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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Merapi - eruptive plume of 03.23.2020 / at 10.54 am and 11.00 am - photos BPPTKG
 Merapi - eruptive plume of 03.23.2020 / at 10.54 am and 11.00 am - photos BPPTKG

Merapi - eruptive plume of 03.23.2020 / at 10.54 am and 11.00 am - photos BPPTKG

The Merapi, on Java, still in activity level 2 / waspada, presented on March 27 an eruption (presumably phreatic) at 10.56 loc., characterized by an ash plume estimated at 5,000 meters above the summit and a trace on the seismogram 75 mm amplitude; the earthquake linked to this episode lasted 500 sec.

VAAC Darwin reports ash at flight altitudes 100 and 250, disconnected from the summit, heading southeast. The aviation code is red.

 

The PVMBG also reports, by March 27:

- an avalanche earthquake of 18 sec. / slip distance and direction not observed.

- 10 blast earthquakes, 5 low frequency earthquakes and a shallow volcanic earthquake, of amplitude 7 mm and with a duration of 18 sec.

 

The seismicity of March 16 was characterized by:

- 1 avalanche earthquake, of 15 mm amplitude and with a duration of 22.92 sec.

- 2 hybrid earthquakes, and 2 tectonic earthquakes.

 

Sources: PVMBG, BPPTKG & Magma Indonesia

Merapi - seismogram of 27.03.2020 / UTC hours - Doc.Magma Indonesia

Merapi - seismogram of 27.03.2020 / UTC hours - Doc.Magma Indonesia

 Merapi - 27.03.2020 / 05:00 UTC - Doc.Citra Himawari  - BMKG

Merapi - 27.03.2020 / 05:00 UTC - Doc.Citra Himawari - BMKG

In the past 24 hours, Cenapred has identified 147 exhalations at Popocatépetl, accompanied by gas, a little ash, and two minor explosions, respectively on March 25 at 4:10 p.m. and March 26 at 2:00 a.m.

Meanwhile, the constant emission of volcanic gases, sporadically accompanied by slight amounts of ash is reported, dispersed towards the NNO.

At the seismicity level, 653 minutes of low amplitude tremor and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded, respectively from M1.2 at 4:34 p.m. on March 25 and from M2.3) at 8:55 a.m. on March 26.

The volcanic alert remains fixed at Amarillo Fase 2.

 

Source: Cenapred / CNPC / Seguridad

Popocatépetl - summary of the activity of 26.03.2020 - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / Seguridad

Popocatépetl - summary of the activity of 26.03.2020 - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / Seguridad

An explosion occurred in Manam, Papua New Guinea, generating a plume of about 3,000 meters above sea level and reported by the VAAC Darwin via RNZ.

Manam's last activity dates back to November 2019.

Islanders displaced by the previous series of eruptions are still awaiting proper resettlement on the continent.

 

Source: RNZ & Sentinel-2

 Manam - hot spots visible on these images from 20.03.2020 Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,4,2 and bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge
 Manam - hot spots visible on these images from 20.03.2020 Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,4,2 and bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

 Manam - hot spots visible on these images from 20.03.2020 Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,4,2 and bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

Manam - Sentinel-2 L1C image from 2020-03-25 bands 12,11,4

Manam - Sentinel-2 L1C image from 2020-03-25 bands 12,11,4

As a bonus, a photo of Etna this morning all in white, the snow-capped peaks topped with a white plume also

 

Source: EtnaWalk Photo / Etna Map

Etna - Symphony of white on 27.03.2020 in the morning - photo EtnaWalk

Etna - Symphony of white on 27.03.2020 in the morning - photo EtnaWalk

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

桜 島 爆 発 的 噴火 2020 年 03 月 25 日 05 時 39 分 (Sakurajima explosive eruption March 25, 2020 05:39)

An explosion occurred at the Minamidake crater of Sakurajima on March 25, 2020 at 5:39 am. It was accompanied by a gray plume 1,400 meters above the crater, and fallout of incandescent materials on the high slopes. The ash cloud has moved north northeast.

 

Sources: You Tube / 暇 な 親 父 & VAAC Tokyo

This Aso 阿蘇山 (Aso Volcano Museum) Timelapse (25/03/2020) video was created by https://volcanoyt.com/camera/172 Source: RKK

Still on Kyushu, Asosan has been emitting ash plumes, quite diluted, since March 24, observed by webcams and ground observers at an altitude of 1,300-1,500 meters above the summit.

