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Earth of fire

Actualité volcanique, Article de fond sur étude de volcan, tectonique, récits et photos de voyage

Publié par Bernard Duyck
Publié dans : #Excursions et voyages

South American obsidian sources:

In Colombia, Ingeominas reports of obsidian in a Cerro Azafatudo flow, to Cargachiquito , but the quality of the glass was not satisfactory for the operation prehistoric .

Nodules were found in ignimbritic deposits intersected by the rivers Hondo and Negro, from eruption of Huila and Cauca , dating from 4.27 to 3.46 Ma

The traces of the first occupants of the South American continent , mainly in the Andes, are found in the central Sierra of Ecuador: scrapers, arrows and obsidian blades testify to continuous human occupation for 5,000 years

Mullumica casting , consisting of two superimposed effusions , is 6 km long , for the lower effusion , and has a thickness of 150 m . It is dated from 180,000 to 200,000 years. Obsidian has been exploited during prehistory, with workshops at the foot cliff, in shelters or caves in the lava flow .

In Cotopaxi , obsidian is found in deposits from two main phases of activity, dated of the paleo- Cotopaxi , between 540,000 and 560,000 years old, and another phase, between 310,000 and 18,000 years.

 Sources of obsidian in Peru - doc . Andean Obsidian Distributions through Time

Sources of obsidian in Peru - doc . Andean Obsidian Distributions through Time

In Peru , a type of obsidian, known in the '70s as the type Titicaca Basin , and widespread in the prehispanic Andes, has its geological source in the Colca Valley near Araquipa . Geochemical types was documented under the names of Chivay Source and Cotallalli source.

Obsidian flows are still being issued , such as the eruption of the Puyehue -Cordon Caulle in 2011-2012 , in Chile.

Obsidian lava emitted by the Puyehue -Cordon Caulle volcano , Chile - 2011 Nasa Image

Obsidian lava emitted by the Puyehue -Cordon Caulle volcano , Chile - 2011 Nasa Image

"Ruta Qhapaq Ñan, El camino que nos une" - photo La Republica Peru

"Ruta Qhapaq Ñan, El camino que nos une" - photo La Republica Peru

Roads of obsidian on the South American continent :

Trade routes borrow various roads , by sea along the western coast of the continent, or on the land between the coast and the Andes on the one hand , or the heights thereof . Evidence of use indicate attendance since 10,000 years by prehistoric hunter-gatherers ( 9,000 BC to 400 AD ) , then by the Inca Empire ( Caminos del Inca) .

Movement of goods in these huge distances do not necessarily imply the movement of people on the whole journey . The product, which obsidian, can pass from hand to hand .

Under the Wari Empire (600-1100) , a leading network of communication channels have been built ( Lumbreras , 2004). The Incas inherited the territorial network to build , consolidate and organize an original centralized communication system , having own infrastructure. The extension of the network path followed that of the Inca empire in the Andes.

The Qhapaq Nan ( Quechua name meaning "the royal road" and frequently replaced by the term " Inca Trail " ) was the main axis of economic and political project of the Inca Empire . Along more than 6,000 kilometers , it allowed the Inca to control his Empire to move its troops from the capital , Cusco. A secondary network of cross roads, along more than 45,000 km, then connected the Qhapaq Nan to the coast and the Amazon basin.

Obsidian under the wings of the Condor - Colca Canyon / Peru - photo Adehm.de

Obsidian under the wings of the Condor - Colca Canyon / Peru - photo Adehm.de

Trade routes at the time of the Inca Empire - in green , roads in alitude - inblue, the coastal road - in purple, the tranversales - doc . Manco Capac

Trade routes at the time of the Inca Empire - in green , roads in alitude - inblue, the coastal road - in purple, the tranversales - doc . Manco Capac

 Qhapaq Nan ... somewhere on the Inca Trail - photo Unesco

Qhapaq Nan ... somewhere on the Inca Trail - photo Unesco

Peru and especially in Chile , obsidian was used as commodity money . Arrowheads and spears , objects of high demand was sustained value .

These trade routes ranging from Ecuador to southern South America : The Quebrada de Humahuaca is a long barren mountain valley , located in the NW part of Argentina ; it is an important physical link between the Andean highlands and temperate plains of south -eastern South America.

 

Sources :

- Caractérisation par analyse élémentaire (PIXE et ICP-MS/-AES) d’un verre naturel : l’obsidienne. Application à l’étude de provenance d’objets archéologiques./ Les obsidiennes d’Equateur et de Colombie - par L.Bellot-Gurlet / Thèse CNRS.

- Andean Obsidian Distributions through Time - link

- Qhapaq Ñan , la grande route des Andes -  link

- Unesco - Qhapaq Ñan , chemin principal Andin - link

- over.blog - Cordon Caulle - avancée de la coulée d'obsidienne rhyolitique un an après l'éruption.

- Unesco - La Quebrada de Humahuaca - link

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