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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

The Ingv reports in its weekly bulletin on Etna from June 29 to July 5, 2020 (posted online on July 7) a modest deep intracrateric strombolian activity and degassing at the new southeast crater. The degassing activity also concerns the craters of Bocca Nuova, Voragine and the northeast crater.

Map of the summit area of ​​Etna updated on May 9, 2020 by the group of drones INGV-OE on the DEM 2014, developed by the Laboratory of Aerogeophysics-Rome Section 2. Details of the SEC-NSEC system are shown (A) and BN and VOR craters (B). The indented blue line indicates a depression within the Bocca Nuova. The yellow circles indicate gas vents; the red circles indicate active mouths. The green polygon defines the cooling flow. - Doc. INGV-OE

Map of the summit area of ​​Etna updated on May 9, 2020 by the group of drones INGV-OE on the DEM 2014, developed by the Laboratory of Aerogeophysics-Rome Section 2. Details of the SEC-NSEC system are shown (A) and BN and VOR craters (B). The indented blue line indicates a depression within the Bocca Nuova. The yellow circles indicate gas vents; the red circles indicate active mouths. The green polygon defines the cooling flow. - Doc. INGV-OE

In particular, observations made during the inspection on July 3 showed that the pit formed at the center of the depression of the Bocca Nuova crater is affected by a modest degassing from below.

Fumaroles developed in the southern sector of the bottom of the crater and also along the flows of Voragine in the BN until the end of April.

The Voragine crater is affected by a modest degassing of the main ash cone.

The North-East crater presents degassing activity from below which occasionally (July 2), was accompanied by a weak intra-crater strombolian activity.

Finally, during the week, a modest intra-crater strombolian activity continued at the mouths of the "saddle cone" of the New South-East Crater. This activity does not produce hot materials visible on the surface, but rather a night glow, and is associated with an intense pulsed degassing.

Overview of the bottom of the Bocca Nuova taken during the July 3 inspection from the western edge of the crater (photo E. De Beni). In the center, you can see the pit crater (cratere a pozzo) formed at the bottom of the crater. The fumarole systems are present both along the streams coming from the VOR (left) and are also visible in the southern sector of the bottom of the crater. - Doc. INGV-OE

Overview of the bottom of the Bocca Nuova taken during the July 3 inspection from the western edge of the crater (photo E. De Beni). In the center, you can see the pit crater (cratere a pozzo) formed at the bottom of the crater. The fumarole systems are present both along the streams coming from the VOR (left) and are also visible in the southern sector of the bottom of the crater. - Doc. INGV-OE

The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor remained at a high level throughout the week. The source of the tremor was constantly located in the area of ​​the New Southeast Crater, at a depth of about 2,900-3,000 meters above mean sea level.

 

Source: INGV-OE

Etna by DronDuilio - Licensed music by Murky Instrumental by Saint Mesa, and the participation of swifts.

During the past week, normal Strombolian-type explosive activity was observed in Stromboli, accompanied by degassing and spattering activities.

The total hourly frequency of explosions fluctuated between average values ​​(10 events / h on July 3) and high values ​​(21 events / h on June 29). The explosive activity was mainly produced by 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and by 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. All the vents are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace.

 

The various other parameters do not show significant changes.

 

Source: INGV-OE

 Stromboli - The crater terrace seen by the thermal camera located on the Pizzo above the Fossa with the delimitation of the crater zones of the Center-South and North zone (ZONE N, ZONE C-S respectively). - Doc. INGV-OE

Stromboli - The crater terrace seen by the thermal camera located on the Pizzo above the Fossa with the delimitation of the crater zones of the Center-South and North zone (ZONE N, ZONE C-S respectively). - Doc. INGV-OE

On Nishinoshima, thermal anomalies always remain very high to high according to Mirova.

External activity is characterized by the emission of ash plumes and vapors / gases as in the previous days.

On the Sentinel-5P / tropomi satellite images, a strong sulfur dioxide signal can be detected, with 16.84 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 9.73 km.

VAAC Tokyo continues to issue ash dispersal notices (According to VAAC. 1FL = 100 feet = 30.5 meters)

 

Sources: VAAC Tokyo, Mirova, Sentinel-5P / Tropomi and Nasa worldview

Nishinoshima - Strong SO2 signal near Nishinoshima on 08.07.2020 (with 16.84DU of SO2 at an altitude of 9.73km. - DLR / BIRA / EAS documents via Tropomi

Nishinoshima - Strong SO2 signal near Nishinoshima on 08.07.2020 (with 16.84DU of SO2 at an altitude of 9.73km. - DLR / BIRA / EAS documents via Tropomi

Nishinoshima and 2 plumes, vapor/gaz tothe left, brow ash in the center, dispersing on the right - Doc. Nasa Worlview 08.07.2020

Nishinoshima and 2 plumes, vapor/gaz tothe left, brow ash in the center, dispersing on the right - Doc. Nasa Worlview 08.07.2020

Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power on 08.07.2020 / 03h20 - Doc. Mirova - one click to enlargeNishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power on 08.07.2020 / 03h20 - Doc. Mirova - one click to enlargeNishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power on 08.07.2020 / 03h20 - Doc. Mirova - one click to enlargeNishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power on 08.07.2020 / 03h20 - Doc. Mirova - one click to enlarge

Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power on 08.07.2020 / 03h20 - Doc. Mirova - one click to enlargeNishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power on 08.07.2020 / 03h20 - Doc. Mirova - one click to enlarge

As a bonus, a lenticular machine ... the Popocatépetl

Popocatépetl - 07.07.2020 / 07h15 - WebcamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - 07.07.2020 / 07h15 - WebcamsdeMexico

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Pacaya - strombolian activity and lava flow - photo David Rojas 06.07.2020 / Twitter

Pacaya - strombolian activity and lava flow - photo David Rojas 06.07.2020 / Twitter

The Pacaya presented this July 6, 2020 explosions at a hundred meters high above the MacKenney crater; particularly visible at night, strombolian activity is accompanied by a lava flow towards the north, about 500 meters long, and a shorter flow on the southwest flank. The activity is visible from Ciudad Guatemala and the south coast.