No aviation code has been issued by VAAC Tokyo

 

Source: VAAC Tokyo

 Reykjanes peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 25.03.2020 / 5:05 pm - Doc. IMO
 Reykjanes peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 25.03.2020 / 5:05 pm - Doc. IMO
 Reykjanes peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 25.03.2020 / 5:05 pm - Doc. IMO

Reykjanes peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes at 25.03.2020 / 5:05 pm - Doc. IMO

In the Reykjanes Peninsula, activity in Grindavík remained high during the week of March 16 to 22 after a swarm of earthquakes that started on March 12. This is the same area as where previous earthquake swarms occurred earlier this year.

About 1,000 earthquakes have been located on the Reykjanes Peninsula.

The biggest earthquake of the week was M4.2 on March 18, about 5 km NW of Gunnuhver on the Reykjanes Peninsula. The earthquake was widely felt in the southwestern part of Iceland. On March 19, an M3.5 earthquake occurred 3.5 km NW of Grindavík. An M3.0 earthquake occurred on March 20 by Kleifarvatn on the Reykjanes Peninsula, where a small swarm of earthquakes occurred on the same day.

Mt. Þorbjörn - inflation and earthquakes more than 4 km deep between January 20 and March 20, 2020 - Doc. ISOR Iceland GeoSurvey / Twitter

Mt. Þorbjörn - inflation and earthquakes more than 4 km deep between January 20 and March 20, 2020 - Doc. ISOR Iceland GeoSurvey / Twitter

On March 25, at 9:44 am, an M3.4 earthquake occurred just north of Grindavík. The earthquake was felt in Grindavík. Considerable seismic activity has continued in the region in recent weeks due to the deformation of the region. The phase of uncertainty due to the uplift by Mt. Þorbjörn that declared civil protection is still in force

 

Sources: IMO, ISOR / Iceland Geo Survey

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 The fumarole activity of the lava dome of Molodoy Sheveluch volcano on 24 January, 2020. - photo Y.Demyanchuk /  IVS FEB RAS KVERT

The fumarole activity of the lava dome of Molodoy Sheveluch volcano on 24 January, 2020. - photo Y.Demyanchuk / IVS FEB RAS KVERT

The explosive-extrusive eruption of Sheveluch continues in the Kamchatka Peninsula.

This March 25, 2020, the KVERT reports an ash explosion with a plume at 3,300-3,500 meters asl., extending over 45 km to the north.

The Sheveluch dome rises to 2,500 meters, for a maximum height of the volcano at 3,283 meters.

Mirova reports a 20 MW VRP thermal anomaly on 03/25/2010 / 12:05 a.m.

The aviation code remains orange, other ash explosions can occur at any time.

 

Sources: KVERT, VAAC Tokyo and Mirova

Sheveluch - volcanic ash advisory on 25.03.2020 / 06h00Z - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

Sheveluch - volcanic ash advisory on 25.03.2020 / 06h00Z - Doc. VAAC Tokyo

The Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reports that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remains at moderate levels, with the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the consequent emission of ash and gas.

Nineteen daily explosions of medium to low intensity were recorded, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3,000 meters above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the southwest and south sectors of Sabancaya.

At the seismic level, 738 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal fluids were recorded.

The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure records significant anomalies.

Satellite surveillance allowed the presence of a thermal anomaly of a value of 1 MW, associated with the presence of a body of lava on the surface of the crater.

Consequently, for the following days, no significant change is expected regarding its activity. The volcanic alert remains orange, with an approach ban within a radius of 12 km around the crater.

 

Source: I.G. Peru
 

Sabancaya - Summary of the activity between 16 and 22 March 2020 - Doc. IGPeru

Sabancaya - Summary of the activity between 16 and 22 March 2020 - Doc. IGPeru

Analysis of the images recorded by the cameras located at 400, 190 and Punta dei Corvi made it possible to characterize the eruptive activity of Stromboli.

During the period from March 16 to 22, 2020, the explosive activity was mainly produced by at least 3 (three) eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and at least 3 (three) eruptive vents located in the area of Center-South crater. All the vents are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace.

 Stromboli - activity from 23.03.2020 / 17h23 - SQV  webcam / INGV

 Stromboli - activity from 23.03.2020 / 17h23 - SQV webcam / INGV

In the northern zone, the explosions were mainly of low to low intensity (less than 80 m high) to high (more than 150 m high) of coarse materials (lapilli and bombs); the abundant fallout has covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del fuoco and the blocks are rolled until they reach the coast line.

