of 11.06.2021 (after the eruption)

Nyiragongo - Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 of 11.06.2021 (after the eruption)

The authorities of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have decided to degas the Kabuno golf course on the northwest coast of Lake Kivu after the eruption, last May, of the Nyiragongo volcano, whose contact with carbon dioxide massed in the gulf could kill millions of people in the region.

"The government is in the process of harnessing itself so that the disbursement is done quickly so that the delivery of the material which will allow this degassing to be done as quickly as possible", declared to the Anadolu Agency, Didier Budimbu , Congolese Minister of Hydrocarbons.

He commissioned the French entrepreneur and expert Michel Halbwachs to degas the Kabuno golf course.

“The carbon dioxide in this gulf is less than 20 meters from the surface. It would suffice for there to be a flame, an explosion that will release this gas and if the wind is not favorable and it heads towards Goma, this gas will decimate the population by asphyxiation even in full sleep ”, a he said.

The cost of the work to extract carbon dioxide from this gulf is $ 5.5 million, he estimated.

 

Source: Anadolu Agency

Eruption - June 10, 2021- Traveler In The Whole World

Fagradalsfjall eruption :

The lava flow from the Geldingadalur eruption now appears to be heading largely to the eastern part of Meradalur, where the lava field has started to thicken considerably. So the thickness of the lava is 10-12 meters in the valley, but 2-3 meters at the edges.

The thickening of the lava flow occurs in both Geldingadalur and Meradalir. There is less flow to Nátthaga.

 

Source: Þorvaldur Þórðarson,  Professor of Volcanology at the University of Iceland / via mbls.

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Stromboli - 06.11.2021 / 4:06 p.m. - webcam therm. INGV OE

Stromboli - 06.11.2021 / 4:06 p.m. - webcam therm. INGV OE

The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etneo Observatory, announces that as of approximately 2:00 p.m. UTC, CCTV camera images from Stromboli show an increase in projection activity and explosions from active vents in the area. from the North crater. The coarse material produced covers the sides of the cone abundantly and rolls along the Sciara del Fuoco.

From 14:40 UTC, an overflow of lava is also observed from the edge of the north crater area. The lava flow produced is in the upper sector of the Sciara del Fuoco.
The trend of the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor does not show significant variations and the values ​​are maintained at the average level. The frequency and amplitude of transients attributable to explosive events do not show significant variations.
The networks of tilt and GNSS stations for monitoring soil deformation on the island do not show any significant changes.

 

Source: INGV OE

Stromboli - 06.12.2021 / 06:03 - webcam therm. INGV OE

Stromboli - 06.12.2021 / 06:03 - webcam therm. INGV OE

In Merapi, on the island of Java, the activity level has remained at level III (siaga) since November 5, 2020 at 12:00 WIB.

Thanks to the seismographic recordings of June 11, 2021, it was recorded:
- 4 earthquakes linked to pyroclastic avalanche flows
- 124 times the avalanche earthquake
- 12 times the blast / emission earthquake
- 21 hybrid / multiphase earthquakes
- 2 times the shallow volcanic earthquake
- 1 distant tectonic earthquake.

 

On June 12, 2021 at 8:30 a.m. WIB was recorded on a seismogram with an amplitude of 67 mm and a duration of 155 seconds. No visuals due to fog, glide distance estimated at 2,000 m to the southwest.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia and BPPTKG

Merapi - Pyroclastic flow of collapse on 06.11.2021 / 08:14 - Babadan-2 webcam

Merapi - Pyroclastic flow of collapse on 06.11.2021 / 08:14 - Babadan-2 webcam

Merapi - seismicity for the week on 06.11.2021 (above) & seismograms for 06.12.2021 (below) - Doc. BPPTKG
Merapi - seismicity for the week on 06.11.2021 (above) & seismograms for 06.12.2021 (below) - Doc. BPPTKG

Merapi - seismicity for the week on 06.11.2021 (above) & seismograms for 06.12.2021 (below) - Doc. BPPTKG

The surface of the lake in the Halama'uma'u Crater of Kilauea is now completely covered with a solidified lava crust. No surface activity or evidence of recent surface activity has been observed over the past week except for minor subsidence in the range of 1 to 2 meters (3 to 7 feet).

Small, higher-temperature spots around the rim and in local cavities remain visible on the webcam thermal imaging, albeit at temperatures well below those associated with molten lava.

 

Source: HVO-USGS

Kilauea - Halema'uma'u lava lake - HVO therm webcam 06.11.2021 / 8:42 p.m. HST

Kilauea - Halema'uma'u lava lake - HVO therm webcam 06.11.2021 / 8:42 p.m. HST

The Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise, the Reunion National Park and the Cité du Volcan, are pleased to announce the baptismal name of the new volcanic cone, resulting from the eruption from April 9 to May 24, 2021: the "Piton Guy Valcourt PICARD".

Guy Valcourt PICARD was a former guide and carrier of the Volcano. He left us at the age of 85, shortly before the onset of this eruption. He was the son of Alfred PICARD, emblematic guide of the Volcano who marked his time in the 50s / 60s and who forged the spirit of the last former guides and carriers of the Volcano.

He was introduced to geology by the scholars Marcel Ducrot, Maurice Jean, Haroun Tazieff, Maurice and Katia Krafft, whom he accompanied to the Piton de la Fournaise.

