South American obsidian sources:
In Colombia, Ingeominas reports of obsidian in a Cerro Azafatudo flow, to Cargachiquito , but the quality of the glass was not satisfactory for the operation prehistoric .
Nodules were found in ignimbritic deposits intersected by the rivers Hondo and Negro, from eruption of Huila and Cauca , dating from 4.27 to 3.46 Ma
The traces of the first occupants of the South American continent , mainly in the Andes, are found in the central Sierra of Ecuador: scrapers, arrows and obsidian blades testify to continuous human occupation for 5,000 years
Mullumica casting , consisting of two superimposed effusions , is 6 km long , for the lower effusion , and has a thickness of 150 m . It is dated from 180,000 to 200,000 years. Obsidian has been exploited during prehistory, with workshops at the foot cliff, in shelters or caves in the lava flow .
In Cotopaxi , obsidian is found in deposits from two main phases of activity, dated of the paleo- Cotopaxi , between 540,000 and 560,000 years old, and another phase, between 310,000 and 18,000 years.
In Peru , a type of obsidian, known in the '70s as the type Titicaca Basin , and widespread in the prehispanic Andes, has its geological source in the Colca Valley near Araquipa . Geochemical types was documented under the names of Chivay Source and Cotallalli source.
Obsidian flows are still being issued , such as the eruption of the Puyehue -Cordon Caulle in 2011-2012 , in Chile.
Roads of obsidian on the South American continent :
Trade routes borrow various roads , by sea along the western coast of the continent, or on the land between the coast and the Andes on the one hand , or the heights thereof . Evidence of use indicate attendance since 10,000 years by prehistoric hunter-gatherers ( 9,000 BC to 400 AD ) , then by the Inca Empire ( Caminos del Inca) .
Movement of goods in these huge distances do not necessarily imply the movement of people on the whole journey . The product, which obsidian, can pass from hand to hand .
Under the Wari Empire (600-1100) , a leading network of communication channels have been built ( Lumbreras , 2004). The Incas inherited the territorial network to build , consolidate and organize an original centralized communication system , having own infrastructure. The extension of the network path followed that of the Inca empire in the Andes.
The Qhapaq Nan ( Quechua name meaning "the royal road" and frequently replaced by the term " Inca Trail " ) was the main axis of economic and political project of the Inca Empire . Along more than 6,000 kilometers , it allowed the Inca to control his Empire to move its troops from the capital , Cusco. A secondary network of cross roads, along more than 45,000 km, then connected the Qhapaq Nan to the coast and the Amazon basin.
Trade routes at the time of the Inca Empire - in green , roads in alitude - inblue, the coastal road - in purple, the tranversales - doc . Manco Capac
Peru and especially in Chile , obsidian was used as commodity money . Arrowheads and spears , objects of high demand was sustained value .
These trade routes ranging from Ecuador to southern South America : The Quebrada de Humahuaca is a long barren mountain valley , located in the NW part of Argentina ; it is an important physical link between the Andean highlands and temperate plains of south -eastern South America.
- Caractérisation par analyse élémentaire (PIXE et ICP-MS/-AES) d’un verre naturel : l’obsidienne. Application à l’étude de provenance d’objets archéologiques./ Les obsidiennes d’Equateur et de Colombie - par L.Bellot-Gurlet / Thèse CNRS.
- Andean Obsidian Distributions through Time - link
- Qhapaq Ñan , la grande route des Andes - link
- Unesco - Qhapaq Ñan , chemin principal Andin - link
- Unesco - La Quebrada de Humahuaca - link