The INGV specifies that on March 19 from 2:50 p.m. UTC and until 4:30 p.m. UTC, intense spattering activity animated one of the north mouths overlooking the Sciara del fuoco, and gave birth to a modest rheomorphic flow in the upper part of the Sciara for a few hundred meters. the

the average frequency of explosions in the North zone was variable, between 7 and 9 events / h.

 

The explosive activity of the Center-South zone caused explosions of mainly fine materials (ashes) mixed with large grains of medium to high intensity (150-250 m in height). The frequency of explosions from the CS area was variable, between 5 and 16 events / h.

 

No significant variation in seismology and deformation. The flow of sulfur dioxide remained at an average level.

 

Source: INGV - weekly bulletin March 16 to 22, 2020 / issued on March 24. - link

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Pacaya - Two lava flows of approximately 250 m. - photo Erikson Morales, Unidad de Prevención en Volcanes –UPV / via Conred

Pacaya - Two lava flows of approximately 250 m. - photo Erikson Morales, Unidad de Prevención en Volcanes –UPV / via Conred

In Guatemala, the Pacaya volcano is in typical Strombolian activity, with incandescent ejections 25 meters high above the Mackenney crater. They feed two lava flows of approximately 250 meters.

The area is clear, with a temperate environment and little wind; the explosions are not audible.

 

Source: Conred

Nevado del Ruiz - 23.03.2020 - ash emissions - SGC webcam

Nevado del Ruiz - 23.03.2020 - ash emissions - SGC webcam

In Nevado del Ruiz, ash and gas emissions were recorded on March 23 at 6:30 a.m., observed by web cameras installed in the volcano area and in Manizales.

The Colombian Geological Survey reports that earthquakes of low energy levels associated with low ash emissions have continued in recent days.

The direction of dispersion of the last emissions was governed by the direction of the wind, mainly to the northeast and southeast of the volcano, and a possible ash fall is expected in the area.

New earthquakes associated with gas and ash emissions are also not excluded.

The activity level continues in yellow or (III) / changes in the behavior of volcanic activity.

 

Source: Servicio Geologico Columbiano

Merapi - 24.03.2020 / 6:16 am - Doc. Volcano YT i Frekom

Merapi - 24.03.2020 / 6:16 am - Doc. Volcano YT i Frekom

The Merapi volcano, on Java, on alert level 2 / waspada, presents on March 23 a moderate to high white plume, with a height of 100-150 meters above the summit, drifting over a large eastern sector.

At the seismicity level, the PVMBG reports:

- 4 earthquakes linked to avalanches, with an amplitude of 2 to 10 mm and an earthquake duration of 13.5 to 43.16 seconds. The sliding distance and the direction of fall are not observed.

- 1 blast earthquake, with an amplitude of 4 mm and an earthquake duration of 15.7 seconds.

- 1 low frequency earthquake with an amplitude of 3 mm and an earthquake duration of 18 seconds.

- 16 hybrid earthquakes, with an amplitude of 2 to 10 mm, S-P 0.3 to 1.3 seconds and an earthquake duration of 5.6 to 10.4 seconds. (the increase in the number of hybrid earthquakes often announces a more important next activity)

- 1 distant tectonic earthquake with an amplitude of 6 mm, S-P 38.4 seconds and 99.4 seconds of duration of the earthquake.

 

Sources: PVMBG and Magma Indonesia

Merapi - activity summary of 23.03.2020 / 00-24h WIB - Doc. PVMBG

Merapi - activity summary of 23.03.2020 / 00-24h WIB - Doc. PVMBG

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Dukono - ash plume of 22.03.2020 / 6:05 p.m. WIT - Doc. Magma Indonesia

Dukono - ash plume of 22.03.2020 / 6:05 p.m. WIT - Doc. Magma Indonesia

In the Moluccas archipelago, the Dukono, on alert level 2 / waspada with a prohibited zone of 2 km radius around the crater Malupang Warirang, presented an ash plume on March 22 around 6 p.m. local time. Magma Indonesia reports for this day a deep tectonic earthquake and a continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 2 mm.

This morning, around 8:17 am local time, an ash plume, estimated at 1,613 meters asl., was observed.

The aviation code is orange; VAAC Darwin reports ash at flight altitude 60 and confirms an eruption in progress.

 

Sources: Magma Indonesia and VAAC Darwin

Popocatépetl - activity of the last 24 hours - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / Seguridad

Popocatépetl - activity of the last 24 hours - Doc. Cenapred / CNPC / Seguridad

Cenapred has identified in the past 24 hours at Popocatépetl a hundred exhalations, accompanied by gas, small amounts of ash and incandescent fragments; a moderate explosion, around 2:59 am, produced an eruptive column 1,000 meters high dispersing to the south and the expulsion of incandescent fragments some 800 meters on the flanks.