 

Source: P.Huet / City of the volcano

Le piton Guy Valcourt PICARD - City of the volcano / photo P.Huet

Le piton Guy Valcourt PICARD - City of the volcano / photo P.Huet

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Fagradalsfjall, active eruptive vent - 06.09.2021 / 11:14 pm - waterfalls and rivers of lava - webcam mbls

Fagradalsfjall, active eruptive vent - 06.09.2021 / 11:14 pm - waterfalls and rivers of lava - webcam mbls

Fagradalsfjall, active eruptive vent - 06.10.2021 / 03:40 - waterfalls and rivers of lava - webcam mbls

Fagradalsfjall, active eruptive vent - 06.10.2021 / 03:40 - waterfalls and rivers of lava - webcam mbls

According to Kristín Jónsdóttir, head of natural hazards monitoring at the Icelandic Met Office, changes took place on Thursday, June 10 at around 4 p.m. at the site of the Fagradalsfjall volcanic eruption.

The activity is no longer characterized by fountains at the crater, but rather cascades.

The pulsatile activity of the fountains, which has become the norm since May 2, has changed: the fountains have become smaller and more regular, to pass to a constant emission activity.

 Overall lava production remains stable, however.

 

According to Icelandic experts, the observations of the evolutionary stage towards a shield volcano will be evaluated with the modern tools available today ... a first !

Lava thickness maps were born, and show that in some places the lava reached more than 100 meters thick ... a tower of more than 30 floors.

 

Sources: analyzes by Kristín Jónsdóttir / RUV and Szabolcs Harangi / FB

Fagradalsfjall - 02.06.2021 - Lava thickness maps of the Geldingadalir volcanic eruption - autors référenced / image down

Fagradalsfjall - 02.06.2021 - Lava thickness maps of the Geldingadalir volcanic eruption - autors référenced / image down

HUGE LAVA FALLS - BEST SPACTACLE ON EARTH RIGHT NOW - Iceland Volcano Eruption - June 10, 2021 / Traveller In The Whole World

During the morning of June 9, 2021, plumes of water vapor and gas were observed at the Turrialba volcano ... phenomenon which gave it its name (white tower).

Recall that this occurs largely due to the presence of rainwater which, entering the crater and meeting the hot material, turns into water vapor which is then expelled forming these white columns that denote the presence of a lot of water vapor from gases.

 

Source: Ovsicori- UNA

Turrialba - gas and steam plume - 06.10.2021 / 10.59am Ovsicori webcam

Turrialba - gas and steam plume - 06.10.2021 / 10.59am Ovsicori webcam

In Poas, no eruption is reported.
Seismic activity is similar, compared to yesterday.
Frequent low amplitude earthquakes of 1 to 10 Hz are detected. The geodesic observations do not show any significant deformation of the volcanic building. Gas ratios are stable.

 

A note: a historic first, this June 9, with the flight over the hyperacid lake of Poas (temperature: 10 ° C - pH: 0.31) by a Matrice Pro 600 drone, dedicated to surveillance and research.

 

Sources: OVSICORI-UNA & LAGAT-UNA / Geospatial Innovation

Poas - drones photo 09.06.2021 - Foto Manuel HC GEOINN / Geospatial Innovations - via Maria Martinez

Poas - drones photo 09.06.2021 - Foto Manuel HC GEOINN / Geospatial Innovations - via Maria Martinez

Poas - drone photo 09.06.2021 - Doc. OVSICORI-UNA & LAGAT-UNA / Geospatial Innovation

Poas - drone photo 09.06.2021 - Doc. OVSICORI-UNA & LAGAT-UNA / Geospatial Innovation

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Ili Lewotolok - 08.06.2021 / 6:50 p.m. WITA - Doc. PVMBG - KSEDM / Magma Indonesia

Ili Lewotolok - 08.06.2021 / 6:50 p.m. WITA - Doc. PVMBG - KSEDM / Magma Indonesia

Ili Lewotolok - seismicity at 07.06.2021 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

Ili Lewotolok - seismicity at 07.06.2021 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

The eruption of Mount Ili Lewotolok, East Nusa Tenggara continues, with this June 8, 2021 at 6:10 p.m. WITA, an explosion, accompanied by a column of gray and thick ash, observed at ± 500 m above the summit (at ± 1,923 m above sea level).

This eruption was recorded on a seismograph with a maximum amplitude of 4 mm and a duration of 30 seconds.

Communities around Mount Ili Lewotolok as well as visitors / climbers / tourists are recommended not to engage in activities within 3 km of the summit / crater of Mount Ili Lewotolok. The community of Jontona Village should always be aware of the potential threat of weathered material avalanches which may be accompanied by hot clouds originating from the southeastern portion of G. Ili Lewotolok peak / crater.

The activity level is 3 / siaga

 

Sources: PVMBG-KESDM & Magma Indonesia

Gareloi - 05.23.2021, and its persistent fumarole zone on the western edge of the south crater - AVO

Gareloi - 05.23.2021, and its persistent fumarole zone on the western edge of the south crater - AVO

A slight increase in seismic activity was observed at Gareloi volcano in the Aleutians on May 18, and from May 27 there was a sustained increase in the rate and size of small volcanic earthquakes.

Because the level of seismic activity is now higher than the background noise, the AVO increases the Aviation Color Code to YELLOW and the Volcanic Alert Level to ADVISORY. There have been no other noticeable changes to the volcano in satellite data or web camera views. Sulfur dioxide has been detected in satellite images from Gareloi over the past week and matches measurements of recent years. No activity was observed by an AVO field team flying over the summit on May 23.

The Gareloi volcano persistently emits magmatic gases from a field of fumaroles on the southern crater and generally exhibits low-level seismic activity. These observations suggest the presence of shallow magma and a potential interaction with a hydrothermal system. The current increase in seismicity likely reflects a change in the magmatic-hydrothermal system, but it is not clear that the likelihood of a volcanic eruption has increased. AVO will continue to monitor activity to determine if recent changes are related to the influx of new magma or other changes in the magma system.