At the level of seismicity gradually increasing, the Insivumeh recorded tremor associated with the ascent of the magma, the exit of the gases and the movements of the lava flow.

 

Source: Insivumeh & David Rojas / Twitter

 An explosion of  ash from the Bulusan SE vent on October 17, 2016 lasted 24 minutes. White plumes of vapor can be seen rising from other vents. - Photo by Drew Zuñiga, published in The Philippine Star / via GVP

An explosion of ash from the Bulusan SE vent on October 17, 2016 lasted 24 minutes. White plumes of vapor can be seen rising from other vents. - Photo by Drew Zuñiga, published in The Philippine Star / via GVP

Phivolcs raised Bulusan's alert status from alert level 0 (normal) to alert level 1 (abnormal) on July 6, 2020.

 

The monitoring network of the Bulusan volcano recorded a total of fifty-three (53) volcanic earthquakes since July 03, 2020, including forty-three (43) low frequency events that are associated with hydrothermal or magmatic gas activity weak and shallow in the building.

The increased seismicity could be replaced by steam or phreatic eruptions at the summit crater or flank vents on the upper to medium slopes, despite the absence of visible degassing or steam from the active vents this year. Ground deformation data from continuous GPS measurements also indicates short-term inflation of the building since late February 2020. These parameters indicate that volcanic processes are underway under the building which may be caused by deep degassing or hydrothermal activity or magmatic intrusion.

In the last 24 hours (06.07 - 07.07 at 8h), the seismic monitoring network of the Bulusan volcano has recorded nineteen (19) volcanic earthquakes associated with weak and shallow hydrothermal or magmatic gas activity inside the building. A very low emission of white plumes loaded with vapor from the lower south-east vent was observed.

Volcanic processes are underway under the building which can be caused by deep degassing or hydrothermal activity or magmatic intrusion.

Level 1 (abnormal) alert status currently prevails over Bulusan volcano, which means that it is currently in an abnormal state. Local authorities and the public are reminded that entry into the permanent danger zone (PDZ) with a radius of four kilometers is strictly prohibited and that vigilance in the extended danger zone (EDZ) of two kilometers on the Southeast sector must be exercised due to the increased possibilities of sudden and dangerous phreatic eruptions.

 

Source: PHIVOLCS

Sabancaya - summary of the activity between 29 June and 5 July 2020 - Doc. I.G.Peru

Sabancaya - summary of the activity between 29 June and 5 July 2020 - Doc. I.G.Peru

The Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reports that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remains at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of explosions - on average 20 daily explosions of low to medium intensity -, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3.5 km high above the top of the volcano

The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 602 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) within the Sabancaya volcano.

The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure, using GNSS data (processed with fast orbits), does not present any significant anomalies; however, slight inflation was recorded in the north and southeast sector.

Satellite surveillance identified the presence of 7 thermal anomalies with values ​​between 2 MW and 18 MW, associated with the presence of a body of lava on the surface of the crater of the volcano.

The volcanic alert level remains orange, with a prohibited area of ​​12 km radius around the crater.

 

Source: I.G. Peru

Nevados de Chillan complex - lava overflowing and small explosions - photos José Fauna / 03.07.2020 / via volcanologia in Chile
Nevados de Chillan complex - lava overflowing and small explosions - photos José Fauna / 03.07.2020 / via volcanologia in Chile

Nevados de Chillan complex - lava overflowing and small explosions - photos José Fauna / 03.07.2020 / via volcanologia in Chile

Small explosions follow one another in Nevados de Chillan complex, where the lava dome, which began to form and grow from the second week of June, reached the lower edge of the active crater, starting to flow slowly since June 27 along the northern flank at an extrusion rate or a flow rate of 0.2 m³ / s and with maximum surface temperatures of 110 ° C. Since the start of the extrusion of the magmatic body (June 10-11), continuous explosive activity has been recorded with columns of whitish gases at low altitude (<500 meters above the crater) and the seismic recording of LP type events and tremors, the latter compatible with the placement of lava on the surface.

In contrast, deformation stations have posted a slight drop in inflation rates in recent days, with a maximum average of 1.6 cm / month. The deformation process suggests 2 sources of deformation within the complex.

 

The Sernageomin indicates that an explosive event of moderate magnitude is predicted according to the new history, which would be associated with the possibility of destabilization of the volcanic system due to the supply of magma inside the volcanic building. In this scenario, the presence of eruptive columns up to 5 km high, ballistic emissions, falling loops, high-speed pyroclastic density currents (> 100 km / h) and high temperatures (> 200 ° C) due to the collapse would be expected. of the column, the range of which could reach up to 5 km towards the northeast sector and 3 km towards the west and the southwest. Finally, the activity described, reinforced by the availability of water (snow or ice) and the interaction with lava, could generate mixed avalanches and / or low-volume lahars channeled by neighboring ravines, mainly in the drainage from the valleys to the north. and northwest of the active crater. Currents of pyroclastic density could also be generated due to the partial collapse of the flow front.

The technical alert remains at amarilla

 

Source: Sernageomin

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Nishinoshima - 04.07.2020 / 00h - 23h59 - Landsat AWS L8L1C image - one click to enlarge

Nishinoshima - 04.07.2020 / 00h - 23h59 - Landsat AWS L8L1C image - one click to enlarge

The JMA reports for this July 4, 2020 at 3 p.m. in Nishinoshima, a plume of gas and ash at 7,100 meters asl., drifting towards the west.

On some satellite images, a strong sulfur dioxide signal can be detected, with 16.04 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 8.02 km.