Seismicity is further characterized by 129 minutes of low amplitude tremor.

During the day of the 22nd, a constant emission of gas and occasionally also a little ash is reported.

On March 23, around 12:41 am, a new explosion was accompanied by a plume of ash of medium height and ejection of incandescent materials up to 700 meters on the high flanks.

The level remains at amarillo Fase 2.

 

Sources: Cenapred, CNPC and webcamsdeMexico.

Popocatépetl - 23.03.2020 / 00h41 - Doc. Mexico's Webcams

Popocatépetl - 23.03.2020 / 00h41 - Doc. Mexico's Webcams

The Japan Meteorological Agency / JMA recorded a white plume 400 meters above the Kuchinoerabujima crater in the Ryukyu archipelago.

Seismicity is characterized by increasing volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the number of which reaches 25 / day.

Sulfur dioxide emissions are around 1,300 tonnes / day.

The last bulletin of March 23 reported bombs and pyroclastic flows likely to affect an area up to 2 km from the crater.

 

Source: JMA

Shindake summit craters and cracks - photo H.Seo via Narod.ru

Shindake summit craters and cracks - photo H.Seo via Narod.ru

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity, #Sismologia
 Popocatépetl - explosion of March 21, 2020 / 10:41 p.m. - WebcamsdeMexico

Popocatépetl - explosion of March 21, 2020 / 10:41 p.m. - WebcamsdeMexico

In Popocatépetl, in the past 24 hours, 74 exhalations have been identified thanks to the surveillance system, accompanied by volcanic gas emissions, small quantities of ash and sometimes incandescent fragments. Night glow is observed.

During the day, we see the constant emission of volcanic gases and sometimes slight amounts of ash, which are dispersed to the northwest.

The activity was a little more intense in the evening, with an explosion at 10:40 pm, and the ejection of incandescent materials on the upper slopes.

This activity remains under the Amarillo Fase 2 alert.

 

Source: Cenapred & WebcamsdeMexico.

Mayotte - Earthquake between Mayotte and Anjouan on 21..03.2020 / 9h46 loc. M 5.8 (red dot epicenter) - Doc. REVOSIMA

Mayotte - Earthquake between Mayotte and Anjouan on 21..03.2020 / 9h46 loc. M 5.8 (red dot epicenter) - Doc. REVOSIMA

A strongly felt earthquake in Mayotte in the order of M5.8 was recorded on March 21, 2020 at 06:42 UT (09:46 local time Mayotte) by the Mayotte volcanological and seismological monitoring network (REVOSIMA). The epicenter was located this time between the islands of Mayotte and Anjouan, 50 km NW of Mayotte and 30 km deep.

To illustrate the order of magnitude, it had the same intensity as the strongest earthquake felt in May 2018. It was less felt, due to the distance and its depth.

Up to now, the epicenters of earthquakes have been located east of Mayotte, and originate from two areas of magmatic flux emission.

We can notice the alignment between Comoros, the new earthquake zone, Mayotte and the earthquake zone since 2018 at the SSE of the island.

It remains to determine the exact nature of the earthquake

 

Sources: REVOSIMA, OVPF and Journal de Mayotte

Reykjanes - location and magnitude of the earthquakes at 21.03.2020 / 11:00 am - Doc. IMO
Reykjanes - location and magnitude of the earthquakes at 21.03.2020 / 11:00 am - Doc. IMO
Reykjanes - location and magnitude of the earthquakes at 21.03.2020 / 11:00 am - Doc. IMO

Reykjanes - location and magnitude of the earthquakes at 21.03.2020 / 11:00 am - Doc. IMO

In the Reykjanes Peninsula, on March 20, at 8:30 p.m., an earthquake swarm started with Krysuvik. By midnight, 60 earthquakes had been detected in the region. The biggest M3 happened at 9:21 p.m. No reports were received. Then the activity decreased.

The uncertainty phase due to the uprising in Reykjanes is still valid according to the Ministry of Civil Protection.

The latest deformation results around Mt. Thorbjorn indicate that inflation causing an uprising in the region has resumed. The uprising is slower than when it was measured in January, but seems to be in the same place. The most likely explanation for the signal is that the influx of magma has started again.

 

Source: IMO / March 21 00:18 GMT

Uplift at Yellowstone and how it does NOT mean an eruption is coming - Dr. Janine Krippner and Mike Poland.

To fill this period of confinement, and for those who master English, you can follow on YouTube a series by Dr. Janine Krippner entitled "Volcano moments", including an example above.