Gareloi is monitored by a local seismic and infrasound network, satellite data and regional infrasound and lightning detection networks.

 

Source: AVO

Fagradalsfjall - numerous overflows at the active vent - photo this 08.06.2021 / 09.46.20 - new webcam mbls

Fagradalsfjall - numerous overflows at the active vent - photo this 08.06.2021 / 09.46.20 - new webcam mbls

The eruption continues at Fagradalsfjall, with numerous lava overflows at the only active crater, and in the Náttagha valley, smoke emissions at the lava front (wildfires?) Which block the view of the lava flowing down the slope in the valley.

Fagradalsfjall - numerous overflows at the active vent - photo this 06/08/2021 / 1:04 p.m. - new mbls webcam

Fagradalsfjall - numerous overflows at the active vent - photo this 06/08/2021 / 1:04 p.m. - new mbls webcam

Fagradalsfjall eruption, Nattagha Valley - Screen capture of the flow front with smoke masking the flows at the bottom of the valley / the car gives the scale - mbls webcam / screenshot 08.06.2021

Fagradalsfjall eruption, Nattagha Valley - Screen capture of the flow front with smoke masking the flows at the bottom of the valley / the car gives the scale - mbls webcam / screenshot 08.06.2021

Volcanologist Þorvaldur Þórðarson comments on the Fagradalsfjall eruption:

"... All types of basalt lava that existed on earth formed, without the productivity of the eruption changing to any extent.

If you think about the productivity of this rash, it was pretty consistent, only variability and no big changes.

However, we first see big changes in the behavior of the eruption in crater activity. We started off with some pretty weak gas bubbles that burst as they rose to the surface and splashed here and there and maybe tiny jets of magma. Then we switched to continuous magma jet activity for a while, then we switched to higher impulse activity where it happened in cycles, then we got very high magma jets and powerful. So now we are in the Spattering / Splash circle {...}

"We received confirmation of some theories and ideas, as with pyroclastic particles, they changed over time, their outer surface actually became more like glass when the activity of the magma jet was at its strongest. , but at first it was a much duller surface and not as well defined ", explains Þorvaldur. "Many years ago I put forward the idea that such a glazed surface of pyroclastic particles from such eruptions formed because hot gas circulated around the particles so quickly that they melted the shell. external. And that's exactly what they do, so I have confirmation of that. It's one of those funny things. "  -  (extracts from an interview with RUV)

 

Sources: RUV, mbls

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Sinabung - the dome after eruption of June 6 - photo 08.06.2021 by Firdaus Surbakti from Desa Payung / via Beidar Sinabung

 Sinabung - the dome after eruption of June 6 - photo 08.06.2021 by Firdaus Surbakti from Desa Payung / via Beidar Sinabung

In Sinabung, after the eruption of July 6, 2021 at 11:50 p.m. WIB, the morphology of the summit dome has changed significantly. The rim has exploded and leaves only a central needle.

At the seismic level, since May 15 of this year, we have noticed an increase in the number of hybrid / multiphase earthquakes ... whereas until then, it was earthquakes linked to collapses that dominated.

 

Sources Beidar Sinabung & Magma Indonesia

Sinabung - seismicity at 07.06.2021 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

Sinabung - seismicity at 07.06.2021 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

Following low magnitude earthquakes, which are not published automatically, a virtual meeting was held between the IGEPN teams and the WCC of the canton of Baños on the activity of Tungurahua.

The latest earthquakes felt in the town of Baños, of magnitudes less than 2.9 and shallow, are associated with faults nearby. They do not pose a threat to the population.

Monitoring of the volcano remains permanent; its surface activity is very low, and the internal activity remains low, both unchanged.

Tungurahua - photo archives 08.2018 / José Luis Espinosa Naranjo

Tungurahua - photo archives 08.2018 / José Luis Espinosa Naranjo

The Reventador presents a high surface activity, with an increasing tendency, and a moderate internal activity, without change. In terms of seismicity, on June 7/11 a.m., there were 12 explosion earthquakes, 37 LP earthquakes and 4 tremor episodes.

Two ash emissions are reported by VAAC Washington, at a max. 700 m. above the summit.

The alert level remains in Naranja.

Reventador - plume of ash and gas - photo 05.06.2021 / IGEPN webcam Copete

Reventador - plume of ash and gas - photo 05.06.2021 / IGEPN webcam Copete

In recent days, heavy rains have affected the surroundings of Sangay and are responsible for the remobilization of the ashes. This phenomenon has been recurring since May 2019. It is advisable not to access the drainages of the Volcán and Upano rivers.

 

Source for these three Ecuadorian volcanoes: IGEPN

Sangay - photo 05.31.2021 Ana Lucia Estrella / via IGEPN

Sangay - photo 05.31.2021 Ana Lucia Estrella / via IGEPN

In the Reykjanes peninsula, the activity of Fagradalsfjall continues.

The lava is already flowing over the two protective walls which had been built to slow the flow of lava towards the valley of Nátthaga, where it evolves less quickly at the level of the ephemeral pond; lava could continue to flow south and threaten a fiber optic cable and the Suðurstrandarvegur road. Superintendent Rögnvaldur Ólafsson explains that the protective walls are still standing, although lava is flowing over them.

New hiking trails leading to the site of the Fagradalsfjall eruption in southwest Iceland are under consideration following a threat of recovery from Geldingadalur.

Pollution by volcanic gases, on the rise this weekend, has decreased, following a change in the direction of the winds and their greater force.

New webcams have been installed; references are below.