 

Sources: JMA, VAAC Tokyo, Mirova and Sentinel-5P / Tropomi

Nishinoshima - 06.07.2020 / 06:30 - photo @HayakawaYukio

Nishinoshima - 06.07.2020 / 06:30 - photo @HayakawaYukio

Nishinoshima - strong signal of sulfur dioxide on 06.07.2020 by Sentinel-5P / Tropomi at an altitude of 8.02 km. - Doc. DLR / BIRA / ESA - Tropomi

Nishinoshima - strong signal of sulfur dioxide on 06.07.2020 by Sentinel-5P / Tropomi at an altitude of 8.02 km. - Doc. DLR / BIRA / ESA - Tropomi

 Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power on 06.07.2020 / 03:30 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_log VRP

Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power on 06.07.2020 / 03:30 - Doc. Mirova_MODIS_log VRP

Nishinoshima - Keroza Emon video - Sunday July 5 Photo taken in Chichijima, Ogasawara Village Photography equipment: Nikon COOLPIX P1000

After the morphological changes observed in Nishinoshima at the end of June, the IGEPN details those which mark the Sangay, in Ecuador, photos taken on June 24, 2020 by the Servicio Nacional de Gestión de Riesgos y Emergencias (SNGRE), the Instituto Geofísico de la Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG EPN) with logistical support from the Grupo de Aviación del Ejército No. 45 Pichincha

The escarpments which start from the summit and extend towards the south-eastern flank, represent the edges of a quebrada with a maximum width of approximately 397 meters, which shelters two anomalies in its upper part and one in its lower part.

Sangay - Approach to the summit of the Sangay volcano, with an illustration which highlights its new morphological characteristics. - Photo: M Almeida, IG EPN.

Sangay - Approach to the summit of the Sangay volcano, with an illustration which highlights its new morphological characteristics. - Photo: M Almeida, IG EPN.

Sangay - Aerial and thermal photographic sequence of the southern flank of the Sangay volcano for the dates May 17, 2019 (left: visible image) and June 24, 2020 (medium: visible image, right: visible-thermal overlay) showing the morphological changes on this flank, associated with the formation of a ravine on the southeast flank and the modification of the summit. - Photos / Thermal image: M Almeida, IG EPN. - one click to enlarge

Sangay - Aerial and thermal photographic sequence of the southern flank of the Sangay volcano for the dates May 17, 2019 (left: visible image) and June 24, 2020 (medium: visible image, right: visible-thermal overlay) showing the morphological changes on this flank, associated with the formation of a ravine on the southeast flank and the modification of the summit. - Photos / Thermal image: M Almeida, IG EPN. - one click to enlarge

Sangay - Upper: Thermal image of the south-eastern flank of the Sangay volcano, area with the highest temperature: yellow-red-white and area with the lowest temperature: dark blue. The escarpment of the ravine formed during this eruptive phase (black line) is shown, which shelters thermal anomalies linked to explosive activity, effusion and pyroclastic deposits. Bottom: thermal image mosaics of the gorge on the southeast flank with three views, from left to right: southwest, southeast and east-southeast. - Thermal image and mosaics: S Vallejo Vargas, IG EPN.

Sangay - Upper: Thermal image of the south-eastern flank of the Sangay volcano, area with the highest temperature: yellow-red-white and area with the lowest temperature: dark blue. The escarpment of the ravine formed during this eruptive phase (black line) is shown, which shelters thermal anomalies linked to explosive activity, effusion and pyroclastic deposits. Bottom: thermal image mosaics of the gorge on the southeast flank with three views, from left to right: southwest, southeast and east-southeast. - Thermal image and mosaics: S Vallejo Vargas, IG EPN.

Anomaly 1 is related to explosions which form columns of gas and ash of different heights and which are dispersed in the environment depending on the wind direction.

Anomaly 2 is potentially linked to the generation of lava flows whose movement is controlled by the morphology of the escarpment.

The formation and deposition of pyroclastic flows is a continuous phenomenon, limited to the forementioned quebrada and at the base of the cone.

The measurements made with the multigas equipment did not allow the gas concentrations associated with the magmatic emissions to be recorded. This is due to the impossibility of crossing the gas plume due to the quantity of ash in the environment.

The level of surface activity of Sangay remained at the level of surface activity considered as: HIGH and trendy without any change; Do not approach the dangerous areas of the Sangay volcano.

 

Source: IGEPN

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

In the SAR intensity image of July 3, changes in the topography, which would be caused by lava, etc., are observed on the southwest and west sides of the pyroclastic cone, and the coastline changes on the south-west side of Nishinoshima.

In addition, the diameter of the pyroclastic cone increased approximately 1.5 times from June 19, and topographic changes on the southern slope are visible.

From the north side to the east side of the pyroclastic cone, there is a decrease in the intensity of reflection, which would be due to the fall of the ashes.

The image becomes dark in the area where the reflection intensity is low.

Nishinoshima - SAR intensity images of July 3, 2020 and June 19, 2020, for comparison - Doc. GSI
Nishinoshima - SAR intensity images of July 3, 2020 and June 19, 2020, for comparison - Doc. GSI

Nishinoshima - SAR intensity images of July 3, 2020 and June 19, 2020, for comparison - Doc. GSI

On SAR intensity images from July 3, 2020 (left) and June 19, 2020, we can see the topographic changes. The light blue line indicates the area where topographic changes were observed from June 5, 2020 to June 19, 2020, and the red line indicates the area where topographic changes were subsequently observed.

Nishinoshima - topographic changes - The light blue line indicates the area where topographic changes were observed from June 5, 2020 to June 19, 2020, and the red line indicates the area where topographic changes were subsequently observed. - DoC. GSI 03.07.2020

Nishinoshima - topographic changes - The light blue line indicates the area where topographic changes were observed from June 5, 2020 to June 19, 2020, and the red line indicates the area where topographic changes were subsequently observed. - DoC. GSI 03.07.2020

NASA images show that SO2 swirls from the Nishinoshima volcano eruption still cover much of the North Pacific on July 3. Part of the SO2 has dispersed through the Aleutian Islands and Alaska to the Chukchi and the seas of eastern Siberia, above 70 ° North.
 