Interviews with volcanologists on different volcanic or seismic subjects, by following this link: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLjrF2J-wVC2OreS8nFgTgVZ5fnxymyQi3

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Etna Voragine - 19.03.2020 - the two active cones, and the lava flows which converge towards the Bocca Nuova (bottom center of the photo) - photo INGVvulcani
Etna Voragine - 19.03.2020 - the two active cones, and the lava flows which converge towards the Bocca Nuova (bottom center of the photo) - photo INGVvulcani

Etna Voragine - 19.03.2020 - the two active cones, and the lava flows which converge towards the Bocca Nuova (bottom center of the photo) - photo INGVvulcani

Etna - thermal images of the lava flows with the camera FLIR - 19.03.2020 - Doc. INGV

The Etna monitoring activity by the Etneo Observatory of Catania (INGV-OE) does not stop, despite the confinement.

INGV volcanologists Stefano Branca, director of INGV-OE, and Mauro Coltelli, coordinator of the Aeolian Islands Monitoring Center (INGV-CME), went to Etna for the usual volcanological monitoring activities planned in the framework of the INGV - Civil Protection convention and aimed at characterizing eruptive phenomena in progress.

 

Two cones show strombolian activity in Voragine. The lava effusion is coming from different points below, in flows with multiple arms which converge towards the Bocca Nuova. The max. temperature of the lava is measured at 832 ° C.

 

Source: INGV & INGVvulcani

INGV - Branca Coltelli intervista Etna 19 marzo 2020 ingvoperativosempre Riprese: Stefano Branca, Mauro Coltelli Montaggio: Marco Cirilli Redazione: Francesca Pezzella, Sara Stopponi

INGV - Attività Etna 19 marzo 2020

An explosion was recorded at 6:00 p.m. on Thursday, March 19, 2020 at the Nevados de Chillan complex, accompanied by an ash plume 1,500 meters above the active crater, with dispersion to the southeast.

The last Sentinel satellite image -2 (ESA) of March 16, continues to show a thermal anomaly (weak) inside the active crater. The thermal anomaly measured by Mirova on 19.03 is 4MW.

The technical alert is maintained at Amarilla.

 

Sources: Sernageomin, Sentinel-2, Mirova

Nevados de Chillan - 19.03.2020 / 9:33 p.m. - Sernageomin Portezuelo

Nevados de Chillan - 19.03.2020 / 9:33 p.m. - Sernageomin Portezuelo

Nevados de Chillan - hot spot seen on this image Sentinel-2 L1C from 19.03.2020 bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

Nevados de Chillan - hot spot seen on this image Sentinel-2 L1C from 19.03.2020 bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

Also in Chile, at 5:17 p.m. on March 20, the National Service of Geology and Mines warned of an increase in the emission of carbon dioxide at ground level from an area located in the southwestern margin of the Laguna del Maule.

This is an increase from 3,736 g / m² / day in March 2019 to 14,469 g / m² / day in February 2020.

On site, changes in soil color were also observed due to the alteration of the soil and the presence of dead animals. The emission zone is located 10 km south of the Paso Pehuenche border complex, and an impact radius of 500 m has been determined.

There is no change in the alert, which remains at the green level.

Source: Sernageomin

 Laguna del Maule - 20.03.2020 - area of ​​potential CO2 anomaly  impact- Sernageomin

 Laguna del Maule - 20.03.2020 - area of ​​potential CO2 anomaly impact- Sernageomin

Eruptive activity continues at Shishaldin. Minor explosive activity has decreased over the past 24 hours, but seismicity remains high with almost continuous tremors.

Shishaldin - RSAM from 20.03 to 21.03.2020 / 7.20am (Last 24 hours, 5 minute average). - Doc. AVO

Satellite views have been obscured by clouds, and a small plume of vapor from the summit has been observed in a clear web camera image in the past 24 hours. At this time, eruptive activity appears to be confined to the summit area, but activity could increase with little or no warning, causing lava flows outside the crater, lahars, and ash emissions.

The current aviation color code: ORANGE (introduced on 14.03.2020)

 

Source: AVO

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

The explosive eruptive activity continues at the Klyuchevskoy.

On March 19, KVERT reports an ash plume reaching 5,500-6,000 meters asl, dissipating eastward over 52 km.

On March 20, the ash plume was reported at 5,000-5,500 meters asl., before spreading east for 58 km.

Thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova, between high and medium.

 

Sources: KVERT, VAAC Tokyo and Mirova.