 

Sources: RUV, mbls, IMO

Geldingadalir Volcano,vent #5 - Close-up timelapse June 7th 2021

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Fagradalsfjall - 05.06.2021 / 10h29 - overflow of the west dam towards the Nátthaga valley - webcam Veðurstofa Íslands / Meradalur - one click to enlarge

Fagradalsfjall - 05.06.2021 / 10h29 - overflow of the west dam towards the Nátthaga valley - webcam Veðurstofa Íslands / Meradalur - one click to enlarge

Fagradalsfjall - 05.06.2021 / 19h31 - overflow of the west dam - webcam RUV Langihryggur

Fagradalsfjall - 05.06.2021 / 19h31 - overflow of the west dam - webcam RUV Langihryggur

On the morning of June 5, the Meteorological Office team noticed an increase in turbulence and gas emissions during the eruption in Fagradalsfjall.

A lava overflow occurred at the western dam and a very rapid lava flow flowed into the Nátthaga valley. The lava advanced to the ephemeral pond, while widening; it is fed by a bifid flow at the level of the drop closing the valley to the north.

South of Geldingadalur, the flow has thickened and is heading south of the valley and could descend into Nátthaga, and block hiking trail A and access to the eruption.

 

Sources: RUV, mbls, local observers

Fagradalsfjall eruption - Nátthaga Valley, the flow reaches the ephemeral pond - 05.06.2021 / 10:09 pm - webcam RUV Langihryggur

Fagradalsfjall eruption - Nátthaga Valley, the flow reaches the ephemeral pond - 05.06.2021 / 10:09 pm - webcam RUV Langihryggur

The lava has pierced the western wall and is flowing at high speed into Syðri Meradalur (valley above Natthagi) and the lava is spreading over this valley in a large hot lake.

Nátthaga Valley - flow progress timelapse from 05.06.2021 - new mbls camera

In Sinabung, this June 6 from 11:35 pm WIT, an eruption generating a pyroclastic flow occurred. It could not be observed directly because of the fog, but Sadrah Peranginangin reports fallout of small pumice stones on the villages of Kuta Gugung and Kuta Rayat around midnight.

 

An Incandescent zone remained visible above the village of Sigarang-garang; the cause is not clearly identified, lava or pyroclastic flow, because of the fog blanket.

Several villages on the slopes of the Sinabung were hit by a hail of stones and gravel, the ash was confirmed to have reached Stabat.

Sinabung - plot on the seismogram of 06.06.2021 / 11:50 p.m. APG - and pumice samples - photos Sadrah Peranginangin / Beidar - one click to enlarge Sinabung - plot on the seismogram of 06.06.2021 / 11:50 p.m. APG - and pumice samples - photos Sadrah Peranginangin / Beidar - one click to enlarge

Sinabung - plot on the seismogram of 06.06.2021 / 11:50 p.m. APG - and pumice samples - photos Sadrah Peranginangin / Beidar - one click to enlarge

The seismicity of June 6 from 6 to midnight local is characterized by;

- 1 eruption earthquake; with an amplitude of 36 mm and a duration of 85 seconds.
- 1 pyroclastic flow collapse earthquake, with an amplitude of 120 mm and a duration of 421 seconds.
- 9 avalanche earthquakes, with an amplitude of 6-37 mm and an earthquake duration of 31-163 seconds.
- 23 hybrid / multiphase earthquakes with an amplitude of 2-23 mm, S-P was not observed and the duration of the earthquake was 6-21 seconds.
- 1 distant tectonic earthquake with an amplitude of 72 mm lasting 57 seconds.

 

The activity level remained at 3 / siaga

The community and visitors / tourists should not conduct activities in the relocated villages, as well as the locations within a radial radius of 3 km from the summit of Mount Sinabung, as well as a sector radius of 5 km for the southeast sector, and 4 km for the east-north sector.
In the event of ash rain, people are advised to wear masks when leaving the house to reduce the health impact of volcanic ash. Secure drinking water facilities and clean roofs of houses from heavy volcanic ash so that they do not collapse.
People who live and live near rivers that originate at Mount Sinabung to stay alert to the dangers of lahars.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia, Beidar Sinabung / Sadrah Peranginangin

  Suwanosejima - plume to 1500 m on 2021.07.06 / 14h41 - 14h42  - webcam JMA

Suwanosejima - plume to 1500 m on 2021.07.06 / 14h41 - 14h42 - webcam JMA

In the Ryukyu archipelago, the eruption continues in Suwanosejima, with this June 7 at 2:38 pm, an explosion accompanied by a plume entering the clouds at an altitude of 1,500 meters; the plume is heading northeast.

 

Source: JMA webcams

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The last eruption of Sinabung, on Sumatra, occurred on June 4, 2021 and the height of the eruptive column was not observed.


On June 5, the dome was clearly visible; it was topped with a light plume of gas. Thanks to Endro for the recent photos.

Thanks to the seismographic recordings of June 5, 2021, it was recorded: 1 -1 low frequency earthquake
- 55 times the hybrid / multiphase earthquake
- 2 times the deep volcanic earthquake
- 1 local tectonic earthquake
- 1 distant tectonic earthquake.

Note a different seismicity since mid-May 2021.

Sinabung - the summit on 06.05.2021 - photo Endro Rusharyanto - one click to enlarge

Sinabung - the summit on 06.05.2021 - photo Endro Rusharyanto - one click to enlarge

Sinabung - the summit on 06.05.2021 from another angle- photo Endro Rusharyanto - one click to enlarge

Sinabung - the summit on 06.05.2021 from another angle- photo Endro Rusharyanto - one click to enlarge

Sinabung -  seismicity at 05.06.2021 - Doc. PVMBG / Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

Sinabung - seismicity at 05.06.2021 - Doc. PVMBG / Magma Indonesia - one click to enlarge

The activity level remains at 3 / siaga. The last VONA sent the color code Orange, published on June 3, 2021, at 8:05 p.m. WIB. Volcanic ash is not observed because it is covered with fog.

