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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Articles de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

volcanic activity

Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

At 8 a.m. on January 15, PHIVOLCS declared that Taal volcano activity was generally lower; dark gray plumes loaded with vapor increased by about 1 km and drifted southwest.

Satellite images showed that the main crater lake had disappeared and that new craters had formed inside the main crater and on the northern flank.

According to the Disaster Assistance Response and Information Center (DROMIC), a total of 53,832 people were dispersed in 244 evacuation centers in 1800 on January 15. (GVP)

Taal - Agoncillo, east of Lake Taal, covered by the ashes of the eruption - photo 15.01.2020 / Gaston Chino GMA news - One click to enlarge

Taal - Agoncillo, east of Lake Taal, covered by the ashes of the eruption - photo 15.01.2020 / Gaston Chino GMA news - One click to enlarge

New ground cracks were reported at Sambal Ibaba (17 km SW) and portions of the Pansipit River (SW) dried up.

 Taal - portions of the Pansipit River (SW of the volcano) have dried up  - photo Twitter

Taal - portions of the Pansipit River (SW of the volcano) have dried up - photo Twitter

Taal - crack and uplift - hoto 15.01.2020 James Reynolds

Taal - crack and uplift - hoto 15.01.2020 James Reynolds

At 6:17 a.m. and 6:21 a.m. on January 16, 2020, the Taal volcano expelled short-lived dark gray ash plumes 500 meters and 800 meters high, respectively; the ashes scattered from the southwest to the west of the main crater.

The Taal expelled short gray ash plumes of 500 meters and 800 meters high, respectively at 6:17 am and 6:21 am on Jan 16, 2020 - photos Phivolcs
The Taal expelled short gray ash plumes of 500 meters and 800 meters high, respectively at 6:17 am and 6:21 am on Jan 16, 2020 - photos Phivolcs

The Taal expelled short gray ash plumes of 500 meters and 800 meters high, respectively at 6:17 am and 6:21 am on Jan 16, 2020 - photos Phivolcs

The Philippine Seismic Network has plotted a total of five hundred sixty-six (566) volcanic earthquakes since 1:00 p.m. on January 12, 2020. One hundred and seventy-two (172) of them recorded at magnitudes M1.2 - M4.1 and were felt at intensities I to V. From 5 a.m. on January 15, 2020 until 5 a.m. today, one hundred and three (103) volcanic earthquakes have been plotted, including fourteen (14) of between them recorded at magnitudes M1.4. -M4.0 and were felt at intensities I - III.

Such intense seismic activity probably means a continuous magmatic intrusion under the Taal building, which can lead to additional eruptive activity.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 4186 tonnes / day on January 15, 2020.

Alert level 4 remains in effect.

Taal - bulletin of 16.01.2020 / 8h - Phivolcs

Taal - bulletin of 16.01.2020 / 8h - Phivolcs

Sources:

- Dost-Phivolcs newsletters

- Global Volcanism Program, 2020. Report on Taal (Philippines). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 8 January-14 January 2020. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

http://volcano.si.edu/showreport.cfm?doi=GVP.WVAR20200108-273070

Anak Krakatau - on 15.01.2020, one minute after the eruption, a hot spot is visible on this image Sentinel-2B L1C - Copernicus EMS

Anak Krakatau - on 15.01.2020, one minute after the eruption, a hot spot is visible on this image Sentinel-2B L1C - Copernicus EMS

At Anak Krakatau, a thin white plume surmounted the bottom of the crater, on webcam images, on January 15 from 100 to 150 meters.

Two eruptive episodes, accompanied by plumes of black ash, and eruption earthquakes, were observed.

Four episodes of continuous tremor of dominant amplitude at 10 mm were recorded.

The alert level remains unchanged and the public / tourists are not allowed to approach the crater within a 2 km radius of the crater.

 

Sources: PVMBG & Sentinel-2

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Taal - gray ash plume of  14.01.2020 - photo Ernie Peranedondo / Philippine Star

Taal - gray ash plume of  14.01.2020 - photo Ernie Peranedondo / Philippine Star

During the past 24 hours, the activity of the Taal volcano has been characterized by a continuous but generally weaker eruption of the main crater due to magmatic and hydro-volcanic processes. This ongoing eruption generated dark gray plumes loaded with vapor that reached approximately 1,000 meters high and scattered ash to the southwest of the main crater.

The crater lake seems to have largely emptied after the phreatic episode of Sunday, and the fountaining of Monday morning. Volcano island is covered with ashes.

Taal - volcano island covered with ash from continuous emissions - photo Philippine Star / Walter Bolosos

Taal - volcano island covered with ash from continuous emissions - photo Philippine Star / Walter Bolosos

New fissures and cracks have been observed at Sinisian, Mahabang Dahilig, Dayapan, Palanas, Sangalang, Poblacion, Mataas na Bayan, Lemery; Pansipit, Bilibinwang, Agoncillo; Poblacion 1, Poblacion 2, Poblacion 3, Poblacion 5, Talisay and Poblacion, San Nicolas. A crack crossed the road connecting Agoncillo to Laurel, Batangas.