Klyuchevskoy - explosive activity of 19.03.2020 - Doc. IVS FEB RAS, KVERT

Klyuchevskoy - explosive activity of 19.03.2020 - Doc. IVS FEB RAS, KVERT

Klyuchevskoy - volcanic ash advisory for 20.03.2020 - VAAC Tokyo

Klyuchevskoy - volcanic ash advisory for 20.03.2020 - VAAC Tokyo

Klyuchevskoy - thermal anomalies on 20.03.2020 / 01h25 - Doc. Mirova _MODIS
Klyuchevskoy - thermal anomalies on 20.03.2020 / 01h25 - Doc. Mirova _MODIS

Klyuchevskoy - thermal anomalies on 20.03.2020 / 01h25 - Doc. Mirova _MODIS

Over the past week, HVO seismometers have recorded approximately 87 small magnitude earthquakes under the upper altitudes of the Mauna Loa volcano. Most of these events occurred at shallow depths less than 5 km (~ 3 miles) below ground level.

The strongest earthquake during this period was a magnitude 2.3 event on the morning of March 19. This earthquake was located in the area of ​​the radial vents to the west of the summit caldera within the volcano.

Global positioning system (GPS) measurements show continued slow inflation of the summit, consistent with magma supply from the volcano's shallow storage system.

Gas concentrations at the sulfur cone monitoring site in the southwest rift zone remain stable. The temperatures of the fumaroles measured both at the sulfur cone and at the top did not change significantly.

The volcanic alert remains at Advisory and the aviation code at Yellow. Mauna Loa is not erupting.

 

Source: HVO

The snowy summit of Mauna Loa - photo HVO 18.03.2020 / 8.50 am

The snowy summit of Mauna Loa - photo HVO 18.03.2020 / 8.50 am

In Papua New Guinea, VAAC Darwin issued an orange aviation code this March 20 for Manam.

Ashes are observed by satellite at a flight altitude of 100, moving east.

 

Sources: VAAC Darwin & Sentinel-2

Manam - volcanic ash advisory for 20.03.2020 - VAAC Darwin

Manam - volcanic ash advisory for 20.03.2020 - VAAC Darwin

Manam - summit thermal anomaly on this image Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,11,4 of 10.03.2020 (last image with the summit cleared) - one click to enlarge

Manam - summit thermal anomaly on this image Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,11,4 of 10.03.2020 (last image with the summit cleared) - one click to enlarge

In the Reykjanes Peninsula, this March 19 at 16 h 53, an earthquake of M3.3 was detected approximately 3 km NW of Grindavik. Few aftershocks followed. The IMO has received feeling reports from the Reykjanes Peninsula.

On March 18 at 03:42 am, an M3.0 earthquake occurred approximately 5 km VNV from Grindavík.

The uncertainty phase due to the uprising in Reykjanes is still valid according to the Ministry of Civil Protection.

The latest distortion results around Mount Thorbjorn on the Reykjanes Peninsula indicate that inflation causing an uprising in the region has resumed. The uprising is slower than when it was measured in January, but seems to be in the same place. The most likely explanation for the signal is that the influx of magma has started again.

 

Source: IMO / report written by a specialist on March 19 5:11 p.m. GMT

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At Anak Krakatau, level II (Waspada); the seismicity of March 18, is characterized by:

- 2 eruption earthquakes, with an amplitude of 20 to 42 mm and an earthquake duration of 44 to 608 seconds.

- 5 blast earthquakes, with an amplitude of 3-6 mm, and an earthquake duration of 12-15 seconds.

- 2 episodes of harmonic tremor with an amplitude of 3-5 mm and an earthquake duration of 1080-21600 seconds.

- 1 low-frequency earthquake with an amplitude of 6 mm and an earthquake duration of 7 seconds.

- 2 volcanic earthquakes with an amplitude of 12-22 mm, S-P 2-2.5 seconds and the duration of the earthquake 8-16 seconds.

- 3 episodes of continuous tremor with an amplitude of 0.2-25 mm, mainly 2 mm.

 

Sources: Magma Indonesia and Volcano YT / PVMBG

Anak Krakatau - seismogram of 18.03.2020 / 8 p.m. - 19.03.2020 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

Anak Krakatau - seismogram of 18.03.2020 / 8 p.m. - 19.03.2020 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

This Krakatau (Crater) Timelapse (18/03/2020) video was created by https://volcanoyt.com/camera/119 Source: PVMBG

After four weeks at alert level 2, the activity of Taal in the Philippines shows low-intensity volcanic seismic activity, stabilization of the deformation of the caldera and Volcano Island soil, and low surface activity in the main crater. and the crack of Daang Kastila.