The community and visitors / tourists should not conduct activities in the relocated villages, as well as the locations within a radial radius of 3 km from the summit of Mount Sinabung, as well as a sector radius of 5 km for the southern sector. east, and 4 km for the northeast sector.
In the event of ash fallout, people are advised to wear masks when leaving home to reduce the health impact of volcanic ash and to secure drinking water facilities and clean house roofs from ash. thick volcanic so they do not collapse
People who live and live near the rivers that originate at Mount Sinabung should remain vigilant against the dangers of lahars.

 

Sources: PVMBG, Magma Indonesia and photos of Endro Rusharyento.

Taal volcano island - gas and steam plume - photo archives co ABS-CBN News 24.05.2021

Taal volcano island - gas and steam plume - photo archives co ABS-CBN News 24.05.2021

During the last 24 hours, the seismic network of the Taal volcano has not detected any volcanic earthquakes, however, a low-level background quake has persisted since April 8, 2021. The activity of the main crater has been dominated by the rise of hot volcanic fluids in its lake which generated plumes of 500 meters high which drifted towards the south-east. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions averaged 1,898 tonnes / day on June 5, 2021.

The island of the Taal volcano started to deflate in April 2021 while the Taal region is swelling and expanding very slowly and steadily at a decreasing rate since the eruption of 2020. These parameters indicate a decrease in magmatic activity deep under the building.

Despite the insistence of local authorities to lower it, alert level 2 (increased unrest) is currently maintained on the Taal volcano. DOST-PHIVOLCS reminds the public that at Alert Level 2, sudden steam or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ash falls and fatal accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas in and around TVI. DOST-PHIVOLCS strongly recommends that entry be strictly prohibited into the volcanic island of Taal, the permanent danger zone or PDZ of Taal, especially the surroundings of the main crater and Daang Kastila fissure, as well as the occupation and boating on Taal Lake

 

Sources: Phivolcs and Manilla Times

This view from the top of Mauna Loa looks northeast. The eastern flank of Mauna Kea is to the left, and North Pit, at the northeast end of Moku'āweoweo, is opposite - HVO-USGS photo - one click to enlarge

This view from the top of Mauna Loa looks northeast. The eastern flank of Mauna Kea is to the left, and North Pit, at the northeast end of Moku'āweoweo, is opposite - HVO-USGS photo - one click to enlarge

Mauna Loa volcano on Big Island / Hawaii is not erupting. The current level of volcanic alert remains at Advisory and the aviation code at Yellow.

Seismicity rates at the summit remain slightly high and above long-term background levels, with around 55 low-magnitude earthquakes below Mauna Loa, most concentrated below the summit and elevation flanks of the volcano. All of the earthquakes last week were below M3 and mostly occurred at depths less than 8 km (about 5 mi) below ground level.
Other Mauna Loa monitoring data feeds show no significant changes in deformation rates or patterns that would indicate increased volcanic risk at present.
Gas concentrations (below 2 ppm SO2) and fumarole temperatures (below 100 degrees Celsius) at the summit and Sulfur Cone in the southwest rift zone remain stable.

 

Source: HVO-USGS

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

This June 4, the INGV reports a weak intracrater Strombolian activity that continues at the south-eastern crater of Etna; the lava overflow generated during the last lava fountain event cools.

In addition, intracrater explosive activity at the Bocca Nuova crater and at the same time occasional ash emissions are observed at the north-eastern crater which disperse rapidly in the summit area.
From the seismic point of view, the mean amplitude values ​​of the volcanic tremor are at a medium-high level, still showing small fluctuations. The centroid of the volcanic tremor sources remains located in the area of ​​the SE crater at an altitude of about 2900 m s.l.m.

Etna - trémor on 05.06.2021 / 06h - Doc. INGV OE

Etna - trémor on 05.06.2021 / 06h - Doc. INGV OE

Around 13:30 UTC, the images from the surveillance cameras show an increase in Strombolian activity at the level of the Southeast crater. The activity produces discontinuous ash emissions which disperse rapidly near the summit area of ​​the volcano.
From the seismic point of view, from around 13:30 UTC, it is observed that the average amplitude values ​​of the volcanic tremor are at a medium-high level showing a clear tendency to increase. The centroid of the volcanic tremor sources remains located in the SE crater area at an altitude of about 2900 m asl.

Etna SEC - 04.06.2021, respectively at 4:15 p.m., 4:30 p.m. and 4:51 p.m. - therm webcams. INGV - the 2nd circular halo is due to the setting sun - one click to enlargeEtna SEC - 04.06.2021, respectively at 4:15 p.m., 4:30 p.m. and 4:51 p.m. - therm webcams. INGV - the 2nd circular halo is due to the setting sun - one click to enlarge
Etna SEC - 04.06.2021, respectively at 4:15 p.m., 4:30 p.m. and 4:51 p.m. - therm webcams. INGV - the 2nd circular halo is due to the setting sun - one click to enlarge

Etna SEC - 04.06.2021, respectively at 4:15 p.m., 4:30 p.m. and 4:51 p.m. - therm webcams. INGV - the 2nd circular halo is due to the setting sun - one click to enlarge

From around 4:20 p.m. UTC, the passage of Strombolian activity from the Southeast crater to the lava fountain can be observed from surveillance cameras., The eruptive cloud formed by the
Lava fountain, which according to the forecast model disperses in the SE direction, reaches a height of about 6500 m above sea level.