Taal - one of the many cracks - photo 14.01.2020 Inquirerdotnet

Taal - one of the many cracks - photo 14.01.2020 Inquirerdotnet

Taal - many fissures - photo 14.01.2020 Phivolcs Dots

Taal - many fissures - photo 14.01.2020 Phivolcs Dots

The Philippine Seismic Network has plotted a total of four hundred sixty-six (466) volcanic earthquakes since 1:00 p.m. on January 12, 2020. One hundred and fifty-six (156) of them were felt with intensities ranging from intensity I - V.

From 05:00 on January 14, 2020 until 05:00 today, there have been one hundred fifty-nine (159) volcanic earthquakes and twenty-eight (28) have been felt with intensities ranging from Intensity I to III . Such intense seismic activity probably means a continuous magmatic intrusion under the Taal building, which can lead to additional eruptive activity.

 

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 1,686 tonnes / day on January 14, 2020.

These SO2 emissions from January 12 and 13 dispersed over the western Pacific. A Sentinel-5P TROPOMI image from January 14 suggests a high and partially stratospheric altitude (comment from Simon Carn)

Taal - sulfur dioxide concentrations - detection on 13.01.2020 by Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board NOAA-NASA Suomi-NPP satellite.

Taal - sulfur dioxide concentrations - detection on 13.01.2020 by Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board NOAA-NASA Suomi-NPP satellite.

Taal - dispersion of SO2 emitted on January 12-13, 2020 - image detection of Sentinel-5P Tropomi from January 14, 2020 / 1:07 am - 6:16 am UT - Doc. via S. Carn

Taal - dispersion of SO2 emitted on January 12-13, 2020 - image detection of Sentinel-5P Tropomi from January 14, 2020 / 1:07 am - 6:16 am UT - Doc. via S. Carn

The impact of the ashes on the populations is important, while some evacuees try to return to the prohibited zone to take care of their animals.

Alert level 4 remains in effect on the Taal volcano. This means that a dangerous explosive eruption is possible within a few hours or days.

Taal - every living being is impacted by the ashes emitted - photos Philippine star 14.01.2020 - one click to enlargeTaal - every living being is impacted by the ashes emitted - photos Philippine star 14.01.2020 - one click to enlarge

Taal - every living being is impacted by the ashes emitted - photos Philippine star 14.01.2020 - one click to enlarge

In the interviews with Phivolcs officials, there is a fear of seeing the scenario of historical eruptions repeated, which were accompanied, after the appearance of cracks, by explosions with a deadly base surge (1911, 1965, 1966).
 

Taal - fatal eruption of 30.01.1911 - Gruesome photo from National Geographic / April 1912

Taal - fatal eruption of 30.01.1911 - Gruesome photo from National Geographic / April 1912

Taal - base surge deposits  from the eruption of 1965 - photo USGS

Taal - base surge deposits from the eruption of 1965 - photo USGS

Sources :

Phivolcs, Philippine Star, Simon Carn, Global Volcanism Program.

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

The eruption continues at the main crater of Taal on January 13, characterized by magmatic and hydrovolcanic activity; it generated lava fountains 500 meters high surmounted by dark gray plumes charged with vapor reaching about 2 kilometers high which scattered ash to the southwest and west of the main crater. Volcanic lightning was observed at the base of the degassing plumes this morning.

New vents have opened on the northern flank where short 500 meter lava fountains and in the main crater where plumes of steam have emanated.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions were measured at an average of 5,299 tonnes / day on January 13, 2020.

The lava fountains generated dark gray plumes loaded with steam of 800 meters high which drifted towards the general southwest on January 14 in the morning.

TAAL Volcano Eruption in Philippines (Jan 12, 2020)

Taal - the ashes of the eruption cover the entire surrounding landscape - photo 12.01.2020 News5

Taal - the ashes of the eruption cover the entire surrounding landscape - photo 12.01.2020 News5

Heavy ash falls from the continuous activity of the Taal volcano are reported in the municipalities of Lemery, Talisay, Taal and Cuenca, Batangas.

There have so far been no reports of major casualties or damage. A truck, however, skidded and fell to the side on an ash-covered road, killing the driver and injuring three companions in the southern province of Laguna in an accident that police said could be linked to slippery road conditions .

Government disaster agency and other officials have reported that more than 30,000 villagers have fled their homes in the hard-hit province of Batangas and neighboring Cavite, but officials expect as the number increases, hundreds of thousands more diverge from danger.

Some residents were unable to leave the ash-covered villages immediately due to lack of transportation and poor visibility. Others refused to leave their homes and farms.

The danger lies in the collapse of the roofs of dwellings, overloaded by the thick layer of sticky ashes.

Taal - Populations threatened in danger zones of 14 km (in red) and 17 km in radius as of 13.01.2020 - Doc. OCHA

Taal - Populations threatened in danger zones of 14 km (in red) and 17 km in radius as of 13.01.2020 - Doc. OCHA

Taal - house partially collapsed under the weight of the ashes - photo 13.01.2020 / Rete Meteo Amatori

Taal - house partially collapsed under the weight of the ashes - photo 13.01.2020 / Rete Meteo Amatori

Taal - evacuations are made with the means available - Photo 13.01.2020 / Movimientos Sísmicos

Taal - evacuations are made with the means available - Photo 13.01.2020 / Movimientos Sísmicos

The Philippine Seismic Network recorded a total of two hundred and twelve (212) volcanic earthquakes in the Taal region at 2:00 p.m. on January 14, 2020. Eighty-one (81) of these earthquakes were felt with intensities ranging from intensity I - V to Tagaytay City, Cavite.