Nishinoshima - 03.07.2020 / 01h00-23h27 UT - sulfur dioxide swirls over the North Pacific - Doc. Suomi NPP / OMPS (via S. Carn)

Nishinoshima - 03.07.2020 / 01h00-23h27 UT - sulfur dioxide swirls over the North Pacific - Doc. Suomi NPP / OMPS (via S. Carn)

Nishinoshima - 03.07.2020 / 01h00-23h27 UT - sulfur dioxide eddies over the North Pacific - Doc. Suomi NPP / OMPS (via S. Carn)

Nishinoshima - 03.07.2020 / 01h00-23h27 UT - sulfur dioxide eddies over the North Pacific - Doc. Suomi NPP / OMPS (via S. Carn)

The thermal anomalies noted by Mirova have remained intense in recent days. The JMA announces this July 4 a volcanic plume of 8,300 meters high in Nishinoshima, against the more than 3,400 meters observed by the Japan Coast guards on June 29.

 

Sources:

GSI - JMA - Mainichi - VAAC Tokyo - Mirova

Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power at 04.07.2020 / 03.45 am - Doc. Mirova Modis - one click to enlargeNishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power at 04.07.2020 / 03.45 am - Doc. Mirova Modis - one click to enlarge

Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies and radiative power at 04.07.2020 / 03.45 am - Doc. Mirova Modis - one click to enlarge

No surface eruption is reported by Ovsicori in Poas.

The seismic activity of July 3 is more important than that of yesterday.

At the time of this report, the winds were blowing southwest.

The gas ratios and concentrations remain relatively stable: H2S / SO2 = 0.06 - 0.08; SO2 = 1.0 - 1.7 ppm. The CO2 / SO2 ratio could not be determined. In addition, at the watchtower, maximum concentrations of sulfur dioxide remain below 4 ppm. In the past few days, a discontinuous tremor has appeared (3-4 Hz). On the other hand, the low frequency (1 - 2 Hz) is continuous.

 

 Source: Ovsicori

Poas - 03.07.2020 / 07:39 - the acid lake is agitated and topped with fumaroles - Ovsicori webcam

Poas - 03.07.2020 / 07:39 - the acid lake is agitated and topped with fumaroles - Ovsicori webcam

In 2018, using a Landsat 8 nocturnal thermal infrared image, the emergence of a new thermal zone near Tern Lake on the northeast margin of the Sour Creek dome in the Yellowstone caldera, been highlighted.

A high spatial resolution airborne visible image from August 2017 revealed a large area (~ 33,300 m²) of recently fallen trees, mostly devoid of vegetation, with bright soil, similar to other nearby thermal areas.

Field observations in August 2019 confirmed that it was an acid-sulfate thermal zone heated by steam, with an arc-shaped zone of hydrothermally modified and heated soil, with temperatures surface 60 to 80 °C, several smoking fumaroles and boiling temperatures (93 °C) were measured just below the surface.

Yellowstone national Park - location and simplified geological map of the new spa area (modified from Christiansen, 2001) - Doc. USGS - one click to enlarge

Yellowstone national Park - location and simplified geological map of the new spa area (modified from Christiansen, 2001) - Doc. USGS - one click to enlarge

Yellowstone national Park - new thermal area of ​​Tern lake - photo M.Poland / YVO

Yellowstone national Park - new thermal area of ​​Tern lake - photo M.Poland / YVO

This area was surrounded by cooler soil also strewn with recently fallen trees. In the hottest area, there were vapor emissions from several points, and sulfur crystals bordered some of the smoking areas. The soil temperature in these fumaroles was 92 °C (198 °F) - the boiling temperature at this altitude (about 8000 feet or 2500 meters). Throughout this area, just 5-10 cm below the surface, temperatures were constantly boiling.

The ground was so hot that parts of some fallen trees became charcoal. The sides of the trees fallen against the hot ground are cooked and blackened, while the sides facing the sky are not burnt. In the cooler area, parts of the soil were at ambient temperatures.

Yellowstone national Park - new thermal area of ​​Tern lake - FLIR image (IR) of the framed red area - Doc. M.Poland / YVO

Yellowstone national Park - new thermal area of ​​Tern lake - FLIR image (IR) of the framed red area - Doc. M.Poland / YVO

The initial formation of this new thermal zone is not clearly linked to separate seismic or geodesic events, although the period of rapid growth partly coincides with a period of rapid local uplift, possibly suggesting a causal relationship.

The identification of this emerging thermal zone illustrates the importance of thermal infrared satellite imagery combined with high spatial resolution remote sensing data and field observations to map, measure and monitor the thermal zones of Yellowstone.

It is also an example of the dynamics that we expect to see in large caldera systems like Yellowstone.

 

Sources:

From USGS articles, and from Michael Poland / YVO

- Frontiers in health science - A Newly Emerging Thermal Area in Yellowstone - R. Greg Vaughan & al.

- Discovering new thermal areas in Yellowstone's dynamic landscape! Release Date: APRIL 1, 2019

- Yellowstone's newest thermal area: An up-close and personal visit! Release Date: AUGUST 26, 2019

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

Since 07:20 local time, a seismic crisis is recorded on the instruments of the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise. This seismic crisis is accompanied by rapid deformation. This indicates that the magma is leaving the magmatic reservoir and is spreading to the surface. This crisis lasted half an hour, the activity has since calmed down, there is no acceleration.

An eruption is likely in the short term in the next few minutes or hours. Additional information will follow regarding the area affected by this magmatic propagation to the surface. All options remain open.

Under these conditions, the prefect decided to trigger the alert phase 1 "probable or eminent eruption" of the specific ORSEC volcano device from this day at 8:30 am. Consequently, public access to the upper part of the Piton de la Fournaise enclosure, whether from the Pas de Bellecombe trail or any other trail, is prohibited. It is recalled that the landing of aircraft in the volcano area is regulated and subject to authorization from the Prefecture.

The national gendarmerie and the national forestry office were responsible for ensuring the application of these security measures on the site.