Taal by Landsat / Nasa EO on December 6, 2019 (before the eruption) and two months after the eruption. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, the fall of ash resulting from the Taal volcano eruption on January 12 was particularly problematic because it got wet enough to have a sort of muddy texture and then it dried and hardened into a material that looks like cement - see damage to aquaculture areas (left) and cultivation / farming areas (right) - one click to enlargeTaal by Landsat / Nasa EO on December 6, 2019 (before the eruption) and two months after the eruption. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, the fall of ash resulting from the Taal volcano eruption on January 12 was particularly problematic because it got wet enough to have a sort of muddy texture and then it dried and hardened into a material that looks like cement - see damage to aquaculture areas (left) and cultivation / farming areas (right) - one click to enlarge

Taal by Landsat / Nasa EO on December 6, 2019 (before the eruption) and two months after the eruption. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, the fall of ash resulting from the Taal volcano eruption on January 12 was particularly problematic because it got wet enough to have a sort of muddy texture and then it dried and hardened into a material that looks like cement - see damage to aquaculture areas (left) and cultivation / farming areas (right) - one click to enlarge

- The volcanic earthquakes went from 141 events / day between January 26 and February 14 to 31 events / day between February 14 and today. The majority of these earthquakes were associated with rock fracturing processes and only six (6) low frequency events associated with magmatic or hydrothermal activity were detected until March 6. These parameters are consistent with the degassing of the magma in the basin rather than with the active transport of the magma to and from the shallow magma reservoir under Volcano island.

- At the deformation level, a very slow and slight uplift of the northern sector of the Taal caldera but a continuous subsidence of the southern sector of the caldera and the south of Volcano island are recorded, generally consistent with the post-eruptive relaxation of the Taal.

- The flow of sulfur dioxide has passed below the detection level, a situation compatible with a shallow source of magma with low degassing and absorption or "washing" of volcanic gas by a lake being recovered in the main crater and by the volcano island hydrothermal recovery system.

- Surface activity decreased with a low emission of plumes loaded with steam from 50 to 100 meters high from fumaroles or active gas conduits on the main crater and along the crack of Daang Kastila on the northern flank from Volcano island.

 

In view of the above, DOST-PHIVOLCS lowers the alert status of the Taal volcano from alert level 2 to alert level 1; alert level 1 means that the volcano is still in an abnormal state and should not be interpreted as the disturbances have ceased or the threat of an eruption has disappeared. 

DOST-PHIVOLCS reminds the public that at alert level 1, sudden steam or phreatic explosions, volcanic earthquakes, minor ash falls and deadly accumulations or expulsions of volcanic gas can occur and threaten areas within TVI. DOST-PHIVOLCS strongly recommends that entry into Volcano Island, the Taal Permanent Danger Zone or PDZ, especially around the main crater and the Daang Kastila fissure, be strictly prohibited.

 

Sources: Phivolcs & Nasa

 Reykjanes peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes on 18.03.2020 / 12.50pm - Doc. IMO
 Reykjanes peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes on 18.03.2020 / 12.50pm - Doc. IMO

Reykjanes peninsula - location and magnitude of earthquakes on 18.03.2020 / 12.50pm - Doc. IMO

At 10:32 a.m. on March 18, an M4.2 earthquake was detected approximately 3 km northwest of Gunnuhver on the Reykjanes Peninsula.

IMO has received numerous sentiment reports from Reykjanes and IMO headquarters. Few aftershocks followed.

The latest distortion results around Mount Thorbjorn on the Reykjanes Peninsula indicate that inflation causing an uprising in the region has resumed. The uprising is slower than when it was measured in January, but seems to be in the same place. The most likely explanation for the signal is that the influx of magma has started again.

 

Source: IMO / Written by a specialist on March 18 10:48 GMT

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
 Yasur - ash emission on 18.03.2020 / 1:15 p.m. local - Doc.VGO

Yasur - ash emission on 18.03.2020 / 1:15 p.m. local - Doc.VGO

The increase in the activity of the Yasur volcano, in Vanuatu, in the state of major agitation continues with volcanic ash and / or gas. Some explosions remain intense and volcanic projectiles / bombs may fall in / around the summit crater.

The level of volcanic alert remains at level 2 / state of major agitation. The danger zone is today 600 meters around the volcanic cone.

The risk level for visitors with access to zones inside zone A (zones around the crater to the parking lot) remains increased. The areas and villages located in the southern part of Tanna can continue to expect ash falls and volcanic gases due to the direction of the wind (currently southeast direction).