New cracks or fissures were observed at Sinisian, Mahabang Dahilig, Dayapan, Palanas, Sangalang, Poblacion, Lemery; Pansipit, Agoncillo; Poblacion 1, Poblacion 2, Poblacion 3, Poblacion 5, Talisay and Poblacion, San Nicolas. A crack has also been documented across the road from Agoncillo to Laurel, Batangas.

The intense seismic activity coupled with a cracking in the caldera region probably means a continuous intrusion of magma under the Taal building, which can lead to additional eruptive activity.

Alert level 4 remains in effect on the Taal volcano.

 

Sources: Phivolcs and https://kutv.com/news

Fernandina - Areas with the presence of thermal alerts detected by FIRMS, during the eruptions of 2017, 2018 and 2020 - Doc. Nasa / IGEPN - F. Vásconez

Fernandina - Areas with the presence of thermal alerts detected by FIRMS, during the eruptions of 2017, 2018 and 2020 - Doc. Nasa / IGEPN - F. Vásconez

The eruption at Fernandina, in the Galapagos archipelago, which started shortly before 6.10 p.m. on January 12, 2020, from a circumferential crack located under the eastern edge of the caldera to an altitude of about 1300-1400 m above sea level, caused the emission of lava flows on the eastern flank. A cloud of volcanic gas was also observed at a height of approximately 1500-2000 m above the level of the crack (~ 3-3.5 km above sea level) and moving towards the west -North West. The eruption was observed by the park guards of the Galapagos National Park from the Bolivar Canal station.

In the past few hours, the level of seismic activity, the emission of volcanic gas and thermal anomalies have decreased significantly, indicating a rapid decrease in eruptive activity, similar to what happened in 2017 and 2018. It is important to indicate that on other occasions (Fernandina 2009, Wolf 2015, Sierra Negra 2018), an initial drop in initial activity was followed by a second eruptive phase.

The last eruption of this volcano occurred 19 months ago (June 16-18, 2018)

 

Source: IGEPN

Fernandina - false color images of the January 12, 2020 eruption - Doc. NOAA / CIMSS - Galapagos time schedule UTC-6h

Fernandina - false color images of the January 12, 2020 eruption - Doc. NOAA / CIMSS - Galapagos time schedule UTC-6h

Fernandina - flowing lava  towards the coast - photo 13.01.2020 Parque Nacional Galapagos

Fernandina - flowing lava towards the coast - photo 13.01.2020 Parque Nacional Galapagos

The situation changes little at Piton de La Fournaise, where on January 13, 21 volcano-tectonic earthquakes under the summit (the largest of M0.94) and 4 landslides were recorded.

The GPS of the summit area and in the far field record an inflation, corresponding to the pressurization of a surface and deep source.

 

Source: OVPF daily bulletin

Piton de La Fournaise - illustration of the deformation between 14.11.2019 and 14.01.2020. Here are represented baselines (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (top), at the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (bottom ). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - illustration of the deformation between 14.11.2019 and 14.01.2020. Here are represented baselines (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (top), at the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (bottom ). An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Taal - plume of the eruption of 12.01.2020 / 2:24 p.m. - photo @mommymaricel

Taal - plume of the eruption of 12.01.2020 / 2:24 p.m. - photo @mommymaricel

After a few hours of a phreatic eruption at the Taal volcano (see yesterday's article), characterized by an impressive plume of 10-15 km high around 5.30 p.m. with a pouring of wet ash on the north of the island to Quezon . Subsequent phreatomagmatic explosions occurred, producing a plume reaching 17,000 meters and traversing numerous lightnings.

The Phivolcs raised the alert status from 3 / magmatic disorders to 4 / imminent dangerous eruption.

Taal -lightnings in the plume on 12.01.2020 - photos  ABS CBN news et  Ezra Acayan / Getty Images / via S.Mugnos
Taal -lightnings in the plume on 12.01.2020 - photos  ABS CBN news et  Ezra Acayan / Getty Images / via S.Mugnos

Taal -lightnings in the plume on 12.01.2020 - photos ABS CBN news et Ezra Acayan / Getty Images / via S.Mugnos

TAAL VOLCANO ERUPTION UPDATE : Alert Level 4! Actual Footage and Exclusive Video | January 12,2020

Volcanic tremor episodes have been continuously recorded since 11:00 a.m. and two volcanic earthquakes of magnitudes M2.5 and M3.9 were felt at Intensity III in Tagaytay City and Alitagtag, Batangas, recorded at 6:15 p.m. and 6:22 p.m. PST, respectively.

The DOST-PHIVOLCS strongly reiterates the total evacuation of the island from the Taal volcano and the additional evacuation of high-risk areas against pyroclastic density currents and volcanic tsunami within a radius of 14 kilometers around the main crater of Taal.

The northern regions of the Taal volcano are advised to protect themselves against the effects of heavy and prolonged ash falls. Lapilli falls, between 2 and 64 mm in diameter are reported in the areas of Tanauan, Talisay, Batangas; Tagaytay City; Nuvali and Sta. Rosa, Laguna. Airports have been closed.