From about 17:00 UTC, we observe a rapid decrease in the average amplitude values ​​of the volcanic tremor, which is placed at a high level with a tendency to decrease.

At around 5:30 p.m. UTC, the lava fountain in the southeast crater gradually depleted. In accordance with the forecast model, the dispersion concerned the south-eastern sector of the volcano. INGV staff in the field report the impact of the products to Aci Castello, Tremestieri and Catania (Ognina).

Etna SEC - high plume and active lava flow - photos Boris Behncke from Tremestrieri
Etna SEC - high plume and active lava flow - photos Boris Behncke from Tremestrieri

Etna SEC - high plume and active lava flow - photos Boris Behncke from Tremestrieri

In its report of 21:22 UTC, the INGV announces that the explosive activity at the Southeast crater has ceased, however the lava overflow which extends in the southwest direction; the lava flow is still fed and the flow front is located at an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level.

 

Source: INGV OE

Merapi - 06/04/2021 / 11:52 a.m. WIB - Magma Indonesia

Merapi - 06/04/2021 / 11:52 a.m. WIB - Magma Indonesia

The week of May 28 to June 3 in Merapi / Java, according to the BPPTKG weekly report

Hot cloud avalanches occurred 7 times with a maximum glide distance of 2000 m to the southwest and recorded on a seismogram with a maximum amplitude of 60 mm and a duration of 322 seconds.

Lava falls - guguran- were observed 44 times in the southwest with a maximum slide distance of 2000 meters and 1 time in the southeast with a slide distance of 600 m.

The volume of the lava dome in the southwest sector is 1,325,000 m³ with a growth rate of 11,600 m³ / day.

Merapi - the summit on 03.06.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG - one click to enlarge

Merapi - the summit on 03.06.2021 - Doc. BPPTKG - one click to enlarge

Morphological analysis of the peak area based on photos of the southeast sector from June 3 to May 28, 2021, shows that there is a difference in height of the central dome of 1 m.

The intensity of this week's earthquake is higher than last week. - The deformation of Mount Merapi, which was monitored by EDM this week, showed a distance shortening rate of 0.9 cm / day.

The alert remains at 3 / siaga

The current potential danger consists of lava avalanches and hot clouds in the South-South-West sector covering the Yellow, Boyong, Bedog, Krasak, Bebeng and Putih rivers for a maximum of 5 km and in the south-eastern sector. , the Gendol river up to 3 km.

Merapi - Pyroclastic flow on 04.06.2021 / 16:05 - photo Babada-2 - Merapi -  one click to enlarge

Merapi - Pyroclastic flow on 04.06.2021 / 16:05 - photo Babada-2 - Merapi - one click to enlarge

On June 4, 2021 at 4:05 p.m. WIB a pyroclastic flow was recorded on a seismogram with an amplitude of 50 mm and a duration of 113 seconds. hovered 1500 m to the southwest.

 

Source: BPPTKG

Fagradalsfjall - The main observation point to see the erupting crater (Gónhól) became impassable on June 4 - photo Kristín Jónsdóttir

Fagradalsfjall - The main observation point to see the erupting crater (Gónhól) became impassable on June 4 - photo Kristín Jónsdóttir

The eruption of Fagradalsfjall continues, and on May 4, 2021 at around 7 a.m., lava flows around Gónhóll and cuts the path to the observation point: the area has become an isolated island ... a new kipuka is born !.

 

On June 3, the photos of the eruptive site have silvery reflections, due to the volcanic glass.

Glass forms when magma cools rapidly and can take on many different shapes, from sparkling rocks to stringy fibers, hair, or Pele's tears.

As magma degassing faster than before, it becomes less viscous (more fluid) and therefore cools faster in interaction with air. Rapid cooling freezes the uncrystallized magma and turns into volcanic glass.

 

Sources: RUV, mbls, Kristín Jónsdóttir / IMO

Fagradalsfjall - Silver reflections on the active cone and lava field this June 3, 2021 - Screenshot RUV live via Iceland Review

Fagradalsfjall - Silver reflections on the active cone and lava field this June 3, 2021 - Screenshot RUV live via Iceland Review

Regarding the eruption at Nyiragongo, seismic data recorded on June 4 indicates a continuous decrease in the number and magnitude of earthquakes (most of them are not felt).

The GPS network of the Goma Volcanological Observatory did not detect any movement of movement of the magma below the city of Goma and Lake Kivu.

The latest satellite data recorded indicate that the ground continued to deform between May 27 and June 2.

However, the readings of the openings of the cracks measured in the city of Goma do not indicate the deformation since June 1.

New landslides are still possible in the crater and could cause ash fallout in neighboring regions.

The favorable development of the situation continues even if we cannot totally exclude a revival in activity. This justifies the continuation of intensive surveillance and the daily reassessments of the situation carried out by the OVG.

 

Sources: O.V.G, Africa Museum Georiska, & ERCC

Press release from the General Direction of the O.V.G. from 04.06.2021 - click to enlarge

Press release from the General Direction of the O.V.G. from 04.06.2021 - click to enlarge

Nyiragongo - the collapsed crater and a small deep hot spot (probably hot gases) - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 from 06/01/2021 - one click to enlarge

Nyiragongo - the collapsed crater and a small deep hot spot (probably hot gases) - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 from 06/01/2021 - one click to enlarge

Goma - report on the situation of the ERCC / European Commission of 04.06.2021 - click to enlarge

Goma - report on the situation of the ERCC / European Commission of 04.06.2021 - click to enlarge

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

In Fagradalsfjall, the path leading to the observation point of the active cone, and prohibited from entering by the police, has still not been cut.