 

Sources: OVPF & Reunion Prefecture

Find all the information relating to the activity of Piton de la Fournaise on the various media of the OVPF-IPGP:
- the website (http://www.ipgp.fr/fr/ovpf/actualites-ovpf),
- the Twitter account (https://twitter.com/obsfournaise?lang=fr),
- and the facebook account (https://www.facebook.com/ObsVolcanoPitonFournaise/)

Activity of Piton de La Fournaise, Sangay, Reventador, Nishinoshima and Tjörnes fracture zone
Piton de La Fournaise -  The seismic crisis started on July 3, 2020 at 07:20 local time, ended around 08:00 (local time) - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - The seismic crisis started on July 3, 2020 at 07:20 local time, ended around 08:00 (local time) - Doc. OVPF

The IGEPN reports a high level of surface activity to the Sangay, as well as its internal level.

The seismicity is characterized by 25 LP earthquakes and 239 explosion earthquakes between 1 ° and 2 July at 11 a.m.

The volcano is cloudy, and lahars are possible during these rains.

No emissions were observed, but VAAC Washington issued three ash emission notices; they reached 900 meters above the crater in a northwest direction.

The alert level is Amarillo

 

Source: IGEPN

Sangay - morphological changes between 17.05.2019 and 24.06.2020 - doc. IGEPN

The activity remains superficially moderate at the Reventador, with in the evening of July 1, gas and ash emissions, accompanied by rolling incandescent materials and incandescence in the crater.

Seismicity is characterized by 14 LP earthquakes, 21 explosion earthquakes, 4 episodes of emission tremor and 1 of harmonic tremor.

The volcano generally remains covered.

The alert level is Naranja.

 

Source: IGEPN

Reventador - eruption on the night of July 2 with an IR camera - the volcano is often obscured by clouds - Doc. IGEPN

Activity continues in Nishinoshima, with ash and gas emissions spotted by satellites.

Nishinoshima - strong sulfur dioxide signal detected on July 3, 2020 by Sentinel-5P / Tropomi, with 16.98 DU SO2 at an altitude of 10.5km. - Doc. DLR- BIRA - ESA / Tropomi

Nishinoshima - strong sulfur dioxide signal detected on July 3, 2020 by Sentinel-5P / Tropomi, with 16.98 DU SO2 at an altitude of 10.5km. - Doc. DLR- BIRA - ESA / Tropomi

Nishinoshima - ash emissions 03.07.2020 / 1:30 p.m. - via HayakawaYukio

Nishinoshima - ash emissions 03.07.2020 / 1:30 p.m. - via HayakawaYukio

In the north of Iceland, the seismic swarm at the mouth of Eyjafjörður is still in progress. Tonight, 2/7 at 7.20pm, an earthquake of magnitude 3.6 was detected between Olafsfjörður and Dalvik.

Since the crisis began on June 19, the National Meteorological Office's earthquake system has located about 10,000 earthquakes. Three earthquakes over M5 were detected in the hryvnia, the largest on Sunday evening in. 7:07 pm from M5.8 to 30 km NNE from Siglufjörður. Other earthquakes larger than 5 were 5.6 and 5.4 and were located more than 20 km NE of Siglufjörður.

Many smaller earthquakes are still measured in the region, and larger earthquakes are likely to occur.
 

Landslide danger zone - Civil protection

The state of uncertainty in northern Iceland, declared on June 19 by the Icelandic Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management, is still in force. With the continuation of the seismic swarm, the risk of falling rocks and landslides is increased along the north coast of Iceland, as is that of a tidal wave in the event of a major earthquake.

Traffic in danger zones shown on the map must be done with caution, and it is advisable to stay away from ports and coasts for several hours after strong earthquakes.

Sources : IMO & Iceland review

Tjörnes FZ - location of earthquakes and magnitude on 02.07.2020 / 3.30 p.m. - Doc. IMO
Tjörnes FZ - location of earthquakes and magnitude on 02.07.2020 / 3.30 p.m. - Doc. IMO
Tjörnes FZ - location of earthquakes and magnitude on 02.07.2020 / 3.30 p.m. - Doc. IMO

Tjörnes FZ - location of earthquakes and magnitude on 02.07.2020 / 3.30 p.m. - Doc. IMO

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Piton de La Fournaise - Dolomieu crater - photo © Bernard Duyck 17

Piton de La Fournaise - Dolomieu crater - photo © Bernard Duyck 17

At Piton de La Fournaise, the resumption of seismicity and inflation since June 16, as well as the high fluxes of CO2 in the soil (despite a decreasing trend) witnessed a resumption of pressurization of superficial magmatic reservoir and its replenishment by deep magmas since mid-June.

From June 16 an increase in seismic activity was recorded with an average of 5 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes per day and a maximum of 11 events on June 24, located in the summit area.

OVPF deformation measurement networks recorded a resumption of inflation (swelling) of the building around June 16. Thus between June 16 and 30 an elongation of about 2.5 cm max. of the summit area and an elongation of about 3.3 cm max. from the base of the terminal cone were recorded. Numerical models of these deformations show the activation of a pressure source around 1.5 km deep under the Dolomieu crater, corresponding to the pressurization of the surface magmatic reservoir.

 

Source: OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - Illustration of the deformation over the last six months (the eruptive periods are shown in red). Here are shown the variations in distance between two GPS receivers crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (reference BOMG; top), at the base of the terminal cone (reference FJAG; in the middle) and in the far field (reference PRAG; below) (see location in Figure 5). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano (© OVPFIPGP).

Piton de La Fournaise - Illustration of the deformation over the last six months (the eruptive periods are shown in red). Here are shown the variations in distance between two GPS receivers crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (reference BOMG; top), at the base of the terminal cone (reference FJAG; in the middle) and in the far field (reference PRAG; below) (see location in Figure 5). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano (© OVPFIPGP).

On the evening of July 1, the Copete camera of the El Reventador volcano shows an explosion that produced an eruptive column 1 km above the crater, and the generation of small pyroclastic flows restricted to the volcanic cone. The eruptive plume is heading west, and should not reach the populations of the Inter-Andean Valley.