Taal - initial distribution of volcanic ash on 12.01.2020 at 8:20 p.m. and 11:20 p.m. - Doc. VAAC Tokyo - one click to enlargeTaal - initial distribution of volcanic ash on 12.01.2020 at 8:20 p.m. and 11:20 p.m. - Doc. VAAC Tokyo - one click to enlarge

Taal - initial distribution of volcanic ash on 12.01.2020 at 8:20 p.m. and 11:20 p.m. - Doc. VAAC Tokyo - one click to enlarge

Taal - peasant  washing the ashes fallen on his cattle because of the eruption of 12.01 in Taal - photo Guzman / Philippines Star

Taal - peasant  washing the ashes fallen on his cattle because of the eruption of 12.01 in Taal - photo Guzman / Philippines Star

  Taal - fallout of lapilli on Tagatay - photo Kristoff Bellen 12.01.2020

 Taal - fallout of lapilli on Tagatay - photo Kristoff Bellen 12.01.2020

On January 13, following a brief weakening of activity, lava fountains appeared between 2:49 and 4:28 am, as well as hydrovolcanic activity, generating plumes charged with vapor from a height of 2,000 meters; new side vents have opened on the northern flank from which emanate 500-meter lava fountains.

Heavy ash falls are still reported on the southwest of the volcano.

The seismic network recorded a total of 144 volcanic earthquakes since 1 p.m. on January 12, 2020. Forty-four earthquakes were felt of an intensity IV in Tagatay, Lemery, Santo Tomas and Talisay ... testifying to the magmatic intrusion which continues under the volcanic edifice.

 

Sources: Dost-PHIVOLCS, Vaac Darwin, VAAC Tokyo and local photographers / media

Taal - lava fountains in the main crater on 13.01.2020 / 3:20 am - Phivolcs

Taal - lava fountains in the main crater on 13.01.2020 / 3:20 am - Phivolcs

The Fernandina volcano, located in the Galapagos province 90 km NW of Puerto Villamil and 140 km NW of Puerto Ayora, presented new seismic agitation, and an eruption followed on January 12, 2020, around 10 local Galapagos time ( continental Equator time -1 h).

After the 4.7M magnitude seismic event occurred at 4:42 p.m., 29 localized events were recorded, the magnitude of which remained below 3.1. Eruptive activity is located east of Fernandina Island along a circumferential fissure.

The last eruption of this volcano occurred 19 months ago (June 16-18, 2018).

 

Source: IGEPN

 Fernandina - Lava flows in the Bolívar canal sector on 12.01.2020 - Fotografía cortesía del Parque Nacional Galápagos.

 Fernandina - Lava flows in the Bolívar canal sector on 12.01.2020 - Fotografía cortesía del Parque Nacional Galápagos.

Following the short seismic crisis recorded on January 7 between 9:28 p.m. and 9:44 p.m. UT, seismic activity continued under the Piton de la Fournaise (with respectively 8, 9, 11 and 1 volcano-tectonic earthquake (s) ( s) superficial (s) registered under the summit craters on January 8, 9, 10 and 11).

On January 12, between 6:17 p.m. and 6:24 p.m. UT, a new seismic crisis was recorded under the summit area of ​​Piton de la Fournaise with 41 superficial volcano-tectonic earthquakes. A total of 51 earthquakes were recorded during the day of January 12.

No rapid deformation of the soil surface was recorded during this crisis, which shows that the magma has not left the superficial magmatic reservoir.

This new seismic crisis shows that the superficial magmatic reservoir continues to pressurize as also shown by the continued inflation of the building.

Note that this pressurization process can last several days to several weeks before the tank roof weakens and breaks, thus giving rise to an injection of magma towards the surface and an eruption, and can also stop. without giving rise to an eruption in the short term.

 

Source: OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - 12.01.2020 / 6:18 p.m. - 6:21 p.m. seismic crisis - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - 12.01.2020 / 6:18 p.m. - 6:21 p.m. seismic crisis - Doc. OVPF

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

The alert status of the Taal volcano in the Philippines was raised from alert level 1 (abnormal) to alert level 2 (increased unrest) this January 12 at 2:30 p.m. by Phivolcs

An increase in vaporization activity in at least five places inside the main crater was observed around 1 p.m. today, the greatest activity being constituted by a phreatic explosion which generated a plume of about 100 meters from high, still in progress since.

Taal - fumaroles on 12.01.2020 / 2:25 p.m. local - photo Phivolcs

Taal - fumaroles on 12.01.2020 / 2:25 p.m. local - photo Phivolcs

Taal - plume of the phreatic explosion on 12.01.2020 / 2:32 p.m. - photo Phivolcs

Taal - plume of the phreatic explosion on 12.01.2020 / 2:32 p.m. - photo Phivolcs

Since March 28, 2019, the seismic network of the Taal volcano has shown a moderate to high level of seismic activity. Some of these earthquakes were felt with an intensity ranging from intensity I (barely noticeable) to intensity III (weak tremors) in the barangays of Calauit, Balete, Sitio Tibag, Pira-Piraso and Buco, Talisay , Alas-as and Pulangbato, San Nicolas, Batangas. Often these earthquakes felt are accompanied by rumblings.