Fagradalsfjall - eruption on 06/03/2021 - the observation point is about to be surrounded by lava and transformed into a kipuka. Note: the yellow ribbon prohibiting access - - photo mbl.is / Einar Falur - - one click to enlarge

Fagradalsfjall - eruption on 06/03/2021 - the observation point is about to be surrounded by lava and transformed into a kipuka. Note: the yellow ribbon prohibiting access - - photo mbl.is / Einar Falur - - one click to enlarge

New measurements were taken yesterday, Wednesday June 2, when Garðaflug flew with the Hasselblad camera from the Institute of Natural History, and terrestrial models from Fagradalshraun have now been prepared.

The average lava flow over the period from May 18 to June 2 (15 days) is 12.4 m³ / s. This measure confirms that the increase in lava flows that occurred in early May continued. The lava flow in May was therefore twice as high as the average for the first six weeks.

The lava now measures 54 million cubic meters and the area of ​​2.67 square kilometers.

Current measurements show that there is no sign of slowing down, on the contrary, an increase over time. It is impossible to predict how long how long the rash will last, at this point.

 

Source: Univ. Iceland & al., RUV, mbls

Fagradalsfjall eruption - parameters as of 06/02/2021 / 3:20 p.m. (surface of the lava field, volume of lava emitted, discharge, geochemistry and gas flow) - Doc. Univ. Iceland et al. - one click to enlarge

Fagradalsfjall eruption - parameters as of 06/02/2021 / 3:20 p.m. (surface of the lava field, volume of lava emitted, discharge, geochemistry and gas flow) - Doc. Univ. Iceland et al. - one click to enlarge

In Nyiragongo, seismic data, recorded on June 2, 2021, indicates a continuous decrease in the number and magnitude of earthquakes (most of them are not felt); the direction is south, under the lake.

The GPS network always indicates a decrease in the travel speeds measured at the stations. The physical impossibility of installing seismic or GPS stations in the lake does not allow precise detection of a possible rise of magma under the lake. New satellite data recorded between May 27 and June 1 shows that the ground continues to deform south of the city of Goma, however at a much slower speed than at the start of the eruption. These deformations can still create or extend existing fractures in the soil.

Latest figures for material damage as of June 3:
- 1,267 residential buildings destroyed
- 914 unclassified buildings destroyed
- 4,866 inhabitants affected.

Although the authorities have not yet authorized a return to Goma, a movement of people returning to the city continues to be observed, in particular between Minova and the area of ​​origin of the displaced people.

 

Sources: Africa museum Georiska & OCHA RDC

Nyiragongo - co-eruptive deformation interferogram - doc. Cosmo Skymed via Adriano Nobile / Twitter

Nyiragongo - co-eruptive deformation interferogram - doc. Cosmo Skymed via Adriano Nobile / Twitter

HVO-USGS recorded a magnitude 4.0 earthquake located below the Lō'ihi Seamount, outheast of Big Island Hawaii on Wednesday, June 2 at 6:44 p.m. HST.

The quake was centered about 42 km (26 miles) southeast of Nāʻālehu, under the Lō'ihi Seamount at a depth of 11 km.

The alert level and the aviation code remain: unassigned.

Moderate shaking, with a maximum intensity of V on the modified Mercalli intensity scale, has been reported on the island of Hawaii. At this intensity, significant damage to buildings or structures is not expected.

According to HVO scientist Ken Hon, the earthquake had no apparent effect on Kīlauea or Mauna Loa volcanoes. "We are not seeing any detectable change in activity at the summits or along the Lōʻihi, Kīlauea or Mauna Loa fault zones as a result of this earthquake. Aftershocks are possible and could be felt" .

 

Source: HVO

Lō'ihi seamount - general bathymetry / USGS & summit crater bathymetry / MBARI - one click to enlargeLō'ihi seamount - general bathymetry / USGS & summit crater bathymetry / MBARI - one click to enlarge

Lō'ihi seamount - general bathymetry / USGS & summit crater bathymetry / MBARI - one click to enlarge

The first photos of the flows of the submarine volcano of Mayotte, in the Comoros, have just been published. They were carried out by the "ROV Victor 6000", deployed by the ship "Pourquoi pas", during the GeoFLAMME mission from April 17 to May 25, 2021.

This GeoFLAMME mission is based on the knowledge capitalized on during MAYOBS monitoring missions funded by different Ministries (MTE, MOM and MESRI) and aims to answer more upstream and / or fundamental scientific questions:

- understand the interactions between magmatism, tectonics and fluid emissions at the lithosphere scale on several spatial and temporal scales,

- understand the implications on the physico-chemical properties of the water column and the evolution of ecosystems,

- document the entire chain of interactions between volcanic products, magmatic gases, seawater circulations and the water column.

Images show entangled lava tubes, pillow lavas (fractured and emptied), fractured lava tubes. (photos April 25, 2021)

 

Sources: Ifremer, IPGP, ISTO Orléans, LVM-University of Clermont Auvergne, GEOPS, Paris Sud Orsay, LSCE, GET Toulouse, BRGM

The #Geoflamme mission leader reacts to the first images of the Mayotte volcano! - Ifremer video

Mayotte submarine volcano - shaped, fractured and emptied cushion lava - GeoFLAMME campaign 17.04.-25.05.2021

Mayotte submarine volcano - shaped, fractured and emptied cushion lava - GeoFLAMME campaign 17.04.-25.05.2021

Mayotte submarine volcano - entanglement of lava tubes - GeoFLAMME campaign 17.04.-25.05.2021

Mayotte submarine volcano - entanglement of lava tubes - GeoFLAMME campaign 17.04.-25.05.2021

Mayotte submarine volcano - fractured lava tubes - GeoFLAMME campaign 17.04.-25.05.2021

Mayotte submarine volcano - fractured lava tubes - GeoFLAMME campaign 17.04.-25.05.2021

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

Over the past week, there have been several eruptive episodes at the southeastern crater (SEC) of Etna, which occurred on May 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 30, respectively. Most of these events consist of the resumption of strombolian activity at the SEC followed by a gradual intensification of the eruptive phenomenon until, in some cases, a sustained lava fountain. This activity was also accompanied by lava overflows which moved towards the southwest, always remaining in the summit area.