Night glow is visible in the crater.

The alert level is Naranja. IGEPN reports moderate surface activity and high internal activity.

 

Source IGEPN

Reventador - 01.07.2020 / 22:29 - IGEPN webcam

Reventador - 01.07.2020 / 22:29 - IGEPN webcam

Reventador / Ecuador - 01.07.2020 - Volcano Time-Lapse / IGEPN images

JMA reports an eruption on Suwanosejima, this July 2, 2020 at 8h36 loc., Accompanied by a colorful plume rising 1,000 meters above the Mitake crater, before drifting east.

 

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency

Suwanosejima - 02.07.2020 / 8h33-34 - JMA webcams

Suwanosejima - 02.07.2020 / 8h33-34 - JMA webcams

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Publié dans : #volcanic activity

Since June 20, the satellites report high emissions of sulfur dioxide (Sentinel-5P / Tropomi) and very high thermal anomalies (Mirova) on Nishinoshima.

Emissions of ash increased on June 27 and 28 (Nasa Worldview sat).

Nishinoshima - strong sulfur dioxide signal on June 21 and 26 - Sentinel-5P / Topomi image - one click to enlargeNishinoshima - strong sulfur dioxide signal on June 21 and 26 - Sentinel-5P / Topomi image - one click to enlarge

Nishinoshima - strong sulfur dioxide signal on June 21 and 26 - Sentinel-5P / Topomi image - one click to enlarge

Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies on 23.06.2020 / 04h00- Doc. Mirova Modis one click to enlargeNishinoshima - thermal anomalies on 23.06.2020 / 04h00- Doc. Mirova Modis one click to enlarge

Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies on 23.06.2020 / 04h00- Doc. Mirova Modis one click to enlarge

Nishinoshima - ash plumes and hot spots on June 27 & 28, 2020 - Doc. Nasa worldview snapshots - one click to enlarge Nishinoshima - ash plumes and hot spots on June 27 & 28, 2020 - Doc. Nasa worldview snapshots - one click to enlarge

Nishinoshima - ash plumes and hot spots on June 27 & 28, 2020 - Doc. Nasa worldview snapshots - one click to enlarge

An overflight of the island by the Japan Coast Guards on June 29 revealed an activity that remained significant, with explosions of incandescent materials, a plume of black ash rising to more than 3,400 meters, and significant modifications at the top and on the southwest flank of the slag cone / Scoria hill. Following the current activity, part of the cone has collapsed and oxidized projections are visible along the coast. In addition, the lava now flows to the southwest. (Japan Coast Guards)

 

Sources: Japan Coast guards, VAAC Tokyo, Mirova, satellite images

Nishinoshima - images taken during the overflight of 29.06.2020 by the Japan Coast Guards - high ash plume, modifications at the top of Scoria hill and incandescent projections - one click to enlargeNishinoshima - images taken during the overflight of 29.06.2020 by the Japan Coast Guards - high ash plume, modifications at the top of Scoria hill and incandescent projections - one click to enlarge
Nishinoshima - images taken during the overflight of 29.06.2020 by the Japan Coast Guards - high ash plume, modifications at the top of Scoria hill and incandescent projections - one click to enlarge

Nishinoshima - images taken during the overflight of 29.06.2020 by the Japan Coast Guards - high ash plume, modifications at the top of Scoria hill and incandescent projections - one click to enlarge

Nishinoshima - lava flow to the southwest and oxidized slag by the sea - photos 29.06.2020 / Japan Coast Guards
Nishinoshima - lava flow to the southwest and oxidized slag by the sea - photos 29.06.2020 / Japan Coast Guards

Nishinoshima - lava flow to the southwest and oxidized slag by the sea - photos 29.06.2020 / Japan Coast Guards

Nishinoshima - part of scoria hill collapsed to the SW - Doc. JCG report 06.30.2020

Nishinoshima - part of scoria hill collapsed to the SW - Doc. JCG report 06.30.2020

The eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels during the week of June 11 to 28, 2020, with the continuous recording of explosions, on average 12 per day, accompanied by plumes up to 4 km high above the summit of the volcano and the consequent emission of ash and gas. The ash dispersed this week towards the Valle del Colca.

The IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of about 400 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano.

Ten thermal anomalies with values ​​between 2MWa and 10MW, associated with the presence of a lava dome in the crater of the volcano being destroyed due to an explosive activity.

The alert level remains orange.

 

Source: I.G. Peru

 Sabancaya - activity from 22 to 28 June 2020 - Doc. I.G.Peru

Sabancaya - activity from 22 to 28 June 2020 - Doc. I.G.Peru

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

This June 29, at 2:22 p.m. local time, Insivumeh recorded a pyroclastic flow on the western flank of the Caliente dome of the Santa Maria-Santiaguito complex.

It finds its origin in the overflow of materials which have accumulated in the dome of the dome, causing the descent of a mixture of blocks of rocks, ashes and gases forming a cloud which reached the base of the dome, without extending to cultivated / inhabited areas.

This event follows a precedent on June 19 at 5:35 am local time, which shows that the explosive activity, accompanied by avalanches of boulders on the flanks of the Caliente, has increased and is likely to last in the coming days or weeks.

 

Source: Insivumeh

Santiaguito - pyroclastic flow from June 29 / 2:22 p.m. loc. - Doc Insivumeh

Santiaguito - pyroclastic flow from June 29 / 2:22 p.m. loc. - Doc Insivumeh

At 08:18:00 local time on June 29, 2020, an eruption is recorded in the Turrialba volcano, with a column that rises 100 meters above the height of the crater and 3440 meters above the level of the sea. (11,283.2 ft). Duration of activity: less than a minute.

Seismic activity is similar to that of yesterday.

At the time of this Ovsicori report, the winds were blowing west. During the past 24 hours and when the weather was favorable, several ash eruptions were observed (local hours: 13:48, 17:39 23:03 1:07 2:32 03:06 4:12 8:18) . The plume of these eruptions did not exceed 100 m above the level of the crater. At least 2 of these eruptions were accompanied by ballistics projected on the north wall of the active crater (at 1h07 and 4h12). A subsidence of the volcanic massif is observed, as well as gas ratios in the values ​​of the last days.