Today, three felt earthquakes were recorded at 07:35, 10:43 and 14:00. A seismic swarm started around 11:00 a.m. and continues at 2:10 p.m.

A slight inflation of the building from January 2019 was also recorded by GPS continuously after a period of general deflation since 2016.

Concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in the main crater lake of Taal (MCL) on the basis of continuous measurements have increased gradually since February 2019, indicating a slight increase in the degassing supply of volcanic CO2 from the hydrothermal system in the lake .

 

Update: from 2:04 p.m. (2:04 PST), the main crater of the Taal volcano has intensified its eruptive activity, generating a plume of eruption of 1 km high accompanied by volcanic tremor and earthquakes felt on the island -volcano and the barangays of Agoncillo, Batangas. Ash falls are currently reported in the southwest sector of Taal.


In view of the above, DOST-PHIVOLCS now raises the alert status of Taal from alert level 2 to alert level 3.
This means that there is a magma intrusion which is probably at the origin of the current activity. The PHIVOLCS strongly recommends the evacuation of the island from the Taal volcano and the high-risk barangays of Agoncillo and Laurel, Batangas because of the possible risks of pyroclastic density currents and volcanic tsunami.

 

Source: Phivolcs

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An eruption took place this January 11 at Kuchinoerabujima, in the volcanic arc of Ryukyu; it started at 3:05 p.m. and continued at 3:30 p.m., producing a thick plume of ash and gas rising to 2,000 meters before entering the clouds. The ash is dispersed in an eastern sector.

The alert level is 3 / "do not approach the crater" since 28.10.2019.

 

Sources: VAAC Tokyo, and BMC, via Shérine France.

 Kuchinoerabujima - eruptive plume of 11.01.2020 / 3:06 p.m. - JMA webcam

 Kuchinoerabujima - eruptive plume of 11.01.2020 / 3:06 p.m. - JMA webcam

At Etna, the activity of Voragine intensified last night, with a lava flow in the direction of Bocca Nuova, where it pours in two arms.

The thermal anomalies, noted by Mirova, are between 32 and 177 MW.

Note that on the day of January 10, a plume of ash also surmounted the southeast crater.

 

Sources: Michele Mamminno, Mirova and Sentinel-2

Etna - thermal anomalies on 11.01.2020 / 01h40 - Doc .Mirova
Etna - thermal anomalies on 11.01.2020 / 01h40 - Doc .Mirova

Etna - thermal anomalies on 11.01.2020 / 01h40 - Doc .Mirova

The activity of Sangay, in Ecuador, remains without surface and internal changes, always in amarillo alert level.

Seismicity is characterized by LP earthquakes, explosions (between 28 and 43 per day) and the emission tremor; the ash plumes reach 1,500 meters above the summit.

Pyroclastic materials are remobilized by winds, and can constitute a danger in the event of rain, with the formation of lahars.

On January 9, pyroclastic flows were observed by the ECU-911 webcam on the southeast flank of the volcano; this activity is similar to that of previous weeks.

 

Source: IGEPN

Sanguay - descent of pyroclastic flows on 09.11.2020 / 07.55 am - Cámara ECU-911 Sangay

Sanguay - descent of pyroclastic flows on 09.11.2020 / 07.55 am - Cámara ECU-911 Sangay

A control overflight of 23 different Colombian volcanoes was carried out by the Servicio Geologico Columbiano, in collaboration with the Air Forces.

On January 10, monitoring of the arenas crater of Nevado del Ruiz was able to note the morphological changes.

An overflight of the snowy summit of Nevado de Tolima was carried out; the ice cover has disappeared, and the snow compensates for a time the water supply of the local populations, before it melts and no longer feeds the major basin of the Coello river.

 

Source: SGC / Servicio Geologico Columbiano

Nevado del Ruiz - overview of the Arenas crater on 10.01.2020 - photo SGC

Nevado del Ruiz - overview of the Arenas crater on 10.01.2020 - photo SGC

Nevado de Tolima - the snowy summit on 10.01.2020 - photo SGC

Nevado de Tolima - the snowy summit on 10.01.2020 - photo SGC

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Cenapred has identified, in the past 24 hours at Popocatépetl, 268 exhalations composed of water vapor, volcanic gases and low ash content have been identified. In addition, 90 minutes of tremors were recorded, a volcano-tectonic earthquake recorded yesterday at 10:04 am with a magnitude of 1.4.

Popocatépetl - explosion on 09.01.2020, respectively at 6:31 am, 6:21 am, 6:33 am local - Photos Webcams of Mexico
Popocatépetl - explosion on 09.01.2020, respectively at 6:31 am, 6:21 am, 6:33 am local - Photos Webcams of Mexico
Popocatépetl - explosion on 09.01.2020, respectively at 6:31 am, 6:21 am, 6:33 am local - Photos Webcams of Mexico

Popocatépetl - explosion on 09.01.2020, respectively at 6:31 am, 6:21 am, 6:33 am local - Photos Webcams of Mexico

An explosion was also recorded today at 06:31 h, with a height of the ash column of 3,000 meters in the northeast direction, with the ejection of incandescent materials at a distance of 1 km from the edge of the crater .