 

Source: Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory

 Yasur -  YASH_drumplot 17.03.2020 - Doc. VGO

Yasur - YASH_drumplot 17.03.2020 - Doc. VGO

Yasur - Safety map on 13.03.2020 - Doc. VGO

Yasur - Safety map on 13.03.2020 - Doc. VGO

In the period from 9 to 15.03, the explosive activity of Stromboli was mainly produced by at least 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the North crater and by at least 3 eruptive vents located in the area of ​​the Center-South crater. All the mouths are placed inside the depression which occupies the crater terrace.

 

In the North zone, the explosions were mainly of variable intensity, from low (less than 80 m high) to high (greater than 150 m high) of coarse materials (lapilli and bombs). in

numerous explosions, abundant fallout products covered the outer slopes of the area overlooking the Sciara del fuoco and the blocks rolled to the coast. The average frequency of explosions in zone N varied between 8 and 11 events / h.

The explosive activity of the Center-South zone produced explosions of mainly fine materials (ash) sometimes mixed with coarse medium intensity (less than 150 m high) sometimes high (the products exceeded 250 m in height). The frequency of explosions in the CS zone varied between 6 and 14 events / h.

At the seismology and deformation level, the parameters do not show significant variations.

The flow of sulfur dioxide remains at an average level.

The thermal anomalies were monitored by the Sentinel-2 satellite and the estimation of the radiation power and calculated from MODIS and Sentinel-3 SLSTR data; the value of the radiant power obtained from the last MODIS image is approximately 220 MW.

 

Source: INGV OE, Mirova and Sentinel / Copernicus

 Stromboli - Sentinel-2 L1C image on 2020-03-13 bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

 Stromboli - Sentinel-2 L1C image on 2020-03-13 bands 12,11,4 - one click to enlarge

Stromboli - radiative flux calculated from MODIS (red triangles) and Sentinel-3 SLSTR (blue circles) data from July 3, 2019 to date- Doc. INGV OE

Stromboli - radiative flux calculated from MODIS (red triangles) and Sentinel-3 SLSTR (blue circles) data from July 3, 2019 to date- Doc. INGV OE

The inspection of the summit activity of Etna for the period from 9 to 15 March made it possible to observe an abundant degassing activity of the upper craters:

the northeast crater (NEC), produced emissions of ash which immediately dispersed into the atmosphere on March 13,

and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was also characterized by sporadic ash emissions accompanied by audible roars even at long distances.

L 'Etna seen from tremestieri Etnéo in the evening of March 17, 2020. We see strombolian activities with two mouths inside the crater of Voragine, where the central cone was born a little more than 6 months ago. On the right, we see a modest glow at the "saddle cone" of the new crater in the Southeast, where Strombolian explosions and low ash emissions are observed. - photo Boris Behncke / INGVvulcani

L 'Etna seen from tremestieri Etnéo in the evening of March 17, 2020. We see strombolian activities with two mouths inside the crater of Voragine, where the central cone was born a little more than 6 months ago. On the right, we see a modest glow at the "saddle cone" of the new crater in the Southeast, where Strombolian explosions and low ash emissions are observed. - photo Boris Behncke / INGVvulcani

In the intra-crater area of ​​Voragine, a strombolian-like eruption continued.

This activity was produced by two separate ash cones.

In the main cone, active since September 12, 2019, the explosive activity was generated by a single mouth located in its summit crater and characterized by sporadic events of high intensity with bombs and shreds of lava expelled between intervals of several minutes of rest.

The second, smaller slag cone is located at the SEA than the previous one. His eruptive activity has been observed on the images of Mr. Cagliato's camera since the evening of March 9, while his training is probably to go back a few days before the inspection, according to the volcanological guides. The cone was characterized by animated explosive activity with frequent launches of bombs and large pieces of lava. At the base of this new cone a small lava flow was visible, more supplied, whose forehead stopped at the base of the main cone.

During the inspection, a third cone of slag was observed which showed no signs of explosive activity; it is located NE of the main cone and NW of the new very active cone. This cone is probably the product of Strombolian activity observed on February 29 (see report of 03/03/2020) at the NE base of the main cone and continued until a few days ago as shown by photographic images of M. Cagliato.

At the seismological level, a modest seismic fracturing activity is reported, and the amplitude of the volcanic tremor is considered to be high.

The Etna soil deformation monitoring networks have not shown any significant change.

The flow of SO2 is at a medium-low level.

 

Source: INGV OE & Mirova

Etna - thermal anomalies on 17.03.2020 / 01h25 - Doc. Mirova

Etna - thermal anomalies on 17.03.2020 / 01h25 - Doc. Mirova

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