Etna SEC -  activity between May 24 and 30, 2021 - Doc. INGV - one click to enlarge

Etna SEC - activity between May 24 and 30, 2021 - Doc. INGV - one click to enlarge

The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor, after a first increase around 06:00 UTC on June 2, showed around 08:00 a sudden increase reaching high levels.

From around 08:30 UTC, the transition of Strombolian activity from the Southeast Crater to a lava fountain is observed from surveillance cameras. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud disperses eastward.

At approximately 10:45 UTC, the lava fountain in the southeast crater ceased.

Etna SEC - activity on June 2, respectively at 8:09 am, 8:37 am, 9:02 am and 9:53 am - INGV webcams - one click to enlargeEtna SEC - activity on June 2, respectively at 8:09 am, 8:37 am, 9:02 am and 9:53 am - INGV webcams - one click to enlarge
Etna SEC - activity on June 2, respectively at 8:09 am, 8:37 am, 9:02 am and 9:53 am - INGV webcams - one click to enlargeEtna SEC - activity on June 2, respectively at 8:09 am, 8:37 am, 9:02 am and 9:53 am - INGV webcams - one click to enlarge

Etna SEC - activity on June 2, respectively at 8:09 am, 8:37 am, 9:02 am and 9:53 am - INGV webcams - one click to enlarge

In accordance with the forecast model, the dispersion concerned the eastern sector of the volcano. INGV staff in the field report the fallout from the products north of Zafferana, in the town of Petrulli and in Santa Venerina.

Due to cloud cover, it was not possible to determine the height of the eruptive cloud, but from information received from INGV personnel in the field, the cloud reached a height of about 5-6 km above sea level.

Etna - ash and fog affect the north of Zafferana - photo Boris Behncke 02.06.2021

Etna - ash and fog affect the north of Zafferana - photo Boris Behncke 02.06.2021

In addition, the lava fountain produced an overflow of lava from the southern slope of the southeast crater, which spread to the southwest.
From around 10:20 UTC a rapid decrease in the mean amplitude values ​​of the volcanic tremor is observed, which always remains at a high level, with even an increasing trend; it results from 2:00 p.m. UTC by an increase in the explosive activity of the SEC.

From around 6:50 p.m., a small strombolian activity is observed at the SEC

 

Sources: INGV OE & Tropomi

Etna - trémor at 03.06.2021 / at 7am - Doc. INGV OE

Etna - trémor at 03.06.2021 / at 7am - Doc. INGV OE

Etna - strong plume of sulfur dioxide with 24.71DU of SO2 at an altitude of ~ 12km on 06/02/2021 - Sentinel-5P tropomi / DLR / BIRA / ESA

Etna - strong plume of sulfur dioxide with 24.71DU of SO2 at an altitude of ~ 12km on 06/02/2021 - Sentinel-5P tropomi / DLR / BIRA / ESA

The graphics below tell the story of La Soufrière de St. Vincent, the  eruption from its onset in December 2020 to current conditions.

The volcano is still in a state of unrest and access is prohibited for the moment. We can remember the dates of the different phases of the eruption, the announcements and follow-ups by the different teams.

Soufriere of St Vincent - timeline of events - Doc. UWI-SRC - one click to enlarge
Soufriere of St Vincent - timeline of events - Doc. UWI-SRC - one click to enlarge
Soufriere of St Vincent - timeline of events - Doc. UWI-SRC - one click to enlarge

Soufriere of St Vincent - timeline of events - Doc. UWI-SRC - one click to enlarge

A small break in the cloud cover on May 13 and 18 revealed the presence of a hot spot at the summit. Then, the occultation remained total.

 

Sources:

- Volcano Ready Community Project (VRCP). The project is funded by the Caribbean Development Bank through the Community Disaster Risk Reduction Fund

- Sentinel Hub

Soufrière de St. Vincent - hot spot in the crater - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 from 13.05.2021

Soufrière de St. Vincent - hot spot in the crater - image Sentinel-2 bands 12,11,4 from 13.05.2021

Details on the eruption of Nyiragongo:

The Virunga Volcanoes Supersite has uploaded radar images from the Sentinel-1 satellite illustrating a continuous collapse and expansion of the summit crater of the volcano between May 16 and June 1, 2021.

The lava lake was emptied and the current ash plumes are linked to the pit crater collapses.

 

Source: Virunga Volcanoes Supersite

Nyiragongo - Cosmo sky med images from 05.16.2021 to 06.01.2021 - Doc. Virunga Volcanoes Supersite / Twitter - one click to enlarge

Nyiragongo - Cosmo sky med images from 05.16.2021 to 06.01.2021 - Doc. Virunga Volcanoes Supersite / Twitter - one click to enlarge

Nyiragongo - evolution of the crater - Cosmo sky med images from 05.16.2021 to 06.01.2021 - Doc. Virunga Volcanoes Supersite / Twitter - one click to enlarge

Nyiragongo - evolution of the crater - Cosmo sky med images from 05.16.2021 to 06.01.2021 - Doc. Virunga Volcanoes Supersite / Twitter - one click to enlarge

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