Data supplied by the VAAC Washington, on the other hand, indicates two successive ash clouds, reaching respectively 11,300 m. at 1:46 p.m. UTC and 8,200 m. for the second.

Slight ash falls are reported on Ozumba, Puebla, San Nicolás de los Ranchos, Chiautzingo, San Matías Tlalpaneca, and Teotlalzingo.

Popocatépetl - 09-10.01.2020 / 13h10Z - multiple clouds of volcanic ash - Doc. VAAC Washington

Popocatépetl - 09-10.01.2020 / 13h10Z - multiple clouds of volcanic ash - Doc. VAAC Washington

Popocatépetl - reminder of the health effects of frequent exposure to volcanic ash - Doc.CPC Puebla 09.01.2020

Popocatépetl - reminder of the health effects of frequent exposure to volcanic ash - Doc.CPC Puebla 09.01.2020

Since the morning, it is visible towards the volcano with the emission of water and gas vapor which dispersed preferentially towards the northwest.

 

Sources: CENAPRED, CNCP, WebcamsdeMexico & VAAC Washington.

Etna - 09.01.2020 / afternoon - small lava flow from the Conetto de la Voragine (center) towards the Bocca Nuova (left of the photo) - Photo INGVvulcani

Etna - 09.01.2020 / afternoon - small lava flow from the Conetto de la Voragine (center) towards the Bocca Nuova (left of the photo) - Photo INGVvulcani

At Etna, the pyroclastic cone, which has been building since September in the Voragine crater, emits a small lava flow this January 9 in the afternoon; it pours into the crater of Bocca Nuova.

In the evening of January 8, the INGV noticed a glow in the Northeast craters and Voragine.

On January 9, around 6:20 am local, a glow was observed at Voragine and at Bocca Nuova, followed by a Strombolian explosion at Voragine at around 6:23 am local. At 7:03 local, this January 9, an explosion is observed thanks to the thermal camera with the cone of the Selle of the new south-eastern crater.

The activity is therefore modest, and marks three summit vents.

 

Source: INGVvulcani

Etna 09.01.2020 / 6:03 am - explosion at the Selle cone of the new southeast crater. - therm webcam INGV OE EMOT - INGV OE (720x558)

Etna 09.01.2020 / 6:03 am - explosion at the Selle cone of the new southeast crater. - therm webcam INGV OE EMOT - INGV OE (720x558)

 Etna 09.01.2020 / 6:23 am local - Voragine Strombolian explosion and Bocca Nuova glow - photo INGVvulcani

 Etna 09.01.2020 / 6:23 am local - Voragine Strombolian explosion and Bocca Nuova glow - photo INGVvulcani

From February 1, the OVPF will be tasked with monitoring the Mahoran volcanic activity zone, in addition to that of the Reunion volcanoes.

" For surveillance, the OVPF already has protocols and daily routines to ensure the proper functioning of the measuring devices, but also to monitor the activity of the Piton de la Fournaise. We also have an alarm device in cases of activity on the rise. These protocols and routines will be extended to the data of the network in place in Mayotte ", according to Aline Peltier, who adds that " Regarding the OVPF, 4 additional positions will be funded from February-March , and additional resources will be allocated to the OVPF for its operation but also for the installation of new monitoring stations on Mayotte. These stations will be installed by the OVPF in collaboration with the partner organizations of REVOSIMA. also funded at IPGP in Paris and a position at BRGM in Mayotte ". (interview at clicanoo.re)

 

Source: Aline Peltier, via Clicanoo

Mayotte - Cross-section view of the new volcano discovered in May 2019 east of Mayotte, with its plume - Doc. via R.Lacassin / Mayobs campaign from May 2 to 18, 2019

Mayotte - Cross-section view of the new volcano discovered in May 2019 east of Mayotte, with its plume - Doc. via R.Lacassin / Mayobs campaign from May 2 to 18, 2019

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity

In Shishaldin / Aleutians, an increase in seismicity was observed on January 7, 2020 around 5 a.m. AKST, accompanied by ash emissions; the ash cloud is visible on satellite images at a height of 7,000 meters, drifting east-northeast.

Shishaldin - the eruption, seen from Cold Bay, about 58 miles NE of the volcano on 06.01.2020 / 12 a.m. - Photo courtesy of Aaron Merculief. / AVO

Shishaldin - the eruption, seen from Cold Bay, about 58 miles NE of the volcano on 06.01.2020 / 12 a.m. - Photo courtesy of Aaron Merculief. / AVO

Shishaldin - the eruption, seen from Cold Bay, about 58 miles NE of the volcano on 06.01.2020 / 7 p.m. - Photo courtesy of Aaron Merculief. / AVO

Shishaldin - the eruption, seen from Cold Bay, about 58 miles NE of the volcano on 06.01.2020 / 7 p.m. - Photo courtesy of Aaron Merculief. / AVO

The seismicity then weakened for a few hours, before increasing sharply. The plume was loaded with ashes, justifying an increase in warning levels to Warning, with a red aviation code, around 14:20 AKST.

Satellite images show very high surface temperatures, and three lava flows are observed; volcanic lightning and infrasound are detected by regional measurement stations.