 

Source: Ovsicori

  Turrilana - the plume, 5 minutes after the eruptive episode of 06.29.2020 - Ovsicori webcam 06.29.2020 / 8:25 a.m.

Turrilana - the plume, 5 minutes after the eruptive episode of 06.29.2020 - Ovsicori webcam 06.29.2020 / 8:25 a.m.

According to the images of Sentinel-2 and the Mirova site, a small activity is maintained sporadically on Kadovar, in Papua New Guinea.

A double hot spot is visible at the top of the volcano island, with a low thermal anomaly.

The explosions seem small, and sporadic, if we judge by the succession of small balc clouds in the wake of bluish gases.

 

Mirova also detects a thermal anomaly on Manam, without confirmation available from Sentinel.

 

Sources: Sentinel-2 and Mirova

 Kadovar - Sentinel-2 L2A bands 12,11,4  images from 06.28.2020 - one click to enlarge
 Kadovar - Sentinel-2 L2A bands 12,11,4  images from 06.28.2020 - one click to enlarge

Kadovar - Sentinel-2 L2A bands 12,11,4 images from 06.28.2020 - one click to enlarge

Tropomi detected a strong signal of sulfur dioxide - 23.78 DU of SO2 at an altitude of 8.05 km - near Medvezhia on June 29, 2020. It seems that this cloud of sulfur dioxide originates from Nishinoshima

... but this is an opportunity to talk about this volcanic complex of Medvezhia (also known as Moyorodake) which occupies the northeast end of the island of Iturup (Etorofu) in the Kurils.

Two overlapping calderas, 14 x 18 and 10 x 12 km in diameter, formed during the Pleistocene. The caldera floor contains several lava domes, ash cones and associated lava fields, and a small lake. Four small closely spaced stratovolcanoes were constructed along an E-W line on the east side of the complex. The easternmost and highest, Medvezhia, is found outside the western caldera, along the Pacific coast. The Srednii, Tukap and Kudriavy (Moyorodake) volcanoes are immediately to the west. Moyorodake, historically active, and Tukap remain fumarolically active. The westernmost post-caldera cone, Menshoi Brat, is a large lava dome with flank slag cones, one of which produced a series of young lava flows up to 4.5 km from long that reached Slavnoe Lake. Eruptions have been documented since the 18th century, although lava flows from ash cones on the flanks of Menshoi Brat have also likely erupted in recent centuries.

Its last phreatic-type eruption dates from October 1999.

 

Sources:

- Sentinel-5P / Tropomi

- Global Volcanism Program - Moyorodake [Medvezhia]

 Medvezhia - strong SO2 signal on 29.06.2020 in the vicinity of Medvezhia - Doc. Sentinel-5P / Tropomi / via DLR-BIRA-ESA

Medvezhia - strong SO2 signal on 29.06.2020 in the vicinity of Medvezhia - Doc. Sentinel-5P / Tropomi / via DLR-BIRA-ESA

 Medvezhia - northern part of the Kudriavy crater - photo GVP 1999

Medvezhia - northern part of the Kudriavy crater - photo GVP 1999

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In Semeru, on Java, the PVMBG provides information for this June 28 :

- 69 eruption earthquakes, with an amplitude of 10-20 mm, and the duration of the earthquake 50-140 seconds.

- 18 breath earthquakes, with an amplitude of 2 to 8 mm and an earthquake duration of 30 to 76 seconds.

A lava flow is visible on the Sentinel-2 images.

The activity level remains at 2 / waspada.

It is recommended that the community does not do activities within a radius of 1 km and the area up to 4 km in the south-south-eastern slope sector of the active crater which is the active area of ​​the crater openings of G Semeru (Jongring Seloko) as a channel for sliding warm clouds.

 

Sources: PVMBG and Sentinel-2

Semeru - Summit incandescence and lava flow - Sentinel-2 L2A bands image 12,11,4 dated 28.06.2020 - one click to enlarge

Semeru - Summit incandescence and lava flow - Sentinel-2 L2A bands image 12,11,4 dated 28.06.2020 - one click to enlarge

In Kamchatka, the growth of the Sheveluch dome continues. There is a strong fumarolic activity, sometimes accompanied by a little ash, and an incandescence at the level of the dome and avalanches of blocks formed by the construction-destruction process.

Suspended ashes are found up to 140 km east of the volcano.

The aviation code remains orange, other ash emissions can occur at any time.

 

Source: KVERT

Sheveluch - 06.29.2020 / 08.05 am - KVERT webcam

Sheveluch - 06.29.2020 / 08.05 am - KVERT webcam

In Asama, since June 20, 2020, the number of volcanic earthquakes increased, then fluctuated downward

The number of volcanic earthquakes is 59 on June 24, 113 on June 25, 120 on June 26, 80 on June 27, 24 on 28.06 and 2  at 3:00 p.m. today (29 - preliminary value).

Observation by a surveillance camera showed that the white plume remained below 200 m above the edge of the crater, and no particular change was observed.

Volcanic activity is increasing at Mount Asama, according to the JMA and it is possible that a small eruption will occur about 2 km from the summit crater in the future.

About 2 km from the summit crater, keep an eye out for large volcanic boulders and pyroclastic flows which may occur. Please do not enter the danger area in accordance with local government instructions.

 

Source: JMA

Asama - 06.29.2020 / 5:23 am loc. - Doc. Asama live

Asama - 06.29.2020 / 5:23 am loc. - Doc. Asama live

At Piton de La Fournaise, on alert vigilance level, the OVPF is reporting for this June 27, 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the largest of which is M2.01 under the summit cone.

The GPS of the summit area and in the far field record an inflation, witnessing the pressurization of a surface source and a deep source.

SO2 emissions at the top of the volcano are below the detection threshold, and CO2 emissions from the ground show a decreasing trend at all stations.