 Shishaldin - RSAM from 07.01 to 08.01 2020 / at 7.10 UTC - Doc. AVO -SBA_BHX

 Shishaldin - RSAM from 07.01 to 08.01 2020 / at 7.10 UTC - Doc. AVO -SBA_BHX

Shishaldin - extension of the ash plume over 130 km. 07.01.2020 at 9:17 p.m. - Doc. Matt Loewen / via AVO

Shishaldin - extension of the ash plume over 130 km. 07.01.2020 at 9:17 p.m. - Doc. Matt Loewen / via AVO

Shishaldi - 3 lava flows and a long plume are visible on this image Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,11,4 dated 07.01.2020 - one click to enlarge

Shishaldi - 3 lava flows and a long plume are visible on this image Sentinel-2 L1C bands 12,11,4 dated 07.01.2020 - one click to enlarge

Around 24:00 AKST, the seismicity fell again, and the ash emissions decreased. The alerts returned to Watch, with an orange aviation code. Ash falls are expected on the communities located to the northeast.

 

Sources: AVO & Sentinel-2

Piton de La Fournaise - Illustration of the deformation between 08.11.2019 and 08.01.2020. Here are represented baselines (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (top), at the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (bottom ) An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - Illustration of the deformation between 08.11.2019 and 08.01.2020. Here are represented baselines (variation in distance between two GPS receivers) crossing the Piton de la Fournaise building, at the top (top), at the base of the terminal cone (in the middle) and in the far field (bottom ) An increase is synonymous with elongation and therefore swelling of the volcano; conversely, a decrease is synonymous with contraction and therefore deflation of the volcano. Any periods colored in light pink correspond to eruptions. - Doc. OVPF

At Piton de La Fournaise, conditions are favorable for a possible next eruption.

- The number of volcano-tectonic earthquakes is increasing: 14 on January 6, and 40 on January 7, 2020 under the summit cone. The OVPF reports a magnitude of 1.04 / duration 8.96 sec. for the strongest on 07.01.

Update OVPF 15h45 local time : Of the 40 earthquakes of January 7, 22 were recorded during a short seismic crisis between 9:28 p.m. and 9:44 p.m. UT (i.e. 1:28 a.m. and 1:44 a.m. local time on January 8). Since then only 2 earthquakes have been recorded. This decrease is commonly observed following seismic crises, which release for a time the state of constraint of the medium (the constraint being linked to the accumulation of magma in the surface reservoir located approximately 2 km deep and to its pressurization).

- Inflation has resumed in recent days,

- and in its bulletin of December 30, COconcentrations in the far field (plain sectors of Cafres and plain of Palmists) have been increasing since October 25-27, in agreement with an increase in magma towards the surface.

The alert level remains vigilant for the moment.

La Fournaise's activity remains to be followed closely.

 

Source: OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - 08.01.2020 - Location map (epicenters) and North-South and East-West sections (showing the location in depth, hypocentres) of earthquakes recorded and located by the OVPF-IPGP over 2 months in Reunion . Only localizable earthquakes have been represented on the map. - Doc. OVPF

Piton de La Fournaise - 08.01.2020 - Location map (epicenters) and North-South and East-West sections (showing the location in depth, hypocentres) of earthquakes recorded and located by the OVPF-IPGP over 2 months in Reunion . Only localizable earthquakes have been represented on the map. - Doc. OVPF

In Ecuador, an expedition by the Volcanodiscovery group to the Reventador, with Tom Pfeiffer, from January 4 to 7, 2020, reports strong vulcanian-type explosions at irregular intervals between 4 and 12 hours. They are accompanied by loud sounds and shock waves audible from kilometers away, with ejection of incandescent materials at more than 1,000 meters and avalanches on the flanks.

 

The ash plumes are reported at a height of 1,000 to 2,000 meters max. above the summit, by the IGEPN.

Internal and surface activity levels remain high, with 36 and 43 explosions, respectively on January 6 and 7.

The volcano sector often remains cloudy.

 

Sources: Volcanodiscovery & IGEPN

Reventador - 06.01.2020 / 24h-00h / 07.01.2020 eruption photographed by Tom Pfeiffer / VolcanoDiscovery

Reventador - 06.01.2020 / 24h-00h / 07.01.2020 eruption photographed by Tom Pfeiffer / VolcanoDiscovery

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Sabancaya - activity summary from 30.12.2019 to 05.01.2020 - doc. IG Peru

Sabancaya - activity summary from 30.12.2019 to 05.01.2020 - doc. IG Peru

The Peruvian Geophysical Institute (IGP) reports that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano is maintained at moderate levels; that is, with the continuous recording of moderate explosions and the resulting ash emission.

- During the period from December 30, 2019 to January 5, 2020, the IGP recorded and analyzed the occurrence of approximately 1,179 earthquakes of volcanic origin, the highest percentage of which is associated with the circulation of fluids (magma, gas, etc.) inside the volcano.

- During this period, there were on average 9 explosions per day of medium to low intensity, accompanied by columns of gas and ash up to 2 km high above the summit of the volcano, scattered to the north, at southeast and east of Sabancaya.

- The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure, using GNSS data (processed with fast orbits), does not record any significant anomalies.

- A 4 MW thermal anomaly, associated with the presence of a lava dome in the crater of the volcano, around 280 m in diameter. It should be noted that the number of anomalies has been reduced due to the high cloudiness in the region.

It is recommended to maintain the volcanic alert level at orange, with a prohibited zone of 12 km radius around the crater.

Ubinas - summary of the activity between 29.12.2019 and 05.01.2020 - Doc. IG Peru

Ubinas - summary of the activity between 29.12.2019 and 05.01.2020 - Doc. IG Peru

The eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remains at low levels.

To date, the energy of earthquakes which would be associated with the rise of magma on the surface has considerably decreased.

Likewise, there are weak and sporadic emissions of bluish gases (of magmatic origin) and water vapor, observed through surveillance cameras.

According to this scenario, the possibility of volcanic explosions and / or ash emissions is low.

It is recommended to lower the volcanic alert level from orange to yellow, and not to approach within a radius of less than 6 km from the crater of the volcano.

 

Source: I.G. Peru

Yellowstone - seismicity during the year 2019 - Doc. Michael Poland / USGS

Yellowstone - seismicity during the year 2019 - Doc. Michael Poland / USGS

The USGS / YVO took stock of Yellowstone activity in 2019:

- The seismic activity of the year was generally weak. There were 1,217 earthquakes located in 2019, which is far below the average of 1,500 to 2,500 earthquakes per year. About half of these earthquakes occurred in 11 separate earthquake swarms.

- Yellowstone deformation patterns have mostly followed established trends. The Yellowstone caldera GPS stations have shown a continuous sinking of the resurgent domes, with small fluctuations probably related to seasonal weather conditions.

Unlike the caldera, the area around the Norris Geyser basin had been increasing since 2015, but this uplift gradually slowed down and stopped at the end of 2018. After no movement of ascent or descent during the first 9 months of 2019, the Norris area started to calm down in September / October, sinking about 3 cm at the end of 2019.
 

Yellowstone N.P. - Aerial view of the new spa area, center left. The existing thermal zone of Lake Tern is the bright white patch of soil in the upper central part of the image. - Doc. M.Poland / USGS

Yellowstone N.P. - Aerial view of the new spa area, center left. The existing thermal zone of Lake Tern is the bright white patch of soil in the upper central part of the image. - Doc. M.Poland / USGS

- The year 2019 also saw the first visit to the all-new Yellowstone thermal area near Lake Tern on the east side of the caldera. Boiling temperatures were just below the surface in a few places, and there had vents releasing hot gas which included hydrogen sulfide (H2S). But there was no water on the surface.

- In 2019, the Steamboat geyser broke its own record, with 48 eruptions! The longest period between flares was just over 17 days, while the shortest was 3 days and 3 hours - itself a record for the shortest time between large water flares in the geyser.

 

Source : Yellowstone volcano Observatory, caldera chronicles - Yellowstone, the year 2019 in review

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Publié le par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #volcanic activity
Suwanosejima - 05.01.2020, respectively at 2:40 p.m. and 10:22 p.m. - JMA webcam - one click to enlarge
Suwanosejima - 05.01.2020, respectively at 2:40 p.m. and 10:22 p.m. - JMA webcam - one click to enlarge

Suwanosejima - 05.01.2020, respectively at 2:40 p.m. and 10:22 p.m. - JMA webcam - one click to enlarge

The eruption continues on Suwanosejima.

Two episodes were reported for this January 5, 2020, the first at 2:38 p.m. local, accompanied by an ash plume at 1,400 meters above the Mitake crater, moving towards the SW. The second episode was reported at 10:22 p.m., with ashes expected to the NW, the winds having turned.

Source: JMA

Nishinoshima - ALOS-2 / JAXA images via GSI 20.12.2019 (right) and 03.01.2020 (left)

Nishinoshima - ALOS-2 / JAXA images via GSI 20.12.2019 (right) and 03.01.2020 (left)

On Nishinoshima, in the Ogasawara islands, the morphological evolution of the cone and the contours of the island continues.

The GSI reports a modification on both the NW and SSE coast on December 20, 2019, and a significant increase on the NNE side on January 3, based on ALOS-2 satellite images.

Moderate to high thermal anomalies are observed by Mirova.

 

Sources: GSI / ALOS - JAXA & Mirova

Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies on 06.01.2020 / 04h05 - Doc. Mirova _MODIS
Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies on 06.01.2020 / 04h05 - Doc. Mirova _MODIS

Nishinoshima - thermal anomalies on 06.01.2020 / 04h05 - Doc. Mirova _MODIS

At Anak Krakatau, eruptive activity has decreased since the episode of December 31; plume heights decreased from 2,200 meters to 500 meters maximum.

Between December 30 and January 5, the PVMBG recorded 27 eruption earthquakes, 14 breath earthquakes, 12 low-frequency earthquakes 2 episodes of harmonic tremor and continuous tremor with amplitudes ranging from 0.5 to 55 mm.

 

Note that after cleaning the webcam, you can still see water in the lake, without seeing the more or less important surface.

 

Sources: PVMBG & Magma Indonesia

Anak Krakatau - 06.01.2020 / 12.59pm - PVMBG webcam

Anak Krakatau - 06.01.2020 / 12.59pm - PVMBG webcam

Anak Krakatau - seismicity at 04.01.2020 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

Anak Krakatau - seismicity at 04.01.2020 - Doc. Magma Indonesia

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