Waiting for the third eruption of 2020.

 

Source: OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - Illustration of the deformation over 2 months. Here are shown baselines (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (top), at the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (bottom ) (see location on associated maps). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - Illustration of the deformation over 2 months. Here are shown baselines (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (top), at the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (bottom ) (see location on associated maps). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity, #Sismologia
Asama - 06.27.2020 / 3:42 p.m. loc. - Osasa Camera, Maechan Net

Asama - 06.27.2020 / 3:42 p.m. loc. - Osasa Camera, Maechan Net

The J.M.A. raised the alert level of Asama, on the island of Honshu in Japan, to 2 / do not approach the crater, on June 25 at 3 p.m. JST. It is advised not to enter the danger zone in the municipalities of Gunma: Tsumagoi-mura, Nagano: Komoro-shi, Karuizawa-machi, Miyota-machi.

Since June 20, seismic activity on the western flank of the volcano has continued at fluctuating levels. On June 24 and 25, the seismic station recorded 59 and 69 volcano-tectonic earthquakes respectively.

An eruption could occur without warning.

The warning bulletin indicates that the ballistic impacts of volcanic bombs and pyroclastic flows could affect an area about 2 km away from the main crater.

Asama - Topography - doc. K. Nakajima / Geological Survey of Japan

Asama - Topography - doc. K. Nakajima / Geological Survey of Japan

Asama could be involved in the famine that marked Europe between 1108 and 1113, according to a recent study on the sulphate deposits of the last millennium in the ice cores of Greenland.

Long considered the product of the 1104 CE Hekla (Iceland) eruption, this event can now be associated with significant deposits observed in Antarctica according to a chronology revised in the same way.

Several closely spaced volcanic eruptions occurred between 1108 and 1110 CE. The sources of these eruptions remain unknown, but the study suggests that Mount Asama, the largest eruption of the Holocene occurred in August 1108 CE (Global Volcanism Program / Asama - eruption of 29.08.1108 at October 1108 - VEI 5 ​​confirmed), and is credibly documented by a contemporary Japanese observer, as a plausible contributor to the high concentration of sulfate in Greenland.

The dendroclimatological data and the historical documentation also attest to serious climatic anomalies following the proposed eruptions, which provided the environmental conditions prior to the subsistence crises experienced in Western Europe between 1109 and 1111 CE.

 

Sources:

- Global Volcanism Program - Asama - eruptive history - link

- Nature - Scientific reports - Guillet, S., Corona, C., Ludlow, F. et al. Climatic and societal impacts of a “forgotten” cluster of volcanic eruptions in 1108-1110 CE. Sci Rep 10, 6715 (2020). - link

- Surveillance cameras - thanks to Yukio Hayakawa

Onioshi camera, Japan Meteorological Agency
Kurogayama Camera, Nagano Prefecture Saku Construction Office
Osasa Camera, Maechan Net
Dodaira Camera, Tokigawa City, Saitama Prefecture

Nishinoshima - 06.26.2020 - strong SO2 signal (38.72DU of SO2 at an altitude of 7.17km. - Doc. Sentinel-5P Tropomi / DLR / BIRA / ESA

Nishinoshima - 06.26.2020 - strong SO2 signal (38.72DU of SO2 at an altitude of 7.17km. - Doc. Sentinel-5P Tropomi / DLR / BIRA / ESA

The VAAC Tokyo reports this June 26 at 12h Z that ash emissions continue in Nishinoshima. Confirmed at an eastward flight altitude of 100 / Himawari-8 satellite data.

A strong sulfur dioxide signal was detected on June 26 from 38.72 DU of SO2 at an altitude of 7.1 km northeast, via Sentinel- 5P / Tropomi.

 

Sources: VAAC Tokyo and Sentinel-5P / Tropomi

Nishinoshima - Volcanic Ash Advisory 26.06.2020 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Nishinoshima - Volcanic Ash Advisory 26.06.2020 - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Ebeko - ash plume - Doc. ASTv / Photo by Sergey Lakomov / 27.06.2020

Ebeko - ash plume - Doc. ASTv / Photo by Sergey Lakomov / 27.06.2020

A moderate eruptive activity continues at the Ebeko, in the Kurils.

According to observations by volcanologists at Severo-Kurilsk, the explosions were accompanied by ash plumes at 2,200 meters asl. on June 25, 2,500 meters asl. on June 26 and more than 1,900 meters asl. on June 27.

The aviation color code remains orange.

 

Source: KVERT

 Tjörnes FZ - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 27.06.2020 / 07:15 - Doc. IMO
 Tjörnes FZ - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 27.06.2020 / 07:15 - Doc. IMO
 Tjörnes FZ - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 27.06.2020 / 07:15 - Doc. IMO

Tjörnes FZ - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 27.06.2020 / 07:15 - Doc. IMO

The seismic swarm in the Tjörnes fracture zone, north-east of Siglufjörður, is still in progress.

During the night of June 27 at 4:52 p.m., an earthquake of magnitude 4.0 was measured at approximately 35 km NNE from Siglufjörður, this morning at 6:02 a.m., another of magnitude 3.2 was measured at approximately 20 km northeast of Siglufjörður.

Yesterday, June 26, the automatic system measured more than 700 earthquakes in the region, an earthquake> 3.0 was detected yesterday at a magnitude of 3.2 at 1:55 p.m. about thirty kilometers northeast from Siglufjörður.

Since the crisis began on June 19, the National Meteorological Office's earthquake system has located about 7,000 earthquakes. Three earthquakes of more than 5 were detected in the hryvnia, the largest on Sunday evening at 7:07 pm magnitude 5.8 at 30 km from Siglufjörður. Other earthquakes larger than 5 were 5.6 and 5.4 and were located more than 20 km NE from Siglufjörður.

Many smaller earthquakes are still measured in the region, and larger earthquakes are likely to occur.

 

Source: IMO - Scientist on duty on 27.06.2020 / 6:17